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Defcendants oi Shadrach 


A 5^^2> Edition 'with Supplement by 


o{V^(^ England Hiftoric-Genealogical 




This volume presented with the compliments of the compiler 

Copies of this Genealogy are for sale by George E. Littlefield, 67 
Cornhill, Boston, and Damrell & Upham, " The Old Corner Book Store," 
283 Washington, corner of School Street, Boston. Price Five Dollars. 

Any person discovering errors or omissions will kindly report them 
to Melvin H. Hapgood, Hartford, Conn., who, we trust, will live to issue 
a new and improved edition. 

Title page contributed by Theodore B. Hapgood, Jr., illustrator and 
designer, Boston. 

Habgood arms 
Or, on an anchor between three fishes naiant, az. 
Crest — a sword and quill in saltire proper. 

Printed by the American Printing and Engraving Company, 50 Arch 
Street, Boston. 


EXPliflKflTOf^Y flOTE. 

The plan of the First Edition, in dividing the work into 
two chapters, has been followed in this, as being more con- 
venient than giving to each generation a chapter, especially 
where they are so small. 

The black-faced Arabic numerals on the extreme left 
hand of the page, directly opposite the name to be carried 
forward, refer to a like number in the centre of the page, 
where a fuller and more complete record of the person will 
be found. This central number also refers back to its 
fellow in the margin. 

Under each reference number in the middle of the page, 
the head of the family in Roman Capitals will be observed, 
while those in italics, immediately following in parenthesis^ 
denote the lineal descent from Shadrach^ his children^ and 
so on down to the generation in hand. The small superior 
figures after the Christian name, in all cases, indicate the 
generation to which such person is removed from the first 

At the left hand of the family of Hapgood children, in 
the order of their birth, is placed a column of Roman 
numerals, signifying the number of children in such family. 

The female line of descent is not traced beyond grand- 
children, — except in a few instances copied from the first 
edition, — and these grandchildren are numbered in the 
margin by Arabic numerals. 

Abbreviations have been very little used, and when 
introduced are of such familiar character as to require no 
explanation : gr. for great, grd. for grand, bap. baptized, b. 
born, d. died, dau. daughter, m. married, r. resided at, rs. 
resides at, s. p. {Sific prole), without issue, unm. unmarried,, 
and possibly a few others, readily understood, may be 



Quite early in life our curiosity was aroused by the tales 
and discussions about the origin of the Hapgood race in 
America, but no definite conclusion was ever reached as to 
where they came from, or in what numbers. There was a 
sort of unreliable tradition that three brothers came over 
from England, one settling near Providence, one in Boston, 
and one in Middlesex County. The story had no foundation 
in fact, and died when the first edition of the Genealogy 
was born. They were here, and it should be known from 
whence they came, at what time they arrived, their condition 
and standing. Facilities for research were not then as ample 
as at present. We puzzled over the problem considerably 
during the earlier portion of our business career, without 
arriving at any satisfactory result. About the year 1859, 
we became acquainted with the Rev. Abner Morse, then a 
noted genealogist, antiquarian, and man of letters. Being 
then in active business, we could not afford the time required 
for such research, nor had we the talents necessary for its 
successful prosecution. We had, however, been moderately 
successful in business, and felt that we could afford to have 
the records searched, and our life-long curiosity gratified. 
The matter was laid before Mr. Morse, who readily saw the 
importance of such a compilation, and cheerfully entered 
upon its manifold duties and trials. About two years were 
consumed in collecting and arranging necessary statistics. 
State archives, town and church records and histories were 
searched, mortuary monuments inspected, traditions and 
oral testimony sifted, and, in 1862, the little volume was 
launched upon the community. The Hapgood family had 
not expanded as rapidly as some of the other immigrants, 
the interest in the work was languid, and we presumed the 
worthy author was somewhat disappointed by the limited 



demand for the book. There were, as there must of neces- 
sity always be, in first editions of this kind, many errors and 
omissions, and we then pledged ourselves, if life and health 
were vouchsafed us for a quarter century, we would then 
essay a new edition, with such additions and amendments, 
as would be required to bring dates and records down to the 
time of issue. 

From time to time, items of value as they appeared were 
garnered up, so as to form a nucleus for the more extended 
work, but it did not amount to so very much when the 
twenty-five years had expired. How very brief, looking 
■backward, is a quarter century ! We hesitated, pondered, 
reflected, did not really feel equal to the task ; and yet, felt 
it in our heart, that some one ought to do it. We remem- 
bered the very wise advice of Polonius to his son Laertes, 
"to thine own self be true," and as the pledge was made, 
it must be redeemed or we to ourselves prove false. Still 
we vacillated for several years, and finally, in 1894, set 
seriously to work ; issued circulars and blanks, wrote num- 
erous letters, searched town records and state archives, 
vexed the souls of innumerable relatives and friends, and 
performed such other menial service as, from time immemo- 
rial, genealogists have been obliged to endure. We had 
flattered ourselves that as the family was small, by the aid 
of the first edition as a guide, six months or a year would 
give ample time for its completion. Had all the members 
responded promptly, much time and patience would have 
been saved ; but in no event could the work be done in a 
year. With the apathy, indifference, and lack of interest 
one encounters, six years would be all too short a time. 

Possibly it is well for us that we do not always foresee 
the obstacles that hedge us about, for if we did, no attempt 
would be made to do anything. We had from many quar- 
ters, the most gratifying assurance of sympathy, generous 
aid, co-operation and encouragement ; while from others we 
were consoled by cool neglect. Obstacles "too numerous 


to mention " were cast before us, but we struggled on with a 
devotion worthy of any cause, and are now ready at the end 
of nearly four years of constant labor and anxiety, to lay the 
volume before our readers, with all its imperfections and 
shortcomings upon its head, in the hope that they will ex- 
ercise the same degree of patience and forbearance that the 
Compiler has. Many of our relatives and friends have laid 
us under a deep debt of obligation by kindly examining 
records, searching church registers and graveyards, writing 
letters, and giving their time freely to the cause, and, in 
various ways, contributing to the final completion of the 

The prefatory remarks upon the origin and location of the 
family in England, as well as the settlement in this country, 
together with the introduction to Chapters I. and II., and 
the early history of Nathaniel and Thomas and their 
descendants, are mostly transcribed from the first edition. 
Other parts of the first edition have been so modified and 
mingled with the material of the new edition, as to render 
analysis and due acknowledgment almost impossible, and 
they have been presented as original. 

The records of the Maine and Northern New York fami- 
lies are almost entirely new, and much new matter has been 
added to all the other branches, and still there is much left 
to the future gleaner. In our final "round up," we find 
there are many stragglers afield, which, we trust, some 
brave soul will, in the future, undertake to discover, and 
bring into the fold. The sources of information are so 
varied and obscure, as to tax to the utmost one's skill and 
patience in research ; town records have not always been 
properly kept ; some have been destroyed by fire ; church 
records, at best, are limited ; traditions are unreliable and 
memories treacherous. To say an event was "probably" so 
and so, is not very clear, definite, or satisfactory, leaving to 
the compiler the duty of analyzing and adopting. All this 
requires patience, perseverance, endurance, energy. The 


most discouraging feature one encounters is the withholding 
of family records by individuals, that should be promptly 
and cheerfully rendered ; appeal to them again and again, 
and no response is heard ; attempt a flank movement, and 
the result is the same ; they must, of necessity, be left out, 
and have no one to blame but themselves. They seem to 
have no reverence, no respect, for the sacred memories of 
noble and patriotic ancestors. "Whatsoever ye would that 
men should do to you, do ye even so to them," seems never to 
have entered their code of ethics. There was during the last 
and early part of the present century, a most reliable source of 
information, which, we are sorry to believe, is falling into 
desuetude. We refer to the family Bible, in which all 
births, marriages, and deaths were carefully registered. 
Few families were so poor as not to possess one or more of 
these reliable records ; but to-day we fear the Bible does not 
hold that sacred place in the family which it did two or three 
generations ago. To say there is less respect for the Old 
and more for the New would not probably be wide of the 
mark. We erect statues, monuments, and buildings in 
memory of our brave, self-sacrificing, worthy citizens, but 
the best monument to commemorate their noble deeds is 
the written page. 

Efforts have been made to discover the origin and history 
of the Hapgood race in England, without success. Certain 
incidents have been elicited that may ultimately lead to a 
disclosure of the facts that will unite the younger branches 
in America and the elder in England into one harmonious 
whole. The gutteral sound of the name Habgood would 
seem to indicate its Saxon origin or derivation ; but whether 
it was introduced into England during the Saxon rule in the 
fifth or sixth century, or had a lodgement there at a later 
period, is to us unknown. It would seem most probable 
that they were in the realm at an early period. Thomas 
Hapgood who married, October i, 1587, Helena Earle, daugh- 
ter of Richard Earle, of Collingbourne, Kingston, England, 


was knighted in Elizabeth's time. About 1859, ^^- Morse 
entered into a correspondence with Mr. Somerby, the well- 
known antiquarian, then residing in London, to see what 
could be learned about the Hapgood race in England. He 
visited Andover and places adjacent thereunto, probably 
including Penton, only two and three-quarters miles distant, 
where resided Peter Noyes, an uncle of Shadrach. Much of 
the skeleton of a record of Shadrach's parentage and early 
career was obtained from this source, and while it did not 
disclose any tangible, lineal descent, it did proclaim the 
time and place of embarkation of the first Hapgood emigrant 
for America. It would be exceedingly gratifying to the 
descendants of the Hapgood and other New England fami- 
lies, to become better acquainted with the home life of their 
progenitors, their condition, character, and standing. 

The Hapgood family is not numerous, nor has it produced 
many very distinguished men in art, science, or literature, 
or as statemen, jurists, or generals ; and yet, they have been 
true, loyal, and patriotic ; serving in the Indian and Colonial 
Wars and War of Revolution, and numerously in the War 
of Rebellion. They were among the earlier settlers of New 
England, from the farming districts of the south of England, 
and were by nature, instinct, and heredity farmers ; selecting 
and cultivating their lands with exceeding good taste and 
judgment, and so long as they stuck to husbandry were pros- 
perous, and the peers of any other class. Those who have 
abandoned agriculture as a vocation, have hardly sustained 
the well-earned reputation bequeathed to them. The early 
generations purchased extensive tracts of land, built large 
houses, barns, and other buildings, and apparently aspired to 
manorial possessions, but never seemed to have any ambi- 
tion for public life. The gilded dome or tented field had no 
attraction for them. High office means great responsibility ; 
immense wealth is a symbol of anxiety and unrest. To sum 
it all up, is not the condition of the "well-to-do" farmer, in 
his quiet home, rather to be chosen, than the uncertain 


rewards of office, the anxieties of commercial enterprises, or 
the watchful, chafing care of great wealth ? The earlier gen- 
erations had mostly large families of children, with males 
in numerical predominance, while latterly the families of 
children are small, with females in excess to such extent as 
to jeopardize the perpetuity of the race. 

In 1888, when in London, we had several interviews with 
Henry F. Waters, Esq., one of the best archaeologists 
America has had there, and after much persuasion, he con- 
sented to visit Andover and its neighborhood, and see what 
he could make out. He did not, however, succeed in finding 
statistics of much value. He found records of Hapgoods, 
but did not have the good fortune to connect the names with 
any in this country, and they were not available for the work 
in hand. These papers will be found in the appendix, with 
others of no positive value, other than to satisfy the reader 
that no pains have been spared to secure the records of the 
family in England, as well as this country. 

Through the kindness of Rev. E. E. Hale, D. D., we 
received a letter from H. J. Hapgood, Esq., private secretary 
to the younger Gladstone, which throws some light upon 
the orthography and other matters. There are families of 
Hapgoods in the United States, which we have not been 
able to trace back to a connection with Shadrach or his 
kindred. We cannot help believing that Professor George 
Thomas Hapgood, of Bethany College, Lindsborg, Kansas, 
is not so very remotely connected with our family. The 
Christian names of his family are almost identical with those 
of Shadrach and his descendants, who were doubtless named 
after ancestors or relatives in the mother country. There 
is a very respectable family in Ohio, whose origin is obscure, 
and yet we are confident they are of the same race as Shad- 
rach. These items, with others, are thrown together as a 
sort of appendix to the volume for what they are worth, in the 
hope that some future gleaner may derive some benefit from 
them, or that they may present a clue to something of value. 


Some articles of our own, that have from time to time 
appeared in print, mostly of a sporting character, have been 
collected and published herewith as a " Supplement," not so 
much for their intrinsic value as to swell the little volume to 
a respectable size. In fact, from the very first setting out 
upon this prolonged task, we have been impressed with the 
idea that there would not be data sufificient in so small a 
family to form a volume, and that, in order to produce a 
book, we must press into service all the material that was 
germain. The first edition of Hapgood genealogy was 
bound with other families in order to make a book. Of 
itself, in double-leaded small pica, it would have made a 
pamphlet of about seventy pages. After all the material had 
been assembled, we found, much to our surprise, that by ad- 
mitting small portions of somewhat extraneous matter, and 
by using heavy paper and leading out the lines, while it 
might be pleasant to the eyes of the reader, the book would 
be in bulk much beyond previous estimates. This was not, 
however, discovered till the manuscript was in the hands of 
the printer, and it was too late to eliminate without marring 
the beauty and symmetry of the work, and we reluctantly 
acceded to its being sent forth in its present turgid condi- 

While it might appear invidious for us to mention some of 
the most ardent co-workers, we desire in the most hearty 
and sincere manner to tender to all, who have in any way 
rendered the least assistance, our warmest thanks. Without 
their aid the work in hand would never have been finished. 
It was our aim and purpose from the beginning, to present a 
copy to each person who in any way cheerfully contributed 
anything toward the rearing of the structure. This plan we 
shall endeavor to carry out ; nor did we intend to offer any 
for sale. More mature deliberation has induced us to modify 
this conclusion. Since the book would be for free delivery, 
the demand would likely be large, and to terminate an 
endless correspondence, and save ourselves from the liability 


to constant annoyance, we shall place the books on sale. 
(See page 3.) 

And here our constructive labor ends, with a regret that 
we have not been able to make it more perfect and complete ; 
but we have done our level best — " Angels can no more." 

Warren Hapgood, Compiler, 

469 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston. 
May, 1898. 



Title Page 1 

Miscellaneous Items . 3 

Explanatory Notes 4 

Preface 5 

Table of Contents 13 

List of Illustrations 15 

Hapgood Family, First Generation 17 

Chapter I, Second Generation 27 

Third Generation 32 

Fourth Generation 42 

Fifth Generation 55 

Sixth Generation 80 

Seventh Generation 127 

Eighth Generation 156 

Hapgood Family, Chapter II, Second Generation . . 160 

Third Generation 173 

Fourth Generation 181 

Fifth Generation 191 

Sixth Generation 237 

Seventh Generation 306 


Other Hapgood Families 335 

The Ohio Family 335 

Descendants of John Hapgood, England .... 342 

A Family from Prince Edward Island .... 345 

A Family residing in St. Louis 346 

Notes and Comments by Henry F. Waters . . 347 

Letter from H. J. Hapgood, London, England . 352 




Hapgood Revolutionary War Records .... 354 

Hapgoods in the Civil War 358 


Introductory 361 

Brant Geese, Habits, etc 363 

Game Birds of New England 370 

Range and Rotary Movements of Limicolae . . . 379 

Address at Dedication of Harvard Library . . . 399 

Letter from Italy 409 

A Trans-Continental Trip 411 

Sporting in the Far West 445 

Letter from California 452 

Recollections of a Half Century 455 

Brant Shooting at Cape Cod, 1881 467 



Resignation Address and Note 522 

Partridge, (Quail) Shooting, North Carolina . . 528 

Two Letters from County line 529 

Dublin Lake Trout 534 

Trout Fishing in Yosemite Valley 535 

Sporting in South Lancaster 536 

Sporting in Littleton 538 

Index of Persons 539 

Index of Towns 584 

lilST OF miiUSTl^flTIOKS. 

Frontispiece (Mansion house, Harvard). 

Commission to Shadrach Hapgood 38 

Mercy (Goldsmith) Maynard 48 

George Hapgood 70 

Charlotte (Mead) Hapgood 76 

Hannah (Hapgood) Gamage 78 

Dea. Jonathan Fairbank 78b 

Andrew S. Hapgood 98 

Jonathan Fairbank Hapgood Ill 

Theodore Goldsmith Hapgood 116 

Warren Hapgood 119 

Julia Adelaide (Gamage) Hapgood 126 

Lemuel Bicknell Hapgood 151 

John Guy Hapgood and Family 158 

Gen. Charles H. Taylor 215 

Isabel Florence Hapgood 257 

Rev. George Grout Hapgood, D.D 265 

Charles H. Hapgood 269 

Thomas Emerson Hapgood 297 

Julien Weeks Hapgood, wife and daughter .... 319 

Col. Charles Edward Hapgood 320 

Francis Calvin Hapgood 323 

Melvin Hathaway Hapgood 332 

George Negus Hapgood 335 

William Hapgood ... 339 

Live Brant Decoys 363 

Shore Birds — (Limicolse) 379 

Harvard Library and Soldiers' Monument 399 

Warren Hapgood, and pointer, Mark 455 

Brant Box and Decoys in Position 467 

Resident Members Monomoy Branting Club .... 507 



Monomoy, Providence, and Manchester Club Houses . 516 

Starting out for a Day's Hunt 528 

At Lunch, County Line, N. C 530 

Dublin Lake Trout 534 

Yosemite Valley Trout 535 

Rufus Eager and his Day's Work 537 

Peter S. Whitcomb 538 



Origin of the Family in England and First 

Hapgood, originally Habgood, is an ancient name, as the 
simplicity of the arms of Habgood denotes, and no doubt 
originated when the Normans were mixing their corrupt 
Latin with the Saxon, and laying the foundation of the 
English language. It would, on this hypothesis, date as far 
back as the adoption of surnames, in the twelfth and thir- 
teenth centuries. In England the name of Hapgood is rare, 
if not now unknown, but Habgood is not uncommon; and 
that the latter was the true orthography of the name, is evi- 
dent from its occurrence in signatures to the wills and deeds 
of the grandparents of Hapgoods now living. The name of 
their emigrant ancestor in the settlement of his estate in 
1675 was uniformly spelled Habgood, as it had been in the 
record of his marriage in 1664. One, certainly, and proba- 
bly both of his sons, preserved the same orthography, as did 
some of his grandsons ; and there is not a Hapgood in this 
country who may not by inheritance claim the more eupho- 
nious and ennobled English name of Habgood. But if this 
was the true spelling, how came it to be altered.? It hap- 
pened, as I conceive, on this wise. The pronunciation of the 
name, as often occurs, first became corrupted, and this led 
reporters and clerks, both in Old and New England, into 
wrong spelling. When once entered wrong upon a muster 



roll it would so remain, and be so used in issuing summonses, 
levying taxes, and assigning lands. The public records, and 
not the usage of the family, would be the standard, and the 
name would continue to be erroneously written, until the 
race, from fashion or convenience, or to hold their lands, 
adopted the change. Many New England names by such 
entries became altered, and only one, to my knowledge, ever 
succeeded in conquering the record, and this they did at the 
end of 140 years. The corruption of this name was not 
improbably aided by the published account of the Indian 
massacre at Brookfield, in which Captain .Wheeler spells the 
name Hapgood. It had previously been spelled by another, 
Hopgood. Each of the three modes of spelling occur in 
Southampton, England, vis., at Andover, Tangley, Mottis- 
font, and North Stoneham. At Weyhill the name cannot 
be found. 

Shadrach Hapgood was the common ancestor of all 
the New England Hapgoods.* He was nearly related to 
two of the early planters of Sudbury, vis., Peter Noyes, and 
Peter Noyes (or Haynes), Senior, both of whom were from 
Southampton, England, and were men of wealth and stand- 
ing in the Colony. f He was brought over in his youth, 
and no doubt completed his minority with his distinguished 
uncle, Peter Noyes. Of his antecedents no information 
has been obtained beyond the record of his embarkation. 
Through the liberality of Warren Hapgood, Esq., of Boston, 
I have been enabled to procure an extensive examination 
of records in London and Southampton without finding 
his name. From returns, however, it appears that the 
name first occurred in that county about 1600, when six 
of the name in the central and west part of the county 
made their wills, 1603-1638, viz., John Hopgood of 

* Also, with few exceptions, of all the Hapgoods in this country. 

t Peter Noyes was from Penton, Mewsey, only two and three-quarters miles from 
Andover, where, as I believe, the father of Shadrach Habgood was born, and only a quar- 
ter of a mile from Weyhill, from whence, according- to family tradition, Mr. Noyes came. 
(See letter of H. F. Waters in the Appendix.; 


Andover, 1608 ; John Habgood the elder, yeoman, of Andover, 
161 5 ; Widow Joan Hapgood of Tangley, February 21, 1603, 
which was proved April 4, 1603 ; William Hopgood, tanner, 
son of William of North Stoneham, 161 1 ; Thomas Hopgood, 
husbandman, of Mottisfont, 1617; and John Hopgood of 
Tangley (probably the son of Widow Joan Hapgood of Tang- 
ley), in 1638. These, judging from the names of their lega- 
tees, must have been all of one family. Widow Joan at the 
date of her will had a son Thomas, then the father of Joan 
and Christian. John Hopgood of Andover, whose will was 
proved 1608 but is not to be found, is supposed to have been 
the father of John Habgood of the same place, who in 161 5 
had a wife Alice and eight children, five of whom, vis., John, 
Katharine, Mary (wife of Henry Reade), Anne, and Alice, 
were of age ; and Robert, Clare, and Thomas, then minors. 
This Thomas was probably the father of Shadrach, who 
named his first son Nathaniel, after his maternal grandfather, 
his second, Thomas, doubtless after his paternal grandfather, 
as was the uniform practice of his day, whenever the eldest 
son was not named for the latter. This conclusion has al- 
most the force of a record, so uniformly was the second son, 
if not the first, called after his paternal grandfather. Nearly 
the only exceptions were when the latter had a non-scriptural 
name, or embarrassment would arise from making the identi- 
cal name too common among grandchildren of equal ages in 
the same town or neighborhood. All relating to Shadrach 
Habgood that can be gleaned from our records is here given 
in the variable and defective orthography in which it 
occurs : — 

" Shadrach Hopgood aged fourteen years embarked at 
Gravesend May 30, 1656, in the Speadwell, Robert Lock, 
Master, bound for New England," and in July arrived in 
Boston. Several other minors embarked at the same time, 
whose names soon after reappeared at Marlboro' and Sud- 
bury, where he had a cousin, Thomas Haynes, who had not 
improbably "been sent to bring him." 


October 21, 1664, he was married at Sudbury to Elizabeth 
Treadway, born April 3, 1646, daughter of Nathaniel Tread- 
way, then of Sudbury and afterwards of Watertown, where 
he served seven years as selectman. Her mother, Suffer- 
ance (Howe) Treadway, was the daughter of Elder Edward 
Howe of Watertown, whose wife was Margaret, and whose 
descendants in this country have retained the arms and 
claimed a descent from Lord Howe, an English peer. Her 
grandmother, Margaret Howe, married for a second husband 
George Bunker, constable of Charlestown, 1630, and owner 
of the summit of that immortal hill of glory bearing his 
name, and by will gave half her estate to Nathaniel Tread- 
way, and bequests to John Stone (eldest son of Deacon 
Gregory Stone of Cambridge), husband of her sister Ann, 
and to her sister, Mary Rogers of Boxtead, Essex County, 
England. The next notice of Shadrach Hopgood occurs in 
the following deposition in the records of the Court of 

"June 26, 1666 "Sidrache Habgood" aged about twenty- 
two yrs. witnesseth & saith that for this seven years past or 
more time while I lived with my cousin Peter Noyes & in 
the time when my uncle [Peter] Noyes lived, I then knew 
the bounds of my cousin's land at Cedar Craught & the tree 
owned the last week by Lt. Goodenow, and also the stake 
in the meadow by the River side or towards the River 
side 5 or 6 rods to the Southward of the brooke to be where 
it ever was since I knew it & was in my sight renewed by 
neighbor Edward Rice & my cousin Peter Noyes together 
& further saith not." 

[Sworn] "Before mee Tho: Danforth, Assist." Jan. 25, 
1676, he served with Peter Noyes and Edmund Goodnow as 
an appraiser of the estate of Joseph Davis of Sudbury. 

Shadrach Habgood was a young man of enterprise, and 
early laid the foundation of the spacious and fertile landed 
estates which so many of his descendants have enjoyed quite 
down to the present time. 


In 1669, after Concord, Sudbury, Marlboro', Lancaster, 
Groton, and "Nashaby" had been granted, there was left a 
large and irregular tract between them, running in a north- 
westerly direction from Sudbury to Lunenburg, was then 
called " Pomposetticut " ; and he, in 1678 or 1679, with eleven 
other men from Concord, Sudbury, and Chelmsford, then 
petitioned the General Court for a grant of the same. The 
records of the General Court are silent about it, yet from 
records of the proprietors of Stow, it appears that the Court 
entertained such petition, sent a committee to view the tract, 
and actually granted them the land for a new town, in 1670, 
requiring them to begin to improve it by May, 1673, and no 
doubt annexing other customary conditions, such as taking 
up 50 acres each, building a meeting-house, and settling an 
orthodox minister, &c., within a specified time, and pro- 
curing a certain number of additional settlers to become 
equal partners with themselves, after which they might 
proceed to make further allotments of land. With all 
such conditions they did not probably comply. Yet they 
proceeded and "took up lots of 50 acres each" on both 
sides of Assabet River, from one to two miles above the 
site of Assabet Village, and located their meeting-house 
near the old burying yard in Stow. How far they progressed 
is not ascertainable. Philip's war came on soon, some lost 
their lives, and the settlement is supposed for a time to have 
been broken up. Still the grantees, if they did not fully 
comply with all the conditions of the grant, went so far as 
to obtain an extension, and certainly to secure to themselves 
and heirs large interests in the town, which, by a further Act 
of the General Court, May 16, 1683, was fully incorporated 
by the name of Stow. That portion of the narrow belt, 
known as " Stow Leg," lying within their boundaries, fell to 
each of the towns. Harvard, Shirley, and Boxborough, as 
they were incorporated. 

Shadrach Habgood took up his lot of 50 acres on the 
south side of the river, where Mr. Nathaniel Hapgood 


resides, about one and one half miles south or southwest of 
the site of the first meeting-house. Here he began improve- 
ments, and operated two or three years, it is supposed, 
preparatory to removing his family from Sudbury, if he did 
not actually do so ; but the Indian war came on, and he was 
summoned to the field. 

The Nipmuck Indians, whose original country embraced 
the upper basins of Concord, Charles, and Blackstone rivers, 
and extended west to the Connecticut, had engaged secretly 
with King Philip to make war upon the English, but the 
war having been brought on before they were fully prepared 
to take part, they dissembled, and assured the settlers of 
their friendship. Still they were suspected by the govern- 
ment. Captains Hutchinson and Wheeler were therefore 
ordered, with twenty mounted men, and three Indian inter- 
preters, to proceed into their country to treat with them, to 
insure their loyalty. In this company was Shadrach Hab- 
good. They proceeded to Brookfield. Here the Indians 
being made acquainted with the object of their visit, engaged 
to meet them, August 2, 1675, at a certain spot at Quaboag, 
about three miles from the village and garrison of Brookfield. 
They proceeded to the place, but finding no Indians, and 
imagining they had mistaken the locality, directed their 
course to Wikabaug Pond, in single file, between a swamp 
on the left and an abrupt high hill on the right. The place 
is supposed to be on the south side of the railroad, between 
the depot in Brookfield and West Brookfield. Here they 
fell into an ambush, and were suddenly surrounded with 200 
or 300 warriors, who killed eight of their number and mor- 
tally wounded three others. Among the murdered was 
Shadrach Habgood. Captain Wheeler, whose letter describ- 
ing this tragedy has been often before the public, spells his 
name Hapgood. Mrs. Habgood, with her five children, was 
probably at Sudbury, to receive the sorrowful tidings. But 
their griefs and losses were not yet ended. She was 
appointed to administer on her husband's estate, which, with 


his right and interest in the "New Plantation at Pomset- 
ticutt," now Stow, was appraised by Peter Noyes and Edmund 
Goodenow, September 2, 1675, at £i4S- 2s. October 5 (8), 
1675, she presented a new inventory of the estate, valued at 
j£io6. IIS., praying for an abatement of the difference, in 
consequence of the burning of a house by the enemy. This, 
no doubt, refers to a house which her husband had built up- 
on his lot at Pomposetticut, for Sudbury was not burnt until 
April 6, 1676, although his descendant, who occupies the 
spot, has no tradition of the event. [From first edition.'] 

About the close of her administratorship, probably in 
1677, the record says : "There are five children left of Syd- 
rack," (or Shadrach) and Elizabeth Treadway (or Tredaway) 
Habgood, vi:;. : 


2 I. NathanieP, born October 21, 1665; married Elizabeth 

Ward of Marlboro. [See Chapter /.] 
II. Mary^ born November 2, 1667; married at Watertown, 
April 10, 16S8, John Whitney, son of Jonathan, and 
grandson of John and Elinor, born June 27, 1662, at 
Watertown. He settled in Framingham, built a house 
near Washakum pond, was selectman in 1714 for 
three years, constable 1719, tythingman 1719 and 1724, 
admitted to the church July 26, 1719. Was a fuller by 

trade; died , 1735. His inventory bears date 

May 22, 1735, and his estate was valued at ^619. 
14s. 7d. Resided at Framingham, Sherborn and 
Wrentham, Mass. 


1. Mary^ Whitney, born March 27, 1689; married, Feb- 

ruary I, 1709, Daniel Moore of Sudbury, born 
April 18, 1686. 

2. Elizabeth^ born January 21, 1690; married Jonathan 

Willard, born at Roxbury, June 27, 1693; she 
died July 4, 1720. 

3. James^ born December 28, 1692; married Martha 

Rice, February 2, 1715, and second, , 1732, 


Mrs. Elizabeth (Holbrook)Twitchell; Hon. Daniel 

Whitney of Sherborn was their son. He died 

April ID, 1770. 

2 III. Thomas-, born October i, 1669, in Sudbury; married, 1690- 

91, Judith Barker, born April 9, 1671 ; died August 15, 

1759. [See Chapter I I.'] 

ly. Sarah^ born 1672; married 1691, Jonathan 

Whitney, born October 20, 1658, brother of John, 
above, and grandson of John and Elinor Whitney of 
Watertown, who embarked at London, 1635, in the 
"Elizabeth and Ann," Roger Cooper, Master. He 
had a lot and built a house near Chestnut Brook, in 
Sherborn, about 1691. He afterwards went to Con- 
cord, where he died March 17, 1735. Will dated 
March 14, proved March 18, 1735. He served in 
King Philip's war in 1676; resided in Sherborn, 
Watertown, and Concord. 


1. Sarah^ Whitney, born March 2, 1692; married, Novem- 

ber, 1 712, Jonathan Warren, and died April 
10, 1752. 

2. Jonathan^, born September 27, 1694; died young. 

3. Tabitha^ born August 22, 1696; married,* February 

28, 1 71 5, Jacob Fulham, who was a sergeant in 
Captain Lovewell's company, and was killed in 
" Lovewell's fight" with -the Indians at Pig- 
wacket. May 8, 1725. She married second, April 
19, 1726, George Parkhurst ; and third, August 10, 
1736, Samuel Hunt. 

4. Shadrach^ born October 12, 1698; married, January 5, 

1732, Mrs. Prudence Lawrence, and was a promi- 
nent man in the town of Groton, Mass.; died 
July—, 1764. 

5. Jonathan^, born November 25, 1700; resided in Lunen- 

burg, 1744. 

6. Anne3, born May 22, 1702; married, March 3, 1723, 

in Concord, Captain Ebenezer Cutler; she died 
August 24, 1793. 

7. Amos3, born May i, 1705 ; probably died in Townsend, 


8. Zaccheus^ born November 16, 1707; married, May 23, 

1734, Mary Wheeler. In 1725, when but eighteen 


years of age, with his brother Isaac, he enlisted 
and served in the Colonial Militia, and took part 
in many of the skirmishes and battles with the 
Indians. He was left in 1 725 in the fort at Ossipee 
by Captain John Lovewell. He was probably killed 
by the Indians in 1739. 
9. Isaac,^ born 1708; a glazier in Concord, was a soldier 
in the early Indian wars, and with his brother 
Zaccheus, was left by Captain John Lovewell in 
the fort at Ossipee in 1725. 

10. Timothy^ born February 20, 1709; married, May 24, 

1738, Submit Parker, and died 1740. 

11. DanieP, born 1710; married, March, 1739, Thankful 


V. Elizabeth^, born 1674; died unmarried, July 20, 


Elizabeth (Treadway) Hapgood married second, Joseph Hayward of 
Concord, where her son Thomas is said to have been brought up. The 
records show that Hayward married Elizabeth Treadway, possibly he 
had her maiden name restored on the record to show her respectable 
origin, or the clerk committed an error in not knowing her previous 
marriage, or how to express both of her previous names. Joseph Hay- 
ward was born one year after her first husband, and having buried his 
first wife, December 15, 1675, four months after Shadrach Hapgood 
was slain, married, March 23, 1677, Elizabeth Treadway Hapgood. 
She buried her mother at Watertown, 1682, and her father, Nathaniel 
Treadway of Watertown, in 1687, who left legacies for the children of 
his "daughter Elizabeth Hayward by her first husband Habgood." 

Of Joseph and Elizabeth (Treadway-Hapgood) Hayward. 

1. Ebenezer Hayward, born May 22, 1679, at Con- 


2. James Hayward, born March i, 1681, at Concord. 

3. Simon Hayward, born , 1683, at Concord. 

4. Abiell Hayward, born September 12, 1691, at 


Prudence, probably daughter of Joseph Hayward by first wife, 

Pi^i\%;a:\\, {Middlesex deeds XXII. 233), born ; married Sergeant 

John White of Brookfield, Mass., November 26, 1707. He and his 
wife's half-brother, Ebenezer Hayward, and others, were slain by Indians 


at Brookfield, July 24, 1710, and Elizabeth Treadway's first husband, 
her son, and her step-daughter's husband were victims of the savages. 
August 31, 1714, Prudence, widow of John White, conveys to John 
Keyes all her right, title and interest, in certain lands which had been 
"laid out to my honored grandfather, Nathaniel Treadway of Water- 
town, on the twenty-second of the third month 1660." 



Deacon Nathaniel^ {ShadracJi}), was, for his time, a man 
of eminence, distinguished for enterprise and success in busi- 
ness, official trusts, and usefulness. Being the eldest son, he 
received a double portion of his father's estate, and succeeded 
to the inheritance of his home-lot and proprietary in the then 
extensive town of Stow ; and, as if not satisfied or accommo- 
dated by this, he. May 17, 1697, for ;^32. los., bought 
of Simon Willard 80 acres adjoining his home-lot, on the 
southwest, and Assabet River on the north. March 19, 
1702-3, he purchased for ^70, of Mr. Willard, then of 
Salem, "all his farm in Stow bounded southwest by near 
Alcocks farm (/. e., 'the farm' in Marlboro') and south by 
Assabet River, which parted it from Habgood's land for- 
merly bought of Willard. His home farm, well adapted to 
tillage, must now have been very extensive, including, as is 
presumed, the 500 acres granted 1657, by the General Court, 
to Major Symon Willard of Concord, for his services to this 
colony," added to the 50 acres inherited from his father, and 
23 more adjacent on the east, assigned in the second division 
of common lands in 17 19, and another lot adjoining the 
"Willard Farm," granted in 1723; and when we consider 
the great allowance then made for swag of chain in laying 
out grants. Deacon Habgood's home farm could have been 
little, if any, short of 700 acres. 

Subsequently, as the common lands of Stow were from 
time to time divided among the proprietors, he, " in the right 
of his father Shadrach," drew many lots, especially in the 


north and northwest parts of the town. June 22, 1721, 
there was assigned to Isaac Gates 9 acres 55 rods of 
meadow, meadow bottom and upland, in two pieces, supposed 
to have been subsequently bought by Deacon Habgood. 
One, containing 5 acres 122 rods, extending up and down on 
the west side of Pinhill Brook, near Lancaster [original] 
line, and bounded east and northeast by that brook, west 
and south by common land. The other lot of 3 acres 93 
rods, situated also on Pinhill Brook, next to Groton line, 
bounded north by that line, east by the brook, west by com- 
mon land, and south by Ephraim Willowby's meadow. 

May 22, 1722, there was laid out for him, for a fourth 
division, 95 acres in Stow, 50 in the right of his father 
Shadrach, and 45 in the right of Joseph Daby, on the west 
side of Pinhill Brook, bounded northeasterly [for a short 
distance] by the brook, and a way, 2 rods wide, left for the 
conveniency of the meadows, "Northerly near to Groton 
line, westerly near to George Robin's land and southerly by 
undivided land." The northeast line began near Isaac 
Gates' meadow, above described, 2 rods from Groton line, 
and ran near west northwest parallel to said line, then paral- 
lel to Robins' land, with a highway 2 rods wide between, 
then by John Daby's lot of 15 acres, then east by 28° south 
100 rods,, and then east 148 rods to the brook. This lot 
constituted the nucleus of the second Hapgood farm in the 
old town of Stow, and was situated on the hip of Stow Leg, 
between Lancaster and Groton, and now in Harvard, about 
i}^ miles from the Town House. 

In 1726, to Nathaniel Hapgood, 3^ acres of meadow in 
Pinhill meadows, bounding southerly upon Lancaster line 
and Pinhill Brook, east by Isaac Gates' meadow, the first 
above described, and northerly upon common land. 

May 16, 1727, there was laid out in Stow, for Deacon 
Nathaniel Hapgood, 24 acres 140 rods of the fifth and sixth 
division, 6 acres and 28 rods of which were to the right of 
his father Shadrach, and 10 acres to the right of John Daby. 


"It lyeth," says the record, "westerly of John Daby's land, 
where he now dwells." It had a way, running northerly or 
rather northeast and southwest for 7 rods of its eastern 
boundary, and the land of Samuel Hall for the northeast 
boundary, and its extreme south angle was "at or near the 
town line," probably Lancaster north line. And at the same 
date another lot, of the fifth division, containing 18 acres 
and 132 rods; 9 acres and 25 rods to his own inherited 
right, and 8 acres 132 rods to the right of Joseph Daby. 
This was bounded north 86 rods by his own land, east by 
Thomas Wheeler's, 73 rods, southeast by Pinhill Meadow, 
south by said meadow, and southwest by John Daby's land. 
Its south and southwest lines met near a small run of water 
in the bank of the meadow. 

He early became the proprietor of William Kerley's right 
in the public lands of Lancaster, and of a lot upon Bare Hill. 
For, March 16, 1722-3, 23 acres, in two lots, were "laid out 
for him for a third and fourth division to the estate of 
William Kerley, Jr." One lot was bounded northwest by his 
own land on Bare Hill, and the other northeast by the same. 
These were no doubt included in the 65 acres afterward 
owned by his son Shadrach. These lots, perhaps, by some 
exchanges, were gathered into a large farm, and by a division 
of Stow, in 1732, thrown into Harvard. Thus it appears 
that, years after the death of Shadrach Habgood the first, 
lots continued to be assigned to Deacon Nathaniel in the 
right of his father, which went to his descendants and gave 
them ample farms, and what was still better, farms on the 
mica slate formation. 

Deacon Nathaniel was much interested in Lancaster, and 
probably in Worcester and Grafton. At Lancaster, Septem- 
ber 10, 171 3, he sold, for ^{,'55, to Thomas Carter, a house 
lot of 20 acres. October 19, 1730, he bought of John 
Remain, for ;^I38, a meadow at Long Hill, in Lancaster; 
and sold for £60, December i, 1730, to Ephraim Wilder, 28 
acres ; and for jQio, February 6, 1732, to Samuel Wilson, 40 


acres in Lancaster. May 20, 1730, he gave his son Nathan- 
iel, then of Lancaster. 12 acres in Stow, at Hogpen Hill, 
and all his town rights and lands in Lancaster. 

He seems to have purchased of Isaac Miller a right in 
the undivided lands of Worcester, where, in the part now 
Holden, 120 acres were drawn in his right, by his son 
Daniel, and June 20, 1750, sold for ;!^ioo, to "Zacceus" 
Gates. November 5, 1728, he sold for £60, to John Coller, 
48 acres in Hassanamisco, now Grafton. 

March 28, 1725, he conveyed to his son Shadrach "all his 
lands in Harvard with the rights and privileges thereto 
belonging which lands, it is added, are set forth in Stow & 
Lancaster proprietors' records." This shows that they were 
originally in two towns, and drawn partly in the right of 
Deacon Nathaniel, and partly in the right of his father 

Deacon Nathaniel, it is safe to presume, was an excellent 
man, early and long a pillar in the church of Stow, although 
her records are too defective to inform us of any of his 
religious history. In the management of the municipal 
interests of the town his name is most conspicuous. 
Between 1697 and 1727, he served as selectman 14 years; 
and in 171 1 and 1712 as grand juryman, and in 1716-18 as 
town treasurer, and sometimes as moderator of town meet- 
ings. He was early styled " Ensign." He seems to have set- 
tled his estate mainly in his lifetime, and probably died 
intestate. Yet there was no resort to any court for any 
further settlement. No record exists of his death, but his 
ashes, no doubt, repose in the graveyard by the old common 
in Stow. His name does not occur after 1732, when he 
appeared to be setting his house in order. His wife was a 
widow in 1741. \From first edition.'\ 

He married, September 6, 1695, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Samuel and Sarah (Howe) Ward. Samuel was a son of 
William Ward, born in Marlboro' September 24, 1641 ; 


married, June 6, 1667, Sarah, daughter of John Howe, of 
Marlboro'. She died August 11, 1707, and he, 1729. Eliza- 
beth was born 1672; made her will February 25, 1741-42, 
and died November 5, 1748. Her will was approved Novem- 
ber 18, 1748, giving to Nathaniel, her eldest son, ;!^20 ; 
to Hezekiah, her second son, ;^io ; to Shadrach, her third 
son, ;^30; to Daniel, her fourth son, £10; to Sarah Gates, 
her second daughter, and wife of Phineas Gates, half of the 
remainder of her estate ; and to her two grandchildren, 
Elizabeth and Lucy Gates, in equal shares, the other half. 
Her estate was inventoried at ^CGiG. ys. 


3 I. Nathaniel', born about 1696; he married second, pub- 

lished December 3, 1727, Mary Heald, Haild, or Hale, 
of Stow, born June 22, 1704; date of her death not 
recorded. He died about 1746. The records of 
Nathaniel's birth, marriage and death, have not been 
found, and probably do not exist. 

4 II. Hezekiah^ born 1699; married 1723, Sarah Whitney, 

born 1703, in Stow. 

5 III. Shadrach^ born November 6, 1704, in Stow; married 

Elizabeth Wetherbee, born 1714, and died Novem- 
ber 30, 1808. 

6 IV. DanieP, born about 1706; married Hepsibeth , 

born July 14, 171 5; died October 23, 1738. 
V. Elizabeth^ born 1708; married Phineas Gates. (No 
other record found.) 


1. Elizabeth* Gates, born about 1732, legatee to the estate 

of her grandmother, Elizabeth, 1748. 

2. Lucy* Gates, born about 1734, legatee to the estate of 

her grandmother, Elizabeth, 1748. 

VI. Sarah', born about 1710; married the widower, Phineas 
Gates, husband to her deceased sister, Elizabeth. No 



Nathaniel^ {NatkanieP, Shadrach^), born about 1696, set- 
tled in Lancaster prior to 1727, in the part which became 
Bolton (1738), doubtless on land previously received of his 
father, to which other lots and a town right were added in 
1730. May 18, 1741, he sold to his brother Shadrach of Har- 
vard, for £,\o, 30 acres and 25 rods, 27 of which were to be 
assigned to Shadrach in the right of William Kerley, whose 
right NathanieP possessed, December 9, 1745, for £**^ to 
Jeremiah Priest of Harvard, 18 acres in Lancaster, laid 
out in the right of William Kerley. On the same day 
Nathaniel of Bolton sold a lot in Bolton for £,^0, to Paul 
Gates, and December 25, 1744, for ;^io, 3 acres to John 
Whitcomb, and March 6, 1756, for £\2. los., 25 acres to 
Jonathan Moor of Bolton, to be laid out in any of the 
undivided lands of Lancaster, in the right of William 
Kerley; and February 9, 1749-50, for ;^I2, to Joseph 
Sawyer of Harvard, 23 acres, to be laid out in old 
Lancaster; and February 16, 1749-50, for ;^4, to Nathan- 
iel Oaks, a lot to be laid out within the bounds, formerly 

He was published December 3, 1727, and married Mary 
Heald, of Stow. 

January 6, 1745-6, he made his will, giving his wife Mary, 
the improvement of all his real estate until his grand- 
daughter, Sarah Gates, should become twenty-one years of 
age, or married, and afterwards the improvement of one-half 
of the same during life. After her decease the whole should 
become the property of Sarah Gates, but if she did not live 


to the age of twenty-one, or to marry, the whole should go 
to the relatives of the testator. 


I. SaralT*, born December 21, 1728; married Gates, 

and had a daughter, Sarah', born , and became 

heir to her grandfather's estate. 


Captain Hezekiah^ {Nathanier-, Shadrach^), was born 
in 1699; married, 1723, Sarah Whitney, born at Stow, 1703. 
He settled upon the west half of his father's extensive farm 
in the southwest part of Stow, and became a prominent 
citizen. He was a captain in the French and Indian wars, 
and in 1735 drew lot number one in the distribution of lands 
in Narragansett Township, number six, now Templeton. 
In 1726, 5 acres were laid out to him in the right of Thomas 
Ward, and in 1728, 3 acres in the right of Richard Whitney, 
and April 3, 1732, 13 acres adjoinmg his own land. 

In 1726-27 he was chosen tythingman, and selectman 
174.1, 1742 and 1753. December 20, 1764, " Hezekiah Hap- 
good, gentleman, being much advanced in years, sick and 
weak," made his will, giving to his wife Sarah all his per- 
sonal property; to Ephraim of Acton, his oldest son, 12s., 
and to his other son Jonathan, his homestead buildings, and 
all his lands in Stow, requiring him to provide room for his 
mother Sarah, and suitable provisions and attention in health 
and sickness, furnish her a horse to ride whenever she 
pleases, and pay all debts and funeral charges ; and made 
Jonathan sole executor. He died May 13, 1768; will proved 
July 19, 1768. 


His wife was a daughter of Richard Whitney, Jr., of Stow, 
and great granddaughter of John and Elinor Whitney. 

7 I. Ephraim*, born April 21, 1725; married Rebecca Gibson. 

II. Jonathan'' (Col. and Esq.), born 1733, was a gentleman of 
great respectability and commanding influence in 
Stow. He resided about two miles southwest of the 
centre of the town, on the west part of what had been 
the Willard Farm. He held the commission of Lieu- 
> tenant, Captain and Colonel in the Militia, and was 

appointed by the Governor of Massachusetts a magis- 
trate. He served fourteen years as selectman, between 
1768 and 1 791, and as town clerk eleven years. In 
1774 he was chosen a delegate to the County Conven- 
tion at Concord, and afterwards, in the same year, a 
delegate to the Provincial Congress, and in 1776, a 
member of the convention for framing a Constitution 
for the State. He was the proprietor of one or more 
slaves who took their master's name, and carried it 
with them into freedom, and may have transmitted it. 
The tombstone at Stow records his death, March 20, 
1801, but no settlement of his estate is recorded. The 
late John Miles occupied his place. He married Ruth 
Wolcott, to whom he was published January 10, 1775. 
She was born 1736; died January 17, 1784. He mar- 
ried second, October 5, 1785, Mrs. Sarah Whitney of 
Stow. He is not recorded as having had any children. 
He appears {Massachusetts Archives) among a list of 
field officers of the Massachusetts Militia as First 
Major of the First Middlesex County regiment, com- 
missioned August 30, 1775, and he appears as First 
Major in the Fourth Middlesex County regiment, 
commissioned May 10, 1776; chosen by Legislature, 
February 15, 1776, First Major, Colonel Henry Gard- 
ner's regiment, and Lieutenant-Colonel, Fourth Mid- 
dlesex regiment, February 25, 1779, concurred in 
council, February 26, 1779. 


Lieutenant Shadrach* {Nathaniel,"^ Shadrach^), born 
November 6, 1704; received from his father, lands drawn 



partly in the right of his grandfather Shadrach, situated in 
the northwest part of Stow, known as " Stow Leg," and 
119 acres, originally in Lancaster, afterwards (1732) Har- 
vard, drawn partly in the right of Major Simon Willard. To 
these the proprietors of Lancaster, February 19, 1763, added 
9 acres 27 rods, drawn in the right of Major Willard, and 4 
acres and 20 rods as an allowance for a road or byway 
through said Hapgood's land, making this one lot contain 
133 acres. April i, 1741, he was the proprietor of a lot of 
65 acres on Bare Hill, which had been assigned to William 
Kerley, at a third division of Lancaster lands. This being 
then surveyed for him, was found to contain 95 acres 25 
rods, and the proprietors, instead of dividing it, made it 
good to him to that amount, by a grant of 30 acres 25 rods, 
"upon other after divisions," and his brother Nathaniel, as 
the proprietor of Kerley's right, executed him a deed in 
May following. This lot was oblong, bounded easterly by 
John Whitney, 74 rods ; northwesterly by a byway,* 267 
rods; southwesterly by Captain Houghton, 52 rods, and 
southeasterly, 240 rods, mostly by his own land. 

These lots, and those previously assigned to his father, 
were all in one vicinity, and mostly conterminous. Without 
including either of the Gates meadows, they embrace 350 
acres upon which Lieutenant Shadrach Hapgood began life ; 
about the same quantity, which an equal division of the 
original homestead, must have been secured to his brothers, 
Hezekiah and Daniel. 

He owned land in Lancaster in 1730, and then received 
damages in the form oi 2J/2 acres from Lancaster for a road 

* The general course of this way, so often referred to, seems to have been south south- 
west and north northeast. In 1743, a road 2 rods wide and 110 rods long was laid out by 
Harvard through his land. 


laid out through his farm. These 2^ acres he sold for 17s. 
to Abraham Rugg, June 24, 1740. 

He sold, April 19, 1754, for £14. 12s., 5 acres of meadow 
in Harvard to Samuel Fellows; and May 29, 1762, for 40s., 
I acre 40 rods in Harvard to Benjamin Lawrence ; and April 
30, 1759, for ;^73. los., 43 acres in Harvard to Eliphalet 
Wood; and December 7, 1769, for £26, to John Daby, a 
tract in Harvard, with buildings. January 5, 1764, he 
bought of Joseph Kneeland, of Harvard, for /^86, a certain 
messuage (probably the same sold to Daby in 1769), and a 
tract of 20 acres, bounded by a line beginning on the south 
side of a road by John Atherton's, then running northerly 
across said road by Richard Harris' land to Elias Haskell's, 
and next to Thomas Willard's land, then southwesterly by a 
private way near Joseph Willard's land, until it crosses the 
road above named, which it follows to said Harris' land, 
then easterly by his land and southerly by it, and then 
northerly by John Atherton's land to the place of beginning ; 
and also 7 acres of meadow, south of said Harris' meadow, 
and east of a brook immediately below where it flows out of 
a pond. 

At the incorporation of Harvard, June 29, 1732, out of 
portions of Lancaster, Groton and Stow, he was thrown into 
Harvard. In 1761 he was appointed guardian of Anna 
Stone, aged seven years, and of Sarah Stone, aged above 
fourteen years, daughters of Oliver Stone, late of Harvard. 
He was constable, 1738, 1739, 1741, and in 1764, collector 
of church money in the Old Mill quarter. In 1742 he 
received a lieutenant's commission from the royal governor, 
William Shirley {now in possession of the compiler), a copy 
of which is here reproduced. He served six years as 


selectman, and had the first seat in the first of eight classes of 
seats in the new meeting-house in Harvard, assigned 1774, 
by a committee of the town. 

He appears on the rolls as private in Captain Thomas 
Gates' company, and marched on alarm of April 19, 1775 ; 
belonged to Lancaster Troop, term of service, nine days. 

He seems to have been a quiet, industrious and thrifty 
farmer and highly respected citizen. 

He made his will April 17, 1780, giving his wife Elizabeth 
all his household furniture and indoor movables, one cow 
and two sheep, for her use and disposal, requiring his 
executor to furnish her a horse to ride at any time, while 
she remained his widow. He also gave her the improvement 
of one half of his estate for her dower, the use of one half of 
the upright part of the house, /. ^., the west lower room 
and chamber over it, one half of the chimney, including 
the back-room fireplace, half of the cellar, one third of 
the barn, and equal privilege at the well and in the gar- 
den ; and these so long as she remained his widow. His 
three eldest daughters, and doubtless the rest, with their 
husbands, April 28, 1770, acknowledged the receipt of ;^ioo 
each, from their father as their full portion of his estate, and 
signed a quit claim to the remainder. He therefore be- 
queathed only ;^i, to his daughter, Mary Clark, which, with 
what she had already received, was to be her full portion. 
To Elizabeth Willard £1, which was to be her full portion. 
To Lois Whitney ;£i, and a pillion, which was to be her full 
portion. To Lydia Munroe £13. 6s. (silver money) and a 
pillion. To his only son, Shadrach, Jr., he bequeathed his 
apparel, tools, live-stock, and all his real estate, binding him 
to support his parents and pay their funeral expenses, and 
made him executor. 


The following excerpt from Harvard History gives so clear 
and concise a record of this branch of the family, we tran- 
scribe it in full. 

" In Stow Leg, a. d. 1732, the largest land-owner was Shad- 
rach Hapgood. He was a grandson of that Shadrach Hap- 
good, who, on May 30, 1656, at the age of fourteen years, 
embarked for New England from Gravesend in the ship 
Speedwell. The first Shadrach lived with his uncle, Peter 
Noyes of Sudbury, during his minority ; married Elizabeth 
Treadway, October 21, 1664, and was slain by the Indians in 
the Surprise of Captains Hutchinson and Wheeler at Brook- 
field, August 2, 1675. The eldest of the five children, fruit 
of the marriage, was Nathaniel, born in 1665. He married 
Elizabeth Ward of Marlboro', August 14, 1695. Became a 
deacon and a wealthy land-holder in Stow, and was long 
prominent in town councils. Nathaniel was the father of 
the Harvard Shadrach, and transferred to him, in 1725, all 
his lands upon Pin Hill Brook and Bare Hill, amounting 
to 350 acres. Shadrach was born in Stow, November 6, 
1704, and married Elizabeth Wetherbee. He was commis- 
sioned Lieutenant by Governor William Shirley, in 1742, 
but what military service he rendered is not known. He 
had but one son, Shadrach, and five daughters, all of whom 
had families. The Hapgood house is an excellent example 
of the homes of the thriftier farmers of New England at the 
period when Harvard was incorporated. In it Shadrach 
and Elizabeth (Wetherbee) Hapgood passed their married 
life of more than half a century, and their son Shadrach 
succeeded to its possession, living here with his wife, Eliza- 
beth Keep, nearly fifty years. He was succeeded by his 
youngest son, Joel, whose wife was Sally, daughter of Jona- 
than Fairbank. The large addition to the old mansion at its 
western end was built by Joel in 18 12, and the capacious 
farm barn by his son, Jonathan Fairbank Hapgood, in 1854. 
The last owner of the estate bearing the family name was 


m^^i- ^^nMtS^^^ i GrptainGeiii 
- ^* over His.^Vlj 



Y virtue of the Power and A 
granted, to be Captain-Gent 
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their X'^^^*''^'^ ,^ - and your fel 
iliaii fror^, fime to time recei vc from Me, < 
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to the Trull repofed in yoii. 


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and GO . ^. .NOUR m Chiet; 'mm^A 
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!ity» and by Hi^ Majeily's Royal Commillion -xoy,^- 
prr over tbisH:^ '^-'dty'j Piovlnce of the MafichAifem- 
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«. ' — - under the Comrnana ot 

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I diictmrge the Dojiy of a^^^^^^'^ inJ^^^ C^/^ /■_, 

M^, in Arna^both infeiiour Officers arKlj^ 

^ DiicipUne ^ hereby commanding them to obey you as- 
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f Coniniander in Chief for the Time being, ^•rottKa' 
be, .according to military Rules and Diicipline, piif luanf. 

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Warren, youngest son of Joel, now living, a retired merchant 
of Boston. 

"The old house was probably new, and perhaps reputed 
the finest in Harvard, when the town, in July, 1734, com- 
plimented it and the builder, by instructing a committee to 
engage board for the ministers, who should come to supply 
the pulpit, at Shadrach Hapgood's, although over a mile 
from the meeting-house. The original lattices, with their 
bottle-green diamond lights, were preserved in the gable 
windows for several years after the opening of the present 

He married, about 1732, Elizabeth Wetherbee, born 17 14, 
and died November 30, 1803, in the ninetieth year of her 
age. He died October 8, 1782. Will proved December, 1782. 
{Worcester Probate i. i^, page 316.] 

CHILDREN, all born in Harvard. 

I. Mercy"*, born January 26, 1733; married, October 12, 1757, 
Jonathan Clark of Harvard, born May 26, 1733. 


1. Jonathan' Clark, born January 28, 1759. 

2. Hannah^ born September 19, 1762. 

II. Elizabeth*, born September 26, 1734; married, February 14, 
1753? Joseph Willard, Jr., of Harvard. 


1. Shadrach' Willard, born December 13, 1753. 

2. Mercy', born February 16, 1755. 

3. Elizabeth', born June 18, 1758; died April 9, 1759. 

4. Joseph', born September 4, 1760. 

5. Elizabeth', born November 20, 1764. 

6. Oliver', born May i, 1769. 

7. Levi', born August 15, 1775. 

III. Phinehas"*, born August 11, 1737; died, a few days old. 

IV. Asa*, born June 13, 1740; died August 16, 1743. 
V. Israel*, born March i, 1743; died March 2, 1743. 


VI. Sarah*, born June i6, 1744; married, January 17, 1765, John 
Daby, Jr., of Harvard. 


1. Simon' Daby, born May 20, 1765. 

2. Asas, born February 6, 1767. 

3. Mercy5, born May 11, 1769. 

4. Sarah', born February 7, 1772. 

5. Betsey', born May 7, 1774. 

6. John', born January 9, 1779. 

8 VII. Shadrach'', born October 4, 1747 ; married Elizabeth Keep, 

July 23, 1770, and died June 20, 1818. 
VIII. Oliver-*, born October 7, 1751, and died same day. 

IX. Lois*, born April 13, 1754; married, May 25, 1772, Jacob 
Whitney, born March 24, 1748. He enlisted in Cap- 
tain Jonathan Davis' company, Colonel Asa Whit- 
comb's regiment, in Revolutionary Army, October 6, 
1775. His will was dated November 8, 181 5, pro- 
bated October 18, 1825. He resided in Harvard, and 
later removed to Winchendon, where he died July 11, 


1. Hannah' Whitney, born December 14, 1772. 

2. Mercy', born December 10, 1774. 

3. Jacob', born October 16, 1776. 

4. Lois', born August i, 1779. 

5. Eli', born May 17, 1783. 

6. Nancy', born August 8, 1785. 

7. Emorys, born October i, 1791. 

X. Lydia-*, born July 4, 1757; married, April 4, 1775, Abraham 
Munroe of Harvard, a soldier in the Continental Army, 
who died March 11, 1778. 

1. Lydia' Munroe, born December 22, 1776. Married, 
April 5, 1797, Ivory Longley of Shirley, Massa- 
chusetts, son of Israel and Lucy (Conant) 
Longley of Harvard, where he was born, 1775; 
a blacksmith by trade. In attempting to cross 
the Catacunemaug, upon a dam, he slipped 
from his icy footing and perished in the stream 
below, January 14, 1808. His widow died April 
4, 1859. They had four children. 


Lydia* married second, February 25, 1784, David Dickin- 
son, born October 7, 1741. He was a soldier in the 
Revolutionary Army, and served at the Siege of Ticon- 
deroga and Crown Point. Removed to Keene, New 
Hampshire about 181 1, where she died. 


2. William^ Dickinson, born . 

3. Abraham^ born . 


Deacon Daniel* {NathajiieP, Shadrach^),horn about 1706, 
inherited the homestead of his father, Deacon Nathaniel, and 
grandfather Shadrach, two and one-half miles south southeast 
of Stow townhouse, and the east half of the original planta- 
tion of 700 acres. Succeeded his father in the deaconship, 
and about 1760, built the great house yet standing and occu- 
pied by his grandson, NathanieP Hapgood. June 20, 1750, 
he sold to Zaccheus Gates of Stow, 120 acres in Holden, 
inherited from his father. August 13, 1785, "being very aged, 
infirm and weak," he made his will, having previously settled 
his real estate in Stow upon his sons, giving to his wife 
Mary, two cows ; and to sons Daniel and Samuel, and daugh- 
ter Hepsebeth Wheeler, all his indoor movables in equal 
shares ; to his adopted grandson, Jacob Gibson of Stow, his 
live-stock and a tract of 300 or 400 acres in Waterford, Maine. 
In 1735-6 he was chosen reeve, and in 1743, selectman. 
He married first, Hepsebeth, born July 14, 1715 ; died Octo- 
ber 23, 1738; and second, July 6, 1745, Mary Gibson, who 
died, his widow, January 15, 1793. He died April 30, 1791. 

CHILDREN, all by second wife, born at Stow. 
9 I. Daniel*, born November 16, 1747 ; married Esther Gardner 

of Concord. 


1 1. Hepsebeth'', born June 24, 1 749 ; married Ephraim Wheeler 
of Stow. 
10 III. Samuel*, born October 17, 1751 ; died April, 1821 ; married 
Elizabeth Maxwell. 


Ensign Ephraim* {Hezekiah^, NathanieP, Shadrach}), born 
April 21, 1725, is presumed to have first settled on a part of 
his father's spacious farm in Stow, where his intention of 
marriage with Rebecca Gibson was published January 17, 
1746-7. After 1753, he removed to Acton and settled 
where his grandson, Benjamin F. Hapgood, now resides. In 
the summers of 1779 and 1780 he went with his sons, Eph- 
raim and Nathaniel, to open up farms in Norridgewock, 
Maine, for some of his family. It is not, however, probable 
that any permanent settlement was effected there, as the 
records of the town are silent upon the subject. At the 
close of the second season, he, with Nathaniel, in returning 
by water, perished from shipwreck, while Ephraim returned 
safe by land. He died intestate, October 31, 1780, leaving 
an estate inventoried at £i->S97- His widow died Septem- 
ber 15, 1803, aged seventy-six. Abraham was appointed 


I. Nathaniel', born at Stow, February 26, 1748; died October 

8, 1756, at Acton. 
II. Oliver', born at Stow, November 7, 1749; died October 7, 
1756, at Acton. 
11 III. Abraham', born at Stow, October 9, 1752; appointed De- 
cember 13, 1780, administrator on his father's estate; 
married Lucy Davis. 


12 IV. Ephraim^, born at Acton, May 3, 1755; married Molly 


13 V. Hezekiah^, born December 23, 1757; married Dorcas 

VI. Nathaniel, born April 2, 1760; enlisted as private in 
John Buttrick's company, Colonel Read's regiment, 
September 28, 1777, discharged November 7, 1777; 
term of service, one month, eleven days. Discharged 
from Colonel Brooks' regiment to reinforce General 
Gates at the northward. He was also a private in 
Captain Francis Brown's company. Colonel Mcintosh's 
regiment, for service in Rhode Island, enlisted August 
4, 1778, discharged September i, 1778. Served eleven 
days in Lovell's brigade. He then enlisted in Captain 
Joshua Walker's company, Colonel Samuel Denny's 
regiment, October 13, 1779, discharged November 23, 
1779; served one month, eleven days {Massachtisetts 
Archives). He was drowned, with his father, October 
31, 1780, by shipwreck, returning from Maine. 

14 VII. Oliver^, born August 12, 1762; married Lucy Tuttle. 
VIII. Sarah^ born April 7, 1765; married, August 24, 1779, 

Timothy Wood of Harvard. He died July 18, 1800, 
and she married, second. May 2, 1809, Jonas, son of 
Joseph and Rebeckah Wright, born in Concord, June 
18, 1762, husband of her deceased sister Mary, who 
died January 3, 1799. 

15 IX. Jonathan^, born July 30, 1767; married Abigail Austin. 

X. Mary^ born October 17, 1769; had her uncle Jonathan for 
guardian, December 13, 1780 ; married, March 30, 1794, 
Jonas Wright of Concord, and died January 3, 1799, 
leaving three children. 


1. Anthony* Wright, born January 14, 1795; married 

Mary E. Smith, February 14, 1819. 

2. Henry*, born October 22, 1796; married Sarah 

Flint of Lincoln, April 22, 1819. 

3. Hapgood*, born December 22, 1798. 

Jonas married second, the widow Sarah (Hapgood) Wood, 
sister to his first wife. He died June 15, 1818, and she, 
February 12, 1813. 


XI. Joseph', born April 2, 1772; had his uncle Jonathan for 
guardian; married, February 11, 1798, Sarah Hunt. 


I. Henry^ born ; died in parts unknown. 

II. A son*, born December, 1801 ; died Septembers, 
1802, at Acton. 


Shadrach* {Shadi'acJi^^ NatJianier-, Shadrach^), born Octo- 
ber 4, 1747; married, July 23, 1770, Elizabeth Keep, daughter 
of Jabez, who died in Harvard, 1797. She was born April 20, 
1750, and died August 30, 1826; he died January 20, 18 18. 
Jabez Keep was the son of Ensign Samuel Keep, of Spring- 
field, Massachusetts, who was the presumed progenitor of all 
the Keeps in this country. A brother of Elizabeth, Jonathan, 
married Hannah Hildreth. Experience Lawrence Keep, who 

married Wright, was also sister to Elizabeth, and Mary, 

another sister, married Leonard Proctor. Mary Washington 
Wright, daughter of Experience (Keep) Wright, was born 
June 30, 1827, at Westford ; married George Lowe; removed 
to Indianapolis, Indiana, where she has resided forty-eight 
years. Mrs. Lowe is deeply interested in the Lawrence 
Townley estate in England. Mrs. Lowe's grandmother, 
Rhoda Hildreth, was a daughter of Experience Keep. 
Experience Lawrence was daughter or granddaughter of John 
Lawrence, who married Mary Townley. 

He appears with rank of private on muster and pay rolls 
of Captain Samuel Hill's company. Colonel Josiah Whit- 
ney's regiment, enlisted August 19, 1777, discharged August 
25, 1777 ; term of service, six days ; marched on Bennington 
Alarm from Harvard. He re-enlisted as private in the same 


company and regiment, October 2, 1777, discharged October 
26, 1777 ; term of service, twenty-four days, under Lieutenant 
Colonel Ephraim Sawyer {MassacJmsetts Archives). He 
was a member of Committee of Correspondence and Safety, 
1781, and selectman, 1791, 1792. 


16 I. Johns, born June 20, 1771; married, December 6, 1797, 

Mary Haskell of Harvard. 
II. Betsey^, born February 16, 1773; married, May 26, 1795, 
Thomas, son of Thomas Hammond, who removed from 
Connecticut with his wife and children, and joined 
the Shirley Shakers, turning all his property over to 
the Community. His children were not compelled to 
accept the situation and most of them wisely departed. 
The son, Thomas, settled in Harvard and became hop- 
merchant, inn-holder and farmer. She died June 22, 
1797, and he removed to Shirley, where he died, 1816. 


1. David* Hammond, born October 17, 1796. He 
was barely eight months old when his mother 
was taken from him, but his grandparents 
kindly took him, brought him up, educated him, 
and treated him as their own child. He was 
small of stature, but cheerful, well disposed, 
and large hearted. His grandfather Hapgood 
died, 1818, but David remained with his grand- 
mother, in charge of the farm up to April 10, 
1825, when he married Elmira Hosmer, born 
February 16, 1805, at Acton. He bought a 
farm in the northeasterly part of Harvard, ad- 
joining the old Hapgood estate, better known 
to-day as the Hall place. Here their four chil- 
dren were born, and by industry and economy 
were fairly prosperous. The farm being larger 
than he cared for^ihe sold out and bought a small 
farm on the brook off of the road, near the pres- 
ent town "poor farm" in Harvard. He was 
a quiet, modest, industrious man, and much 
respected in the community. The town built 


him a road and bridge to cross the brook, and 
here he passed in peace the remainder of his 
days, his eldest daughter remaining with her 
parents, faithfully caring for their wants till 
both had passed beyond the line of time. His 
wife died August 24, 1883, and he, June i, 1889. 


I. Elmira^ born February 12, 1826; died June 
23, 1890. 
II. Lucy^, born February 18, 1828; married, 
November 4, 1846, George Albert Har- 

III. Thomas Whittemore^, born March 31, 1830; 
died in Acton, December 18, 1897; mar- 
ried, April 28, 1863, Mary Alice Blood, 
born in Boston, October 5, 1837. 

IV. Simon Hosmer'', born March 31, 1830, twin 
with Thomas Whittemore ; married, May 
3, i860, Hannah L. Steele, and died 
November 6, 1885. 

III. Lucy', born December 9, 1775 ; married, December 15, 1828, 

James Wilson, a wool carder, fuller, and cloth dresser. 
She died October 29, 1851 ; resided in Shirley, Massa- 
chusetts. No children. 

IV. Mercys, born February 5, 1779; married, September 11, 

1798, Theodore, son of Richard and Sarah Goldsmith, 
born in Harvard, August 7, 1775. A man of great 
physical and mental energy ; learned the trade of a 
cooper; settled on the farm now recently occupied by 
his son-in-law, George Atherton, adjoitiing the large 
farm where his father had settled, on Oak Hill. His 
parents being advanced in years and requiring assist- 
ance, Theodore left his own farm and assumed the 
management of that of his father. In early life he had 
cultivated a taste for reading, which he gratified by a 
diligent use of every leisure hour, even dpwn to that 
period when labor ordinarily ceases; he read fresh 
books with as much avidity as a young student, thereby 
keeping old age green, and making himself a most 
agreeable companion. Not ambitious for office, but 
served his town as selectman, 1821-22. The extensive 


farm was well managed. He prospered and was a 
leading citizen. She died October 31, 1850, and he, 
March 22, 1859. 

1. Mary'' Goldsmith, born August 24, 1804; married. 
May 6, 1824, George Atherton, born in Still 
River, Harvard, January 21, 1797; purchased a 
farm on Oak Hill, adjoining that of Theodore 
Goldsmith, his father-in-law. He became a 
prosperous farmer, with the aid and co-operation 
of his most industrious and frugal wife, whose 
good sense and sound judgment carried them 
triumphantly through every trial. He died 
February 17, 1875; the place was sold, and his 
widow removed to the middle of the town, 
where she died March 8, 1886. 

1. Mary Maria^ Atherton, born June 12, 1825; 
married, April 15, 1858, Horatio B. Her- 
sey, born in Boston, January 18, 1823. 
Commenced business as a clerk in the 
office of a ship owner on Central wharf, 
January, 1838; was book-keeper, salesman, 
and finally a member of the well-known 
leather firm of Spaulding & Hersey, 1843 
to 1870. He settled in Chelsea in 1849; 
was in the Common Council six years, 
1862-68, the last two years as president, 
and was in Board of Aldermen, 1868-69; 
intheHouseof Representatives, 1871-72; 
City Treasurer, 1876 to 1883, and is now 
the treasurer of the City of Chelsea 
Sinking Fund, and auditor of the Chelsea 
Savings Bank. 

1. Mary Louise* Hersey, born at Chel- 
sea, April 24, 1865 ; graduated from 
the public schools in Chelsea, and 
from the Museum of Fine Arts in 
Boston, in the decorative depart- 


2. Louisa Farwell'', born November 4, 1827; 
married, November 27, 1847, Absalom B. 
Gale, born at Jamaica, Vermont, Decem- 
ber I, 1814; was a popular stage driver 
for many years. After marriage bought a 
farm in Harvard, settled there and be- 
came a wealthy farmer, a prominent mem- 
ber of the Unitarian church, and a leading 
citizen. She died June 22, i860. 


1. Henry Howard^ Gale, born in Har- 

vard, August 6, 1854. He is a 
member of the firm of Gale & 
Dixon, principal merchants of the 

2. George Theodore^, born June 16, 

1857 ; he manages the farm for his 
aged father, and also assists his 
brother in the store; both excel- 
lent young men. 

Lucy Hapgood^ born February 28, 1807 ; married, 
April 30, 1834, Ethan Daby, born February 27, 
1799, son of Asa Daby and grandson of Sarah* 
(Hapgood) and John Daby, Jr. He was retiring 
and quiet by nature, but was a good neighbor 
and kind-hearted man. For many years in 
business with his brother Asa, under firm name 
of A. & E. Daby, extensive blacksmiths, in 
Harvard Centre, enjoying an enviable reputa- 
tion for uprightness and honorable dealing. 
By close attention to business he accumulated a 
handsome property, built a large double house, 
with his brother, on the common, where they 
lived very happily together. The structure was 
swept away by the great fire that destroyed the 
hotel, August 25, 1880. She died April 7, 1869, 
of paralysis; he died February 2, 1876. No 

Mercy^ born February 24, 181 8 ; married, October 
17, 1839, Charles Maynard, born May 5, 1814, 
at Heath, Massachusetts. After marriage he 
removed to Fitchburg, where he worked in a 
paper mill. Mercy was the youngest of the 

/Iftcrc^ (©clDsmitb) /n^avnarJ). 


children of Theodore and Mercy (Hapgood) 
Goldsmith, a bright, intelligent girl, and very 
much attached to the home of her youth. The 
new home in Fitchburg was never to her taste 
and in nowise took the place of the one she left. 
The advancing age of her father rendered 
assistance necessary in the management of the 
large farm, and this necessity proved a door 
through which she could return to the dear old 
paternal mansion. The house was large ; there 
was ample room for the two families, and the 
union proved profitable and satisfactory to all 
concerned. Mr. Maynard was an upright, 
honorable, industrious man, of unquestioned 
integrity and sound judgment, winning not only 
the respect of father Goldsmith, but also of his 
fellow-citizens. In the church both he and his 
wife were prominent, especially in the choir, 
where they rendered valued service. 

The two families lived very harmoniously 
under the one roof for nearly twenty years, and 
on the death of her father, Charles became pro- 
prietor of the extensive farm. One son, Charles 
Theodore, was born to them in Fitchburg, 
August 1 6, 1840, a lad of great promise, the 
hope and idol of his parents. In vain were all 
their aspirations for the future. That most 
obstinate disease, diabetes, fell upon him, baf- 
fling the most skilful medical treatment, and 
on the loth of November, i860, when just step- 
ping upon the threshold of manhood, he passed 
away. The brilliant hopes that clustered around 
this noble young man were now forever blasted. 
Nor did the griefs end here ; symptoms of con- 
sumption began to develop in the dear husband. 
Change of location was suggested. Isle of 
Shoals and other resorts tried, but all of no 
avail. He died at Harvard, March 8, 1862. The 
lonely heart of the widow was all that now re- 
mained of three generations. She had seen 
much of society, had entertained liberally, and 
her humor and cheerful manners made her a 
favorite with young and old. Now the scene 


was changed. In place of the pleasant round 
of society and a cheerful home, the burden and 
care of the great farm was upon her. This 
proved too much for her; the place passed into 
other hands, and she removed to a pleasant 
tenement in the middle of the town, near to the 
church so dear to her heart, and among friends 
she loved. Still, bereaved of family and home, 
she could not be happy or reconciled. She 
lived on for many years, but the strain was too 
great; visions of those happy days with her 
family and friends flitted before her, but at last 
a morbid gloom overshadowed her, reason was 
dethroned, and on the i8th of November, 1889, 
the once cheerful soul took its flight. Let us 
bravely endeavor to forget the end, and remem- 
ber her "at her best." 

17 V. Jabezs, born September 30, 1781; married Susannah Has- 

kell, sister to his brother John's wife. 
VI. Shadrach^ born December 16, 1783 ; married, November 
14, 1806, Nancy, daughter of Jonathan and Abigail 
Puffer, born May 16, 1786. She died October 16, 1849, 
aged 63 years, 5 months. He married second, June 18, 
1851, Relief, daughter of Daniel and Relief (Sawyer) 
Crouch, born July 27, 1807. He was a large and pros- 
perous farmer in the northerly part of Harvard, Old 
Mill district, and, like the other members of his family, 
had a village of buildings, barns, sheds, cider mill, etc., 
and was very neat and orderly in his surroundings. 
He served as selectman, 1821-25; obtained the title of 
Major, by his excellent handling of the fife. He died, 
January 21, 1853; his widow died March 8, 1894, aged 
86 years, 5 months, 11 days. No children. 

18 VII. Joel', born March 26, 1788; married, November 12, 1812, 

Sally Fairbank of Harvard. He died September 28, 


Daniel* {DanieP, NathanieP, Skadrach^), born November 
16, 1747; married, December 20, 1774, Esther Gardner of 


Concord, born ; died , and he married second, 

April 30, 1795, Rebecca Sargent, born ; died May 16, 

1833. He settled on the ancient homestead in Stow, where 
all his children were born. 

Daniel Hapgood appears with rank of corporal on Lexing- 
ton Alarm Rolls of Captain William Whitcomb's company, 
Colonel James Prescott's regiment ; marched on the Alarm 
of April 19, 177s, from Stow; time of service, eight days. 
Enlisted October i, 1777, in Captain Silas Taylor's company, 
Colonel Jonathan Reed's regiment, discharged November 8, 
1777 ; term of service, one month, eight days. Belonged to 
Stow company of Volunteers ; marched by resolve, Septem- 
ber 22, 1777, to join army under General Gates' service. 
Northern department. He belonged to the Alarm list of 
Captain Benjamin Munroe, Sixth company, Fourth regi- 
ment, December i, 1776. {Massachusetts Archives.'] 

CHILDREN by first wife. 
I. Betsey', born January 13, 1776; died September i, 1778. 
II. Susanna', born November 13, 1777; died May 15, 1847; 
married, November 12, 1794, Isaiah Gates of Stow, son 
of Oliver and Lucy Gates, born 1773; died March 
31, 1822. 

1. Joel* Gates, born May 2, 1795, at Stow; married 
August 12, 181 2, Eunice Piper of Ashby. He 
died December 16, 1869. 


1. Franklin' Gates, born May 17, 1827; died 

December i, 1886; married Hannah* 
Walcott, a daughter of Hannah' Walcott 
(Hapgood), and granddaughter of Sam- 
uel* Hapgood (10) of Stow. 

2. Francis Everett', born April 11,1798; mar- 

ried, January 30, 1822, Chloe Constan- 
tine from East Wallingford, Vermont, 


born June 20, 1822; resided at Ashby, 
where he died April 20, i860. She died 
March 12, 1887. 

III. Rufus5, born February 12, 1780; died at Stow; unmarried. 

IV. Nathaniels, born October 22, 1781 ; died at Stow, young. 
V. John^, born October 30, 1786; married, December 19, 1804, 

Alice Maynard of Sudbury. He died without issue. 
VI. Betsey% born March 26, 1790; married, October 17, 1805, 
Joseph Maynard, born February 22, 1780, in Sudbury; 
resided in Concord, New Hampshire, where his first 
three children were born; removed to Stow, 1813, 
where Joseph was born; in i8i4he removed to Lancas- 
ter, Massachusetts, and established himself on a farm, 
where the remainder of his children were born. She 
died February 29, 1867, and he, October 18, 1870. 


1. Elvira^ Maynard, born October 4, 1807; died May 

19, 1836. 

2. Mary Esther^ born January 7, 1810; died March 

I, 1813. 

3. John Hapgood*, born March i, 181 2; died June 

28, 1878. 

4. Joseph*, born in Stow, November i, 1814; died in 

Boston, July 12, 1883. 

5. Mary Esther^ born August 14, 1816; died January 

27, 1 841. 

6. Abigail^ born December 2, 1819; married, Janu- 

ary 19, 1851, Gilbert Maynard; resides at 

7. Rufus*, born March 20, 1822; died February 6, 


8. Susan^ born June 8, 1824; died August i, 1858; 

married William Russell, who died in 1851. 

9. Martha^ born February 12, 1826; died August 4, 

1896; married Isaac Crouch. 

10. Eliza^ born August 9, 1829; married Otis Whit- 

ney; died August 3, 1857. 

11. Catharine^ born August 9, 1830 ; married, August 

31, 1853, Alvin P. Nickerson; resides on the 
homestead of her father in Lancaster. 


19 VII. Daniel', born March 9, 1796 (by second wife), in Stow; 
married Rebecca W. (Brooks) Davis, May 16, 1831, at 
VIII. Felicia', born February 28, 1798, in Stow; intentions of 
marriage published October 31, 1818, to Timothy East- 
man of Concord. 


1. Hapgood^ Eastman, born . 

2. JoeP, born . 

3. Amos*, born — 

4. George*, born 

5. Ann*, born — 

6. Abby*, born — 

IX. Abigail', born May 2, 1802; married, June 4, 1829, Ira 
Bartlett of Stow; both died in Sullivan, New Hamp- 


1. George* Bartlett, born . 

2. Willis*, born . 

3. Rebecca*, born 

Nathaniel', born June 30, 1804; resided, unmarried, the 
proprietor of the old homestead, together with a part 
of his grandfather's extensive farm in Stow. He died 
December 2, 1881, and the dear old place around 
which so many sacred memories cluster, passed out 
of the family. 


Samuel* {Daniel"^, Nathanier-, Shadrach}), born October 
17, 1751; married, December 14, 1786, Elizabeth Maxwell 
of Stow. He settled first on the homestead in Stow, and 
afterwards one mile north, on the north side of Assabet 
River. Served as private in Captain William Whitcomb's 
company, Colonel James Prescott's regiment, from Stow, on 
the Alarm of April 19, 1775. He died April, 1821. His 
widow died March, 1830, at the home of her daughter, 


Hannah Walcott, in Stow, with whom she resided after the 
death of her husband. 


I. MaryS, born ; baptized May 27, 1787; died 1868. 

Resided in Boston ; unmarried. 
II. Hannah^, born at Stow, 1787 ; baptized November 30, 1788 ; 
married, April 11, 1817, in Boston, by Reverend 
Charles Lowell, Robert Walcott from Baltimore, Mary- 
land, son of Ephraim and Betsey Walcott, born at 
Stow, 1792; resided in Boston till 1825, when he 
returned to his native town. Mrs. Walcott died at 
Stow, 1867, and Robert at Somerville, Massachusetts, 
April 9, 1885. He was a blacksmith by trade. Chil- 
dren : — Four born in Baltimore, two in Stow. 


1. Mary^ Walcott, born May 6, 1818; married. May 

2, 1848, George Tisdale. She died June 20, 1894. 

2. Martha^ born September 14, 1819; married, 

November 6, 1842, Joel Carr; died March, 1888. 

3. Charles^ born January 18, 1821 ; married, April n, 

1843, Elizabeth Gates; resides at Stow. 

4. George^ born January 10, 1823 ; married, August 

13, 1848, Lorena Houghton of Harvard, Massa- 
chusetts; died August 22, 1886. 

5. Joshua Huntington*, born May 19, 1825, at Stow. 

Went to Rochester, New York, at the age of 
eighteen. Conductor on Rochester & Albany 
Railroad several years ; removed to Central 
America, became superintendent of railroad; 
removed to Tucson, Arizona, where he died 
August, 1893. 

6. Hannah^ born November 16, 1827; married, 

May 30, 1848, Franklin Gates of Stow, born 

; resided in Stow. Enlisted, January 5, 

1864, in Fifteenth Massachusetts Battery, 
served during the war, and mustered out 
August 4, 1865. Died December i, 1886. He 
was son of Isaiah Gates, who married Susanna^, 
daughter of Daniel* and Esther (Gardner) Hap- 
good of Stow (9). 


III. Ephraim', born ; baptized June 27, 1790; died 

in Boston; unmarried. 

IV. Samuel', born ; baptized October 28, 1792. Mar- 

ried, November 13, 1822, Mary Haskell. He died in 
Boston, December 6, 1849. No children. 



Lieutenant Abraham^ {Ephraim*, Hezekiah^, Nathaniel, 
ShadracJ^), born October 9, 1752, at Stow. His father 
removed to Acton, 1753, where Abraham was educated. He 
married (published October 25, 1775) Lucy Davis, who died 
April 27, 1777, and he was married second, March 13, 1783, 
by Reverend Mr. Ripley of Concord, to Mary Merriam, widow 
of Joseph Wright of Concord, by whom she had a daughter, 
Mary Wright, born December 31, 1777; married, October 
23, 1800, Winthrop Faulkner, and was the mother of 
Winthrop Emerson Faulkner of South Acton. She died 
January 24, 1808, and he married third, Mary Foster of 
Littleton, November 21, 181 5. 

He appears a private on Lexington Alarm rolls of Captain 
John. Hay ward's company, Colonel Abijah Pierce's regiment; 
marched on Alarm of April 19, 1775, from Acton ; length of 
service, ten days ; he appears with rank of corporal, in Israel 
Heald's company. Colonel Eleazer Brooks' regiment ; marched 
to Roxbury, March 4, 1776; belonged to Acton. Drafted 
by Captain Simon Hunt, under Resolve of August 8, 1777, 
to reinforce Continental army; date, August 14, 1777. 

He appears a private on muster and pay rolls of Captain 
George Minot's company, Colonel Samuel Ballard's regiment ; 


time of enlistment, August i6, 1777; discharged November 
30, 1777; time of service, three months, twenty-five days; 
town to which he belonged not given, but as he was a 
citizen of Acton, presumably he was from that town ; service 
performed in Northern department. 

His name appears among a list of the Massachusetts 
Militia as second lieutenant of the Fifth company, of the 
Third Middlesex County regiment, commissioned June 7, 
1780, Captain Davis' company, commanded by Colonel 
Faulkner. {^Massachusetts Archives. '\ 

Appointed Administrator of his father's estate, December 
13, 1780, died April 6, 18 19. An industrious, thrifty, and 
highly-esteemed farmer. 


I. Samuel Davis^ born April 6, 1777 (by first wife); died 
September 4, 1778. 

II. Lucy^ born December 5, 1783 (by second wife); married, 
Januarys, 1805, Abel Jones of Acton, born August 26, 
17S3 ; died January iS, 1872. She died 1844, 

Children, all born in Acton. 

1. Lucinda White' Jones, born August 24, 1805 ; 

married, November 23, 1826, at Acton, Luther 
Robbins. She died July 6, 1864. 

2. Lucy', born September 17, 1807 ; married, March 

15, 1827, Horace Tuttle of Acton. She died 
August 5, 1845. 

3. Abigail Merriam', born April 24, 1809; married, 

September 10, 1827, Lewis Wood. 

4. Charlotte Hapgood', born November 24, 1810; 

married first, July 19, 1827, George Washington 
Tuttle. He died 1831, and she married second, 
December 31, 1S40, Theodore Ames, who died 

5. Abel White', born January 20, 181 2; married, 

August 30, 1843, Ann Maria Johnson. He died 
February 5, 1882. 


6. Clarissa^ born September i6, 1814; died January 

I, 1815. 

7. Luke^ born November 16, 1815; married first, 

Lucy K. Brigham, and second, Hannah Leer. 

8. Clarissa^ born October 6, 1817; married, July 19, 

1836, Daniel^ son of Edward and Susanna* 
(Hapgood) Wetherbee. 

9. Abraham Hapgood', born August 22, 1819; mar- 

ried, January 17, 1844, Harriet Estabrook Hos- 
mer ; resides in Acton. 

10. Winthrop Emerson^ born November 25, 1821. 


11. James Francis^ born January 26, 1830; married, 

November 23, 1851, Elizabeth Whitney. 

in. Joseph% born July 2, 1787; died January i, 1804. 
IV. Thomas^ baptized September 20, 1789, at Stow; died 
V. Charlotte^ born September 22, 1791 ; married, October 17, 
181 1, John White, Jr., of North Acton. 


1. Abraham' White, born August 22, 1812; married, 

September 5, 1833, Susanna', daughter of 
Edward and Susanna^ (Hapgood) Wetherbee, 
born March 28, 181 2, and became proprietor of 
the Nagog House in Acton. Later on he 
removed to West Rindge, and became a large 
manufacturer of tubs and woodenware. His 
wife died November 30, 1893, at Lewiston, 
Maine, and he, at West Rindge, April 30, 1882. 

2. Charlotte', born May i, 1814; married Elbridge 

Robbins, of Acton. She died September 8, 
1844, and he married second, June 6, 1849, Mary 
Elizabeth', daughter of James* Hapgood (20). 

3. Winthrop Faulkner', born September 10, 1817; 

married, October 28, 1839, Harriet', daughter of 
Edward and Susanna* (Hapgood) Wetherbee, 
born February 14, 1819. Both still living on a 
farm in Concord, Massachusetts. 

4. Luther'', born July 26, 1822 ; married, June 26, 1845, 

Hannah Tufts of West Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts ; resided at Holliston, Massachusetts, 
where he died a prosperous farmer, October 4, 
1884; his wife died November i, 1888. 


5. Mary Sophia^ born July 2, 1825; resided with her 

parents at Acton; and died November 30, 1846, 

6. John'', born October i, 1831 ; married, May 6, 

1863, Sarah Ann Rouillard of Acton, born Feb- 
ruary 16, 1839; she died November i, 1889. 

VI. NabbyS born March 14, 1794; married, September 27, 
1815, Daniel White, second, of Acton, born 1791 ; 
brother to her sister's husband. He died 1857, and 
she, 1865, both at Lowell. 


1. DaniePWhite, born, 1817, at Acton; married, 1846, 

Elizabeth Kimball of Maine. 

2. Mary^ born, 1820 ; married, 1846, at Lowell, Jacob 

Kelly of New Sharon, Maine. She died, 1892, 
at Newfane, New York. 

3. James Addison', born, 1825; married, 1844, Lucy 

Abbie Lee of Dracut, Massachusetts. He was 
killed by railroad train while crossing the track 
at Woburn, 1847. 

4. Charlotte', born June, 1830, at Lowell; married, 

1852, George D. B. Kelly of New Sharon, 

5. Edwin', born October 17, 1832, at Acton; mar- 

ried, November 3, 1864, at Concord, New 
Hampshire, Henrietta A. Cole. 

20 VIL James^ born July 14, 1796; married, September i, 1819, 
Mary Creasy Estabrook. 


Ephraim* {Ephraim^, Hezekia/i^, Nathaniel'^, Shadrach^), 
born May 3, 1755 ; married, April 13, 1780, Polly, or Molly, 
Tuttle, born September 21, 1759; died March 5, 1796, and 
he married second, January 23, 1800, Molly, or Polly, Hunt, 
born November 22, 1765 ; resided one mile from the village 


of West Acton, on the road to Littleton. He died March 
28, 1828, and his widow, February 7, 1850. 

CHILDREN by first wife. 
I. Rebecca% born September 8, 1780; married, April 24, 1810, 
Jonathan Billings of Acton, clockmaker, who died Feb- 
ruary 13, 1841. She died August 17, 1865. 


1. Mary Hapgood' Billings, born March 3, 181 1; 

married, October 13, 1835, Horace Ward of 

2. Sophia^ born September 12, 1813 ; married Charles 

Robinson of Bedford, September 3, 1840, and 
died July 9, 1882. 

3. Jonathan^ born March 6, 1815; died March i, 1816. 

4. Jonathan^, born October 20, 1816; died March i, 


5. Rebecca', born January 22, 1818; died July 27, 


6. William', born April 26, 1819; died August 14, 

1849; married, September 2, 1841, Hannah W. 
Sargent; resided in Acton. 

7. Lois Gibson', born July 17, 1820; died December 

10, 1838. 

8. Luther', born November 10, 1821 ; married, De- 

cember 2, 1851, Martha A. Wormwood; resided 
in Acton. 

9. James E.', born January 2, 1823; married, October 

7, 1855, Tamson Miller; resided in Acton. 

21 n. Ephraim*, born June 9, 1782, at Acton; married. May 23, 

1805, Hannah Ball. 

22 in. Nathaniel^ born at Acton, March 21, 1784; married, Feb- 

ruary 22, 1 810, Rebecca Stowe. 
IV. Susanna^ born March 12, 1786; married, December 24, 
1807, Edward Wetherbee of Acton, tavern-keeper, born 
April 19, 1782; died May 6, 1861. She died Novem- 
ber 10, 1855. 

Children, all born in Acton. 
1. Mary' Wetherbee, born October 9, 1808 ; married, 
May 26, 1831, Stephen Hosmer; resided in 
Lowell, where she died, July 5, 1882. 


2. Edward', born June 21, 1810; died at Acton, May 

12, 1867; a farmer ; unmarried. 

3. Susanna'', born March 28, 1812; married, Sep- 

tember 5, 1833, Abram Wliite of Acton, born 
August 22, 1812; resided at Acton, Ashby, 
Townsend, and West Rindge, where he died 
April 30, 1882. She died November 30, 1893, 
at Lewiston, Maine. 

4. Daniel^ born August 18, 1814; married, July 19, 

1836, Clarissa, daughter of Abel and Lucy* 
(Hapgood) Jones, born October 6, 1817; resided 
at Acton ; a merchant, miller, and farmer; died 
July, 1883. 

5. Sophia^ born March 11, 1817; married, December 

29, 1842, Winthrop F. Conant, born June 11, 
1814. She died November 3, 1877, he, Septem- 
ber 18, 1870. 

6. Harrief, born February 14, 1819; married, October 

28, 1839, Winthrop Faulkner White, son of 
Charlotte* Hapgood and John White, Jr., of 
North Acton, born September 10, 1817. They 
both still live, and carry on the farm in Concord. 

23 V. Simon^ born January 2, 1788; married Mary Frazier. 

VI. Pollys, born February 11, 1790; died January 11, 181 1. 
VII. Sophia*, born February 13, 1792; married, April 11, 1820, 
Silas Taylor of Boxboro, born June 27, 1793; died 
January 28, 1874; resided in Acton, a' large and 
wealthy farmer and leading citizen. She died March 
10, 1869. 


1. Sophia'' Taylor, born March 8, 1821 ; died August 

5> 1839- 

2. Moses', born April 16, 1822; married, June 18, 

1846, Mary Elizabeth Stearns of Acton; died 
December 16, 1895; resided on the homestead 
of his father in Acton. 

3. Silas', born April 2, 1825 ; died March 18, 1844. 

4. Martha', born March 8, 1829; married, April 25, 

1850, Hon. John Fletcher, Jr., born August 8, 
1827. She died August 14, 1882. 

VIII. Betsey*, born March 13, 1794; died September 24, 1819; 


married, February 17, 1814, Simon Tuttle of Acton, 
born February 7, 1793; he died September 17, 1864. 


1. Simon^ Tuttle, Jr., born ; married Mary A. 

Sargent of Stow, May 2, 1839. 

2. Susan'', born ; married, Archibald, of 


IX. Molly Tuttle^ born March 5, 1796; married, February 23, 
1823, Deacon Silas Hosmer of Acton. She died 
August 21, 1831, of consumption; no children. He 
married second, Mary Puffer. 

24 X. John^ born February 10, 1802 (by second wife); married, 

April 20, 1826, Mary Ann Hosmer. 

25 XI. Benjamin Franklin^, born November 3, 1805; married 

Perciveranda Joy (or Jay) of Brattleboro, Vermont. 


Captain Hezekiah^ {Ephraim'^, Hezekiah^, Nathaniel, 
ShadracB), born December 23,1757, at Acton; married, 
November 25, 1777, Dorcas Whitcomb of Stow, born 1761. 
Settled first in Stow, with his uncle Jonathan, after whom he 
named his first son. He enlisted at Sudbury in Captain 
Wheeler's company, 1776; served in the Canadian expedi- 
tion ; appears as private in Captain Edmund Longley's com- 
pany, Colonel Cogswell's regiment, enlisted October i, 1778, 
discharged December 31, 1778. Term of service, three months, 
one day. Detached for purpose of guarding and fortifying 
posts in and near Boston. Engaged to serve until January 
I, 1779, to credit of Stow. Was chosen fire-ward at Stow, 
1781, reeve, 1785 and 1788, captain, 1795, and selectman, 
1795-96. Removed to South Waterford, Maine, 1797, with his 
family, and to Fryeburg, 18 10, where he purchased a large 
tract of land, intending to settle all his sons there, but only 


succeeded in keeping William, the seventh child, with whom 
he resided till his death, October, 1818. His widow, Dorcas, 
resided with her daughter Catharine, in Fryeburg, where 
she died February 25, 1846. 

I. Sarah^ born June 28, 1778, baptized same day; married, 
1797, Jeduthan, born 1775, probably a son of Jeduthan 
Alexander, who was killed at the battle of Bunker Hill. 

1. Jonathan Hapgood' Alexander, born July 8, 1798 ; 
died June i, 1873; married, March 26, 1822, 
at Denmark, Maine, Mary Howe, born at Den- 
mark, December 8, 1802; died January 18, 1884. 

n. Jonathan^, born November 8, 1779; probably died young, 
in. MercyS born October 17, 1782; married, November 27, 

1800, Moses Nourse. She died May 29, 1801. 
IV. Betsey^ born 1783; married, April 18, 1804, Jesse Dunham 
of Otisfield, Maine. 

1. Permelia Robbins' Dunham, born Octobei" 29, 
1807; married, May 13, 1824, James Wight, 
born April 19, 1800, at Otisfield, where he died 
June 13, 1871 ; a farmer. 

26 V. Ephraim^ born January 3, 1785, at Stow, Massachusetts; 

married, January 7, 181 2, Fanny Willard of Harvard, 
VI. Elizabeth^ baptized September 2, 1787. She probably 
died young, as no further record of her is found. 

27 VII. William*, baptized April 5, 1790, at Stow ; married, 1813, at 

Fryeburg, Mary Harnden. 

28 VIII. Sprout^ born April 27, 1793, at Stow; married, March 3, 

1822, at Waterford, Betsey Sawin. 
IX. Polly*, born May 25, 1795, at Stow, Massachusetts; bap- 
tized May 31, 1795; married, December 8, 1818, at 
Fryeburg, Maine, Elbridge Harnden, born at Wilming- 
ton, Massachusetts, July 31, 1796; brother to William's 
wife, Mary. Polly died at East Fryeburg, October 10, 
1863, and Eldridge, November 18, 1874, at Denmark, 


Children, all born in Fryeburg. 

1. Calvin^ Harnden, born December i6, 1819; mar. 

ried, November 25, 1852, at Bridgton, Maine, 
Rosanna Dennett, born September 4, 1826. He 
died August 16, 1880, and she, September 20, 
1884; resided in Fryeburg ; a farmer. 

2. William^, born January 13, 1822; married, Novem- 

ber 9, 1849, 3.t Bridgton, Betsey Douglass, born 
December, 1827, at Denmark. He died Febru- 
ary 4, 1864, at Fryeburg. 

3. Rebekah N.^, born March 6, 1824; married, March, 

1842, at Bridgton, Jeduthan Trumbull, born 
April 3, 1817, at Denmark. She died October 16, 

4. Sarah^ born August 23, 1825 ; died March 28, 1832. 

5. Elbridge, Jr.^ born August 7, 1827 ; died March 29, 


6. Wyman', born July 18, 1830; died March 27, 1832. 

7. Elbridge'', born August 13, 1833; married, Decem- 

ber 2, 1855, at Fryeburg, Phebe Ann Smith, 
born in Bridgton, July 12, 1835. He died May 
29, 1878. 

8. Wyman^, born January 24, 1835; married, July 13, 

1856, at Denmark, Eliza Fuller Warren, born 
March 11,1834; resides at Fryeburg; a farmer, 

X. Hezekiah, Jr.*, born at Waterford, 1799; died there March 
29, 1816. 
XI. Thomas^ born July 12, 1802, at Waterford ; married, De. 

cember 2, 1830, Jane McWain of Putney, Vermont. 
XII. Catharine^ born April 7, 1807, at Waterford; married^ 
January 10, 1826, Silas Warren, born February 20, 1802^ 
at Denmark, where he resided. He died June 27, 1886, 
in West Bridgton. She died January 21, 1872, in 


1. Harriet, born February 18, 1827; married, Decem- 

ber 26, 1843, Asa O. Pike, born at Fryeburg^ 
November 25, 1822; died April 19, 1888. 

2. Jane^ born January 4, 1832; died March 4, 1857. 



Oliver^ {Ephraim^, Hezekiah^, Nathaniel, Shadrach^), born 
August 12, 1762; married, February 10, 1785, Lucy Tuttle, 
born June 9, 1762, at Littleton, Massachusetts; she died at 
Waterford, December 5, 18 19. Removed to Waterford, 
Maine, September 9, 1785, settled in the southerly part of 
that town, erected a carding mill, 18 10, A large real estate 
owner, and one of her most prominent and enterprising 
citizens. He died November 11, 1819. 


30 I. Ephraim'', born November 26, 1786; married, March 24, 

1816, Joanna Salmon. 
II. Lucy^ born March 18, 1788; married, April 17, 181 7, at 
Waterford, Isaac Towne of Bethel, a farmer. She 
died November 3, 1839. 

31 III. Artemas^ born June 14, 1789; married Mary Haskell. 

IV. Nathaniel Tuttle*, born March 20, 1791 ; died Novem- 
ber 6, 1820; unmarried. 

32 V. Oliver, J r.6, born December 30, 1794, at Otisfield, Maine; 

married, February 8, 1826, Abigail Welch of Ray- 
mond, Maine. 


Jonathan^ {Ephraim'^, Hezekiah^, Nathaniel"^, Shadrach}), 
born July 30, 1767, at Acton, Massachusetts. Had his uncle 
Jonathan for guardian, December 30, 1780; married Abigail 
Austin. Removed to Milton, Vermont, about 1788, and in the 
spring of 1798, apparently feeling that the romance of frontier 
life was losing its flavor in a place so densely populated, he 
concluded to make a prospecting tour further west, where he 
might establish a new home on the solemn border of a vast 
wilderness. His judgment was good as to farming land, and 


his taste dictated a settlement at Malone, Franklin County, 
Northern New York. He took up 300 acres of timber land, 
and through many hardships and privations, worked that 
summer and the next, making a clearing and building a log 
house for his family, which he brought the following year 
(1800) from Milton. The new soil of Malone yielded abun- 
dant crops that amply rewarded labor, and by skilful manipu- 
lation, coupled with great industry and economy, he pros- 
pered and became a wealthy farmer and prominent citizen. 

The original purchase of 300 acres was situated three miles 
due north from the present village of Malone, on the border 
line of Constable. He was the first settler in Malone, then 
"a howling wilderness" ; planted the first fruit orchard, and 
showed to the world what pluck, energy, intelligence and 
industry can produce and unfold. In 1820 he built a framed 
house on the opposite side of the road from the old log house, 
which he abandoned, and occupied the new structure up to 
the time of his death. He had two sons, Cornelius and 
Amos, born to him before he removed to his new home in 
the wilderness, and four daughters afterward. He died 
January i, 1843, and his widow died May 12 of the same 


33 I. Cornelius^ born October 13, 1789, at Milton, Vermont; 

married, March i, 1819, Betsey Hutchins. 

34 II. Amos^ born 1799, at Vergennes, Vermont; married, Feb- 

ruary 25, 1821, Harriet Holmes. 
III. Eliza^ born 1804, at Malone; married, 1824, Philamon 
Crandall of Moira, Franklin County, New York, born 
July 26, 1802, at Milton, Chittenden County, Vermont. 

1. Jonathan William' Crandall, born October 16, 


2. Cornelius^, born - 

3. Hezekiah^, born - 

4. Cordelia^ born — 

5. Buel M^ born — 

6. Amelia AJ, born 

7. Eda P.^ born 

8. John R.', born August 24, i{ 

9. Philancy E7, born . 

10. Sallied born . 

11. Samuel B.^ born . 

12. Alva B.7 born . 

IV. Sarah^ born, 1809; married at Malone, Warren Wentworth, 
born i8oi,in Vermont. He died October 10, 1870, and 
she, December 5, 1844; resided in Constable, New 
York; a farmer. 


1. Woodbury^ Wentworth, born ; died at 

Malone, 1895. 

2. Arabella^ born February 13, 1837, at Constable; 

married, September 19, 1861, George W. Child 
of Constable, born April 3, 1835; died March 
25, 1881 ; resided in Chicago, Illinois. 

3. Abbie, born ; married L. W. Conrad ; 

resides in Chicago. 

V. Abigail^ born 1812; died April 11, 1829. 
VI. Mary^ born about 1816; married Amos Bassett, at Malone ; 
died about 1868. 


1. Daughter'', born ; married ; died 

, leaving two children. 

2. Amos^ Bassett, Jr., born ; resides in Malone. 


Deacon John* {Shadrach^, Shadrach^, NathanieP, Shad- 
rack^), born June 20, 1771 ; was a true type of the south of 
England yeomen, that came to New England among the 


early settlers, tall, slim, wiry, muscular, capable of enduring 
great hardship. He was a worker in its broadest sense, 
never happier than with a bush scythe in hand, assaulting 
and destroying those prolific bushy intruders upon his soil ; 
tilling his grounds with the care and taste of the skilled hus- 
bandman. The massive stone walls still standing, so deftly 
laid, exhibit mechanical taste and ingenuity that attest to his 
skill and industry; and his fields, barren of these stone in- 
cumbrances, are worthy the gratitude of his successors. It 
was fortunate that so sturdy a race was thrown upon our 
rugged soil. A feebler race — in the midst of "a howling 
wilderness," beset by barbed arrows in the hands of a savage 
foe, and scarcely less savage beasts, awaiting an opportunity 
to prey upon his defenceless flocks or family of children — 
would have quailed at the onset and abandoned the enter- 
prise. But the stout hearts and stalwart frames of these 
hardy farmers, bravely assisted by those noble women, their 
wives and daughters, faced every foe and conquered every 
obstacle, leaving to their descendants a heritage of which 
they are justly proud. 

He married, December 6, 1797, Mary, daughter of James 
and Lydia Haskell, born in Harvard, November 25, 1776. 
He bought lands from and adjoining the old Hapgood home- 
stead, subsequently receiving additions therefrom, built there 
extensive buildings, like most of the race, and by great in- 
dustry and frugality, became a wealthy farmer. He was 
selectman, 1803-4, parish treasurer, 18 19, and for many years 
deacon in the Orthodox church of the strictest order. He 
died April 24, 1859, and his wife, March 4, 1866. 

I. John^ born October 6, 1798; died October 5, 1802. 


II. Mary'', born January 28, 1801 ; died September 26, 1803. 
III. George^ born August 15, 1804; died September 16, 1808. 
35 IV. John, Jr.6, born March 18, 1807; married Mary Ann Munroe. 

V. Andrew^ born March 27, 1809. He received an academic 
education, and at the age of eighteen, entered a dry- 
goods store in Boston, where he remained about three 
years. He then, in 1830, went into mercantile business 
in Greensboro, Vermont, prosecuting it with great 
energy. In the autumn of 1831, his knee became so 
afflicted as to require on the 12th of April, 1832, am- 
putation of his leg, but the disease had extended 
through his system so that he died, unmarried, Septem- 
ber 28, 1832, at his father's house in Harvard. A gen- 
ial, brilliant, intelligent young man of great promise, 
cut down in his 24th year. 
VI. Mary^ born May 5, 1813; taught school for several years; 
married, March 24, 1835, ^^ Harvard, Peter Dudley 
Conant, born at Boxboro, Massachusetts, April 11, 
1803; Mary being the only daughter, it was a great 
trial for them to part with her, and as there was plenty 
of land to cultivate and a small village of buildings, 
the young couple were induced to remain with her 
parents. The deacon was a strict temperance man, 
and his son-in-law was like unto himself. They were 
also in unison in matters of faith, and the union proved 
a happy one. He died of consumption, March 20, 1862. 
His widow still survives him. They had one daughter, 
an only child, Mary Louisa Conant, born May 23, 1836; 
married, December 20, i860, Albert Atherton, son of 
David and Susan (Randall) Pollard, born at Harvard, 
December 6, 1831. He, too, settled on the old home- 
stead founded by her grandfather. Deacon John Hap- 
good, and her mother is enjoying her riper years amid 
the blessings of a comfortable home from which she 
has never been separated, and is surrounded by her 
grandchildren, who are ever ready to contribute to her 


Jabez^ (S/iadrac/i*, Shadrach^, NatkanieP, ShadracJi^), 
born September 30, 1781 ; settled in the northern part of 


Harvard, and, like most of the other descendants of Shad- 
rach*, was an industrious, frugal, and wealthy farmer ; married, 
July 26, 1805, Susannah, daughter of James and Lydia 
Haskell of Oak Hill, Harvard, sister to his brother John's 
wife, both most excellent women and housewives, born July 
26, 1781 ; died February 19, 185 1. He died August 12, i860. 


I. Susan^ born October 20, 1806; married, April 9, 1829, 
Josiah Hartwell, born in Shirley, January 23, 1799; 
died September 19, 1851, in Groton. She died March 
18, 1881, at Harvard, of typhoid pneumonia. 


1. George' Hartwell, born November 24, 1830, at Har- 

vard ; married, September 13, 1856, in Boston, 
Margaret Anna Stokell, born November 4, 1831, 
at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, where she 
died February 21, 1897. He was a man of 
energy, fond of horses, as was his father before 
him; in various kinds of mercantile business, 
with fluctuating fortune, and at the time of his 
death, March 26, 1885, was a member of the 
firm of D. C. Hall & Co., New York; s. p. 

2. Sarah', born November 20, 1834; married, Febru- 

ary 12, 1857, in Boston, William Henry Getchell, 
born March 10, 1829, at Hallowell, Maine; 
removed to Peoria, Illinois ; returned to Bos- 
ton and became a distinguished photographer. 
Resides in Dorchester. 


1. Frederick* Getchell, born January 19, 1858, 
in Boston. 

3. Ellen Cleora', born December 15, 1848, at Harvard; 

she was adopted, 1876, by Amasa Davis and 
Hannah^ (Hapgood) Gamage of Boston, taking 
her adopted father's name. Six years after his 
decease, in 1881, she returned to her old home 
in Harvard, which was unfortunately destroyed 


by fire, May lo, 1892 ; a more modern structure 
was erected on the old site, near the common, 
the following summer, where she now resides, 
a cheerful, genial soul, much respected and 
beloved ; unmarried. 

36 II. Henry^ born January 2, 1808; married. May 8, 1839, Ann 

Matilda Estabrook. 

III. George^ born December 12, 1809; married, November 12, 

1843, at Hartford, Connecticut, Cleora Morgan, born 
October 19, 1810, at Northfield, and died in Leominster, 
Massachusetts, May 13, 1850; no children. George 
was a good scholar and one of the most intelligent 
and energetic young men in " Old Mill " district. 
He worked on the home farm till he was of age, then 
went to Leominster and found employment in a comb 
factory, that industry being somewhat extensive in that 
and the adjoining town of Lancaster, at that time. 
Fashions changed, the business languished, and to-day 
many of the factories are in ruins. He was a hard- 
working, economical man, saved his earnings and 
invested his money with prudence and good judgment, 
and at the end of twenty-one years, i860, returned to 
the farm with a handsome fortune. He assisted his 
aged father on the farm, and at his death became the 
proprietor. His wife having died in 1850, his two 
maiden sisters, Lizzie and Lydia, both very capable, 
united their interests with his, and the trio together 
carried on the farm in a neat, profitable, and husband- 
like manner. He was a brave, uncomplaining man, and 
died suddenly of Bright's disease and ossification of 
the valves of the heart, November 21, 1878. 

IV. Elizabeth^ born November 15, 181 1 ; had a good common- 

school education ; resided the greater part of her life 
with her parents on the farm in " Old Mill"; was an 
excellent housewife, neat, industrious, economical and 
painstaking; inherited from her father a vein of humor, 
and, with him, very constant at church on Sundays, 
Bynature, reserved, unostentatious and modest, caring 
little for the giddy whirl of society, but attending 
faithfully to every duty of domestic life, and never 
happier than when setting her house in order. She 
was strictly a domestic woman, making home cheerful 

(Scoriic 1bapt^oo^. 


and others happy. When George assumed the respon- 
sibility of running the large farm, no one ever had 
better helpmates than he, or more united and pros- 
perous. By the marriage of Lydia, 1877, to Mr. Hart- 
well, the charmed circle was broken, and by the death 
of George, in 1878, destroyed. In 1879 she removed 
to Shirley and was again united with Lydia, whose 
husband died the previous year, leaving his widow in 
possession of his estate. They remained here for two 
years, then returned to Harvard and occupied the 
Holman house, near the common. April 10, 1883, 
Lydia was married to Luke Whitney of Bare Hill, 
West Harvard, for second husband. He died July 11, 
1884, and she returned to abide with her sister till 
separated by the hand of death. In 1891 they pur- 
chased a lot and erected the beautiful and commodious 
house on the Littleton road, occupied by them to the 
time of Elizabeth's death, by pneumonia, January 2, 
Nancy^ born July 26, 1814; married, April 17, 1838, at 
Harvard, Phineas Holden, son of Ellis and Miriam 
(Holden) Harlow, born December 14, 1814, in Old 
Mill district. Harvard, and educated in the public 
school. He bought the Robbins' farm at the northerly 
end of Pin Hill, settled down with his most excellent 
and frugal wife, where they spent the remainder of 
their days; prospered, and reared a large family of 
honored and respected children, none in town more 
sensibly indulged or kindly treated. The mother died 
January 25, 1883, and the father followed August 23, 


1. Ann Eliza' Harlow, born March 23, 1839; resides 

atAyer; unmarried. 

2. Charles Ellis' (Corporal), born at Harvard, Mas- 

sachusetts, November 6, 1840, where he 
received his early education. For several years 
he remained on the farm with his parents, 
then went to Boston and was employed in a 
provision store a few years. August 25, 1862, 
he enlisted as private for nine months in the 
Eleventh Massachusetts battery. Captain Ed- 
ward J. Jones, and reported at Camp Meigs, 


Readville, which place they left in October for 
a camp of instruction at Washington. In 
November the company, being equipped as a 
six-gun battery, crossed the Potomac at Chain 
Bridge, into Virginia, occupying a position on 
Hall's Hill. As no enemy appeared they were 
ordered to Centreville, where the winter was 
spent doing guard duty, attached to Twenty- 
second army corps. About the 20th of May 
reported at Washington, turned over the 
guns to the arsenal, and returned to Boston, 
where, a few days later, they were mustered out 
of service, having nowhere met the enemy in the 

In December, 1863, he re-enlisted in same 
battery, under same commander, as corporal, 
for three years, finding about fifty of the old 
boys with him, who were mustered in, January 
2, 1864. On February 5, they proceeded to 
Washington and were attached to Ninth army 
corps, under Burnside, at Camp Barry, District 
of Columbia. Here he was taken down with fever, 
dysentery, and pneumonia, and died March 2, 
1864. The remains were forwarded to his native 
town for interment. 

Edward Omar^, born December 25, 1842; married, 
February 15, 1872, at Gloucester, Massachusetts, 
Mary Lowe Poole, born April 13, 1837; resides 
at Ayer, Massachusetts; a provision dealer. 

Clara Miriam^ born January 31, 1845; married, at 
Harvard, November 3, 1880, Eugene Manley 
Niles, born September 7, 1847, at North Jay, 
Maine; resides at North Cambridge, Massa- 

Susan Matilda', born April 23, 1847; died Decem- 
ber 27, 1871, at Harvard; unmarried. 

Adaline Sawyer', born July 21, 1849; resides at 
Ayer; unmarried. 

George Hapgood', born December 10, 1851 ; mar- 
ried, June 14, 1879, at Jay Bridge, Maine, Ada 
Frances Ludden, born November 11, 1852, at 
Livermore, Maine ; resides at Somerville, Mas- 
sachusetts ; he is a salesman in Boston ; s. p. 


8. John Bowker, born June 28, 1854; married, Febru- 

ary 8, 1893, at Harvard, Carrie Etta Cobleigh, 
born in Boxboro, April 10, 1866; settled on the 
homestead of his father; a quiet, industrious 
and prosperous farmer, a good citizen, and from 
year to year making improvements on his farm. 

9. Mary Wetherbee, born December 23, 1857; died 

April 27, 1865. 

VI. Lydia Haskell*, born July 14, 1819; a bright, cheerful, ami- 
able girl, never leaving home for any great length of 
time till her marriage, November 27, 1877, to Jeremiah 
Chaplin Hartwell, brother to her sister Susan's hus- 
band, born August 31, 1807, in Shirley, where he died 
suddenly of heart failure in a field near his house, 
October 14, 1878. In 1879 her sister came to live 
with her till 1881, when they removed to Harvard Cen- 
tre. She married second, April 10, 1883, Luke Whit- 
ney of Bare Hill, West Harvard, an honorable, upright, 
well-to-do farmer. On the second day of July, 1884, he 
climbed an old cherry tree, quite near the house, for 
some cherries, and in his eagerness for the fruit, ven- 
tured too far out on a limb, which broke and precip- 
itated him to the ground, causing a compound fracture 
of the spine. Death did not immediately ensue, but 
sensation was, below the upper break, suspended, 
while the brain remained normal to the time of death, 
July II, 1884. This calamity caused her sister 
Elizabeth to open her arms and welcome her back to 
her home. They remained in the Holman house till 
1891, when, having ample means, they bought a house 
lot on the Littleton road, near the common, and built 
the pretty house occupied by them to the time of the 
death of her sister, January 2, 1897. She still resides 
there; no children. 

VIL Lucy*, born June 6, 1823; resided with her parents, and 
died unmarried, September 27, 1859. 


Joel* {Shadmck\ Shadrach^, NathatiieP, Shadrach^) was 
born in Harvard, March 26, 1788, and educated in the Old 


Mill school. He bought, of his father, for ^620, a part of the 
old homestead farm and dwelling, founded by his grand- 
father Shadrach^ about 1727, and settled there ; deed signed 
by Shadrach and Elizabeth, April 12, 1809, recorded May 
29, 1809. [Worcester Register of Deeds, Book 175, Page 

The house was one of the first of large frame houses 
built in what was then Stow, but became Harvard on the 
incorporation of that town in 1732, and was located about 
one and one-fourth miles north of the first meeting-house, 
on what was known as "Stow Leg." The building was of 
the Colonial style, two stories in front and running down 
back to one story, with long kitchen, large chimney, fire- 
place, oven and ash pit ; it also served as dining, sitting and 
reception room on ordinary occasions. It had a portico 
in front with large hall opening into spacious rooms on either 
side. It was glazed with lozenge-shaped glass, set in lead, a 
portion of which remained down to the early part of the 
present century, as we well remember ; the other part was 
presumably stripped of its lead and bestowed to the cause 
of liberty, in the shape of bullets. Here the large families 
of the two Shadrachs, Joel and Jonathan, were reared, and 
educated in the little Old Mill district red-brick school- 
house, a mile away, while the meeting-house and the middle 
of the town were a mile and a quarter in the opposite 
direction. Previous to his marriage, in 181 2, Joel built the 
annex, or house, at the west end of the original mansion, con- 
nected with and opening into it, so that he could at all times 
pass in and out, as his duty in caring for the comfort of his 
parents might require, by day or night. He bought the 
"Deacon Stone" farm, off the main road, about midway 


between his own farm and the middle of the town, and car- 
ried it on for many years, but finally disposed of it. He 
also owned other outlands, and was a prosperous and wealthy 

His son Jonathan succeeded to the occupancy of the origi- 
nal house, carrying on the farm for half its products, during 
the natural life of his father and stepmother. She outlived 
him, and his son Charles assumed the conditions of the 

Joel married first, November 12, 18 12, Sally^ Fairbank, 
born September 23, 1792, died January 19, 1820, daughter of 
Jonathan^ Fairbank (born September 4, 1758, died September 
8, 1840), by his wife, Hannah Hale of Stow, born April 2J, 
1763, died September 19, 1849, and granddaughter of Cap- 
tain Joseph'^ (born November 4, 1722 ; married October 4, 
1749; died May 28, 1802), by his wife, Abigail Tarbell of 
Groton, born June 6, 1721 ; married October 4, 1749; died 
April 12, 1798, and great granddaughter of Deacon Joseph^ 
born, 1693, died December 6, 1772; married, April 21, 1718, 
Mary Brown, who died November 14, 1791, and great great 
granddaughter of Captain Jabez' (born in Lancaster 8:11: 
1670, died March 2, 1758), and his wife, Mary Wilder, born 
in 1675, died February 21, 171 8, and great great great grand- 
daughter of Jonas'- Fairbank, one of the original proprietors 
of Lancaster, who married, May 28, 1658, Lydia, daughter of 
John Prescott, who came from Sowerby, England, born in 
Watertown, Massachusetts, August 15, 1641. Jonas, with 
his son Joshua, was slain by the Indians at the burning of 
Lancaster, February 10, 1676. Jonas moved from Dedham 
to Lancaster in 1657, was the son of Jonathan and Grace 
(Lee) Fairebanke, who came from Yorkshire to Boston, 


1633, and Dedham, 1636, bringing Jonas in infancy. He 
was a man of consideration and moral worth and allied in 
England to men of standing. He was, without doubt, the 
common ancestor of all New England families who spell 
their names Fairbank or Fairbanks. Joel Hapgood married 
second, January 30, 1822, Charlotte, daughter of Jason and 
Silence Mead, born December 22, 1791. 

He was the youngest of the four robust sons of Shadrach*, 
all frugal, industrious and prosperous farmers. They all had 
peculiar and similar traits, and yet each had considerable 
individuahty. Their lands were cultivated and kept exceed- 
ingly neat and in good taste, fenced mostly with massive 
stone walls, ever in good repair, crops gathered promptly, 
and a village of buildings, nicely painted, seemed to be their 
delight. Order was the rule of the household and farm. 
Everything must be in place, and there must be a place for 
everything. They were all fairly good mechanics, but none 
great scholars, nor have any of the four, except in a single 
instance, a great grandchild living bearing the Hapgood 
name. It is painful to see so many of these old American 
families becoming extinct. He was favored by fortune in 
the choice of his second wife. She was an intelligent, agree- 
able woman, with a vein of humor in her composition, and 
could neatly parry the ready wit of a rival. Having no 
children of her own, she readily adopted and devoted herself 
to the three children by the first wife, none of which ever 
regarded her as any other than their own dear mother. We 
copy from the CHnton Courant of December 31, 1881, the 

following notice : 


The quiet little town of Harvard was very pleasantly agitated on 
Thursday, the 22d inst., in a 'reception ' given by Mrs. Charlotte Hap- 

Cbarlottc (/llbcaJM IF^apciooc*. 


good, at her residence, from 12 M. to 3 P. M., in commemoration of her 
ninetieth birthday. The weather was quite unpropitious, but about 
ninety of her neighbors and friends assembled to pay their respects to 
the dear memories of the past and the bright hopes for the future. Few 
people of her age are in a better state of preservation. Her step is not 
as elastic as it was forty years ago, but she moves about with great 
facility, and can walk her mile with as much ease as some younger per- 
sons ; nor is her sight or hearing very much impaired. She has always 
enjoyed good health, and we attribute this very largely to her cheerful 
disposition. It was her loveliness and magnetism of character that drew 
together so many loving hearts upon the present occasion. This vener- 
able lady still retains her interest in the church, in public affairs, and 
even reads the newspapers with as much zest as ever ; and although she 
is not able to minister to the sick and needy as generously as in earlier 
days, she sympathizes fully with those who are sick or in trouble. 

The 30th of January, 1822, was a fortunate day for the late Joel Hap- 
good, when Charlotte Mead consented to become his companion for life, 
and a mother to his three small children. We have known her intimately 
from infancy, have shared her kindness, partaken of her generous hos- 
pitality, and may say, without any attempt at flattery, that no family ever 
had a more conscientious, self-sacrificing, devoted mother than did this 
one; in fact, we have never seen her in anger; we have often seen her 
rise in her lofty, womanly dignity, in scorn above some uncivil remark, 
some discourteous treatment, but we have never witnessed that unrea- 
soning ebulition, that sort of volcanic explosion that sometimes emanates 
from certain quarters. She was more likely to parry such assaults by 
some humorous or witty retort, in such gentle, smiling manner as to 
place the offender hors de combat and compel his respect. Another 
peculiarity of this woman's life was that she always had plenty to do. 
What a blessing ! She never ate the bread of idleness, nor did Satan 
find in her nimble fingers any mischievous desires to appropriate. And 
now I say to the young reader, her example is before you. Do you 
covet longevity? Be cheerful, be industrious, be self-sacrificing, and 
your days will be many and full of honor. h. 

He died September 28, 1855, and his widow, July 17, 1884. 

CHILDREN, all by first marriage. 
37 I. Jonathan Fairbanks, born January 15, 1814; married first, 

Susan Wetherbee. 
II. Hannah^ born May 14, 181 5; married first, April 14, 1836, 
Hiram, son of Thomas and Polly (Whitney) Houghton, 
born in Harvard, April 16, 1814. At the time of his 
marriage, he purchased a farm about three-quarters of 
a mile southeast of the middle of the town of Harvard, 
adjoining that of his father on the opposite side of 
the road, and resided there about four years. He 
was the only child of his parents, whose advancing 
years and declining health rendered it proper and 
fitting that he should dispose of his farm and return 


to the old homestead, in charge of the farm and his 
venerable parents. He died January 2, 1853 ; had one 
child, born April 26, 1837; died at birth. She married 
second, March 4, 1856, Amasa Davis Gamage of Boston, 
a brother of Julia Adelaide Gamage, the wife of her 
brother, Warren Hapgood, born January 19, 1815. 

Left an orphan at the age of eight years, he was 
placed on a farm at Westminster, Massachusetts, 
where he remained six years, and then returned to his 
native city. After a period spent at Mr. Thayer's 
celebrated Chauncey Hall School, he entered a whole- 
sale dry-goods store in Central street, where he 
remained several years ; later on, he was employed by 
Ladd & Hall, who were doing an extensive Nova 
Scotia trade. For many years cashier and confidential 
clerk with that firm in Chatham street, and on the 
death of Mr. Ladd, the senior member, became a 
partner, under firm name of John G. Hall & Co., which 
continued up to the time of his death. He resided 
with his widowed mother till her death, 1867, and 
then removed to Charlestown where he died, March 
12, 1881. 

He became an active member of Tiger Engine 
Company No. 7, 1835; member of Boston Light 
Infantry, 1838; Attentive Fire Society, 1867, and was a 
member of the Boston Veteran Firemen's Association. 
He was constant in business, a firm friend, of strict 
integrity, and upright and honorable in all his dealings. 
His widow resides at Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, 
and well sustains her character as an industrious, 
prudent, economical housewife, rather retiring from 
society, except to a few familiar friends. 
38 ' III. Warren^ born October 14, 1816; married, January 14, 
1852, Julia Adelaide Gamage. 


Daniel'^ {Daniel'^, DanieP, Nathajiiet^, Shadrach^), born 
March 9, 1796 ; married at Stow, May 16, 1831, Rebecca W. 
(Brooks) Davis of Templeton, Massachusetts. She died May 

Ibannab (Ibaptioo?) ©amagc. 


Jonathan** Fairbank was born in Harvard, 1758, settled 
on the homestead of his father, Joseph ; married Hannah 
Hale of Stow. 


1. Artemas^, born November 3, 1787; married, January 25, 

1816, Rachel Houghton; settled with his father on the 
homestead in East Bare Hill, Harvard, where he died 
July 22, 1874. 

2. Jonathan^ born December 29, 1788; was twice married; 

lived with his parents during the brief period of his 
first marriage, but after the second (1821), he bought 
the Gates farm, adjoining, and built the mansion 
house, where he spent the remainder of his days. 
The following obituary appeared in the Clinton 
Courant, October 22, 1881, 

Died, on the 3d inst., after a brief illness of three days, at the advanced age 
of ninety-two years, Deacon Jonathan Fairbank. 

In this death the town has sustained the loss of one of its oldest and most 
esteemed citizens. He was born in the old Fairbank mansion, in the south 
part of Harvard, called "Bare Hill," December 29, 1788, and descended from 
Jonathan and Grace (Lee) Fairbank, who came to this country from York- 
shire, England, about 1636, and who are presumed to be the common ancestors 
of all of that name in this country. Here he was raised to habits of industry 
and economy, receiving a good common-school education, where he was 
regarded an excellent scholar. 

Quite early in life he manifested superior mechanical and artistic skill and 
taste, and many traces of his originality may still be seen in the houses of his 
kindred, in designs for furniture ornamentation, both in carving and painting, 
and in fancy and ornamental inscriptions of various kinds. His minority was, 
however, spent with his parents on the farm, but on arriving at his majority, 
he at once commenced mechanical business, first as a carpenter, and later, 
cabinet maker. It must be borne in mind that at that early period there were 
no ready-made furniture stores as at present, and to furnish a house orders 
must be given to a " cabinet maker "for the furniture, who was as well a 
lumber dealer, in the absence of lumber yards, which greet our eyes in almost 
every large town to-day. Nor was it possible to buy a set of tools such as are 
in the hands of the merest tyro of to-day ; and our young aspirant had to 
make his own simple set of tools. His success was the more remarkable 
since he never served an apprenticeship to any trade, but took it up by mere 
force of will and natural ingenuity ; and many a bridal outfit was the result of 
the taste, skill, and handiwork of young Fairbank, as may be seen to-day in 
some of the old houses in his native town, 

February 25, 1817, he married Hannah Howard of Bolton, still making a 
pleasant home under the paternal roof, working most of the time in his little 


shop where he had been so successful, but occasionally assisting his father, 
during hurried seasons, in farming. His wife died in 1819, aged twenty-four 
years. September 19, 1820, he married Sally Hartwell of Littleton. 

In the spring of 1821 he purchased the large and well-known "Gates farm," 
adjoining his father's, which he then occupied. The old Gates house was 
not, however, to his taste, and during the following summer he built the 
large mansion house on the main road. This was his happy home for nearly 
sixty years, and here the last rites of sepulture were performed. 

By the second marriage were bom two sons — Jonathan Howard, in 1825, 
and Daniel Hartwell, in 1830. J. Howard deceased in 1840, D. Hartwell 
alone surviving both parents. Howard, as he was familiarly called, was a 
bright, intelligent, promising boy, and his early death cast a deep gloom over 
his parents for years, and even down to the very end of his life the deacon 
could not speak of his darling boy without a pang. 

In his business of farming he was admirably sustained in all his movements 
by a most estimable wife, whose energy and good judgment were ever equal 
to any emergency. The milk of twenty cows was to be converted into butter 
and cheese ; wool must be carded, spun, and woven into cloth for family use 
— nay, more, must be cut and made into garments; company must be enter- 
tained, and no woman in Harvard could do it with more royal grace, nor were 
many houses better furnished or more homelike. 

He was educated under the most rigid form of the Orthodox faith, his 
parents remaining in that fold to the end of their honorable lives. It was 
prior to the pastorate of the Rev. Mr. Blanchard that an unhappy schism 
separated the first church, the Orthodox or Puritanic branch seceding and 
building a new house of worship, while the Unitarian or Monotheistic branch 
remained in the old church. The subject of these remarks remained with the 
latter. He was tendered the best pew in the house, was elected deacon, 
which office he held for fifty-eight years, and was a most constant worshipper 
as long as he could hear. He was of even temper and at peace with all men. 
No one ever spoke ill of him, or had occasion to. Not a teetotaler, but 
strictly a temperate man during the whole of his long life, and this, together 
with his cheerful disposition and regular habits, as well as constant industry, 
working down to within three or four days of his final departure, may account 
for his great length of days. But he has gone "where the just made perfect" 
go, and left the record of a noble life and character to others. H. 

"Deacon Fairbank was a captain of militia during 1812-14, He was 
chosen deacon of the first church (Unitarian) of Harvard in 1823, holding 
that office for fifty-eight years. He was the fifth and last of five deacons 
Fairbank, in unbroken succession in Harvard's first church from its 
foundation in 1733, a period of nearly 150 years." 

3. Sally^ born September 23, 1792; married, November 12, 
1812, Joel Hapgood, and died January 19, 1820, leaving 
three children : Jonathan, Hannah, and Warren. 

The record of Deacon Fairbank was accidentally omitted, and is here in- 
serted with his portrait. 


II, 1835, and he married second, March 20, 1836, Clarissa 
Dearth, born October i, 181 1, at Stewartstown, New Hamp- 
shire; she died August 20, 1886, at Ashburnham, Massa- 
chusetts; resided in Templeton, where he died, 1874, a 
prominent and prosperous farmer. 


I. Daniel^ born May 13, 1832, at Templeton (by first wife), 
the only great grandson and heir by the name of 
Hapgood, from Deacon Daniel, the inheritor of the 
homestead of Shadrach the' first; died February 4, 
1861, at Townsend ; unmarried. 
II. John Dearth^ born July 12, 1837 (by second wife); died 
September 9, 1866, at Townsend ; unmarried. 

III. Euthera^ born October 28, 1838; died October 23, 1861. 

IV. Jerusha^ born July 25, 1840; died January 21, 1864, at 

V. Mary Esther^ born October 8, 1841 ; married, June 18, 
1859, David William Day, born March 30, 1837, at 
South Orange, Massachusetts ; resides at Leominster, 


1. Frank E.' Day, born May 16, i860, at Leominster. 

2. A son^, born May 14, 1862, at Clinton, Massa- 


3. Minnie B.', born December 13, 1864, at Leomin- 

ster; married, August 5,1887, Charles Marsh 
of Swanzey, New Hampshire. 

4. Julia A.^ born January 16, 1866, at Ashburnham; 

married, October 30, 1890, at Leominster, Orion 
Burgess of Ayer, Massachusetts. 

5. William Fisher^ born January 14, 1868, at Leom- 

inster; married, March 21, 1893, Gertrude Fife 
of Pembroke, New Hampshire. 

6. Walter Edward^ born September 5, 1870, at 

Leominster; married, March 22, 1893, Minnie 
E. Marsh of Swanzey. 

7. Hannah Colton', born January 22, 1873, at Fitch- 

burg; married, July 4, 1894, at Leominster, 
Fred O. Bishop of Swanzey. 


8. Mabel Kendall^ born February 19, 1875, at Fitch- 

burg ; married at Leominster, August 7,1893, 
Fred Foster of England. 

9. Arthur John', born September 27, 1878, at Leom- 


10. Blanch Elizabeth', born December i, 1880. 

11. Charles', born September 20^ 1882. 

12. Warren Hollis', born January 12, 1886. 



Captain James^ {Abraham', EpJiraim^, Hesekiah^, Nathan- 
iel"^, ShadracJi}), born July 14, 1796; married, September i, 
18 19, at Lexington, Massachusetts, Mary Creasy, daughter 
of Samuel and Abigail (Warren) Estabrook, born April 6, 
1802, at Brookline, Massachusetts, a direct descendant of 
Reverend Joseph Estabrook of Concord, one of the first 
settlers and minister there, for nearly fifty years. She was a 
woman of rare ability and a real helpmeet in the rearing of 
their numerous family. 

After his father's death he removed from West Acton to 
East Acton, on the "Great Road" from Boston to Keene, 
New Hampshire, then the great thoroughfare of travel 
through Acton. 

He filled various offices of trust in his native town, was 
commissioned, in 1827, Captain of Militia company, Third 
regiment. First brigade. Third division of Infantry, and was 
for many years identified with the history of the town. 
Besides carrying on his large farm, he was usually engaged 
in other business enterprises. He invested in real estate in 
the city of Lowell, when that place was becoming a 


manufacturing centre, and after his time for active business 
had passed, he moved there to spend his dechning years, two 
of his children having settled there before him. He left a 
visible monument to his memory in the rows of beautiful 
elms he planted, bordering the road through his farm in East 
Acton. His estimable wife died at Lowell, July 21, 1871, 
and he, November 5, 1872. Both are interred in Lowell 

I. Abram^, born June 8, 1820; married, July 26, 1846, at 
Lowell, Roxana, daughter of Samuel and Sarah Wilson, 
born 1825, at New Boston, New Hampshire. He died 
at New Orleans, April 21, 1867; a merchant. 

I. Henrietta^ born 1847; died 1864, at New Orleans, 
n. Sarah Wilson^, born 1848; died at Lowell, 1852. 
in. George Woodman^ born 1850; killed at Boston 

by railroad accident, 1880. 
IV. Fred Eugene^ born July 29, 1854; went to sea and 

not since heard from. 
V. Wilson^, born 1858, at Mount Sterling, Illinois; 
died there February, 1859. 

II. Mary Elizabeth'', born January 14, 1822; married, June 6, 
1849, ^t Nashua, New Hampshire, Elbridge, son of 
John and Sallie (Jones) Robbins, born in Acton, March 
23, 1811 ; a large farmer and dealer in live-stock; died 
October 19, 1890. His widow still survives him. 


1. Chauncy Bowman^ Robbins, born April 15, 1850; 

succeeded to his father's large farm and busi- 
ness in Acton; unmarried. 

2. Howard Jackson^, born March 14, 1852; married, 

September 27, 1883, at Independence, Kansas, 
Urena, daughter of Doctor J. D. Hollis of Knox- 
ville, Iowa. 

3. Sarah Frances^ born August 30, 1854; married, 

July 21, 1879, at Acton, Silas Taylor, son of John 


and Martha (Taylor) Fletcher, born February 
i8, 1854; resides in Maiden, Massachusetts; a 
merchant in Boston. 

4. Charles Joseph^ born February 23, 1856 ; married, 

September 21, 1892, at Acton, Blanche Mady 
Bassett, born May 29, 1871 ; resides in Shelton, 
Nebraska, dealer in live-stock and grain. 

5. Webster Gushing^, born January 28, i860; mar- 

ried. May 25, 1885, Amelia Harriet Nichols, 
born September 20, 1865, at Danbury, Connecti- 
cut; resides in Acton, a live-stock dealer. 

6. George Harvey ^ born October 29, 1862; resides 

in Acton; a druggist, unmarried. 

39 III. William Estabrook Stearns'', born November 19, 1823; 
married, February 17, 1847, Maria Haven of Lowell. 
IV. Frances Emily^, born October 2, 1825; married first, at 
Nashua, New Hampshire, May, 1850, Wesley Hind- 
man; died in Massachusetts, 1865, and she married 
second, at Galveston, Texas, July 17, 1871, Abram 
Hoxie of Easton, New York; resides in Galveston; a 
civil engineer. No children. 
V. Julia Ann', born September 8, 1827; married, November 
25, 1852, at Acton, Ira Franklin Lawry, born at Vinal 
Haven, Maine; resides in Taunton, Massachusetts; 

1. Charles Allison* Lawry, born January i, 1855, ^t 
Newburyport, Massachusetts; married, Novem- 
ber 18, 1878, Mary Louise ; resides in 

Taunton ; a book-keeper. 

VI. Charlotte Maria'', born August 21,1829; married, January 
17) ^8ss, at Boston, Lewis Lawry of Vinal Haven; 
resides in Taunton ; a manufacturer. 

1. Lillian Gertrude* Lawry, born November 30, 1868, 
at Newburyport ; unmarried. 

VII. Annette', born August 8, 1831; resides in Taunton; 
VIII. Sarah Robbins', born May 6, 1834; married, June 25, 1867, 
at Galveston, Texas, Henry Jackson Beebe, born 


Louisville, Kentucky, about 1834, reared in New 
Orleans, where he became a wholesale merchant; 
removed to Galveston in 1873, and died there April 25, 


1. Inez Florence^ Beebe, born September 30, 1868, at 

New Orleans ; resides in Galveston ; a teacher. 

2. DeeS born January 8, 1870, at New Orleans; 

resides in Galveston; an artist. 

3. Pantine^ born October 21, 1873, at Galveston ; died 

July 4, 1890. 

IX. James'', born May 29, 1836; died May i, 1851, at Acton. 
X. Ellen Augusta', born June 20, 1838; married, November 
13, 1866, at Galveston, James Taylor Huffmaster, 
born at Newport, Kentucky; resides in Galveston; 
bank accountant. 


1. Helen« Huffmaster, born March 6, 1868. 

2. Blanche^ born July 9, 1874. 

3. Beatrice^ born September 19, 1875. 

4. EdnaS born November 20, 1877. 

5. Hu Taylor^, born February 3, 1880. 

XI. John Estabrook', born October 19, 1840 ; married, August 
20, 1874, at Alleghany City, Pennsylvania, Elizabeth 
Lowey Payne, born September 3, 1857, at Coal Valley, 
Pennsylvania, daughter of James Payne, Jr. ; resides 
in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; machinist. 

I. Lowey Payne^ born March 21, 1876, at Pittsburgh, 
where he resides ; a doctor. 
II. James Estabrook^ born January 22, 1885. 

III. Frances Sarah^ born October 14, 1894. > -p^j^s. 

IV. Chauncy Lewis^ born October 14, 1894. > 

XII. Abbie Victoria^ born January 20, 1843; married, Decem- 
ber 20, 1866, at Lowell, Hiram Edwin Wheeler, born 
in Concord, Massachusetts ; resided at Lowell ; a 
merchant; died November 2, 1875, and she married 
second, April 14, 1894, at Lowell, James Menzies of 
Montrose, Scotland; resides in City of Mexico; mana- 
ger of Mexican Telephone Company. 


1. Ethel Gertrude^ Wheeler, born July 13, 1868, at 
Lowell; married, October 9, 1895, Frank Page 
Cheney of that place. 


Ephraim^ {Ephrainr', Ephraini'^, Hezekiah^, Nathaniel'^, 
Shadrach^), born June 9, 1782; married, May 23, 1805, to 
Hannah Ball of Bolton ; resided in Acton, a farmer and 
cooper, on the farm now occupied by his son Andrew. He 
died February 3, 1849. 

L Harriet', born February 23, 1806, at Acton ; married, Octo- 
ber 7, 1830, Joseph Bartlett Barry, born at Rocking- 
ham, Vermont, September 2, 1806; died January 7, 
1861, at Ovid, New York. His widow died at same 
place, September 8, 1884. 


1. Calista Ann^ Barry, born July 10, 1832, at Shirley, 

Massachusetts; married, August 29, 1849, Rev- 
erend Bowles Colgate Townsend, at Ovid, Seneca 
County, New York. 

2. James^ born November 12, 1833, at Lowell; 

married, February 10, 1858, at Elmira, Chemung 
County, New York, Mary Elizabeth Sly. 

3. Joseph Bartlett^ Jr., born September 2, 1835, at 

Ovid; married, Septem.ber 2, 1857, at Terre 
Haute, Vigo County, Indiana, Mattie Keyes, a 
graduate from Elmira College, New York, 1861. 
He was graduated from Madison Theological 
Seminary, 1867, ordained a Baptist minister, and 
died May 30, 1889. 

4. Hannah HapgoodS born October 11, 1837, at 

Ovid ; married, September 7, 1864, Edwin Clark 
Parker of Ovid. 

II. Hannah^ born July 5, 1807; married, May 12, 1829, 
George Baldwin of Concord. She married second, 


Nathan Raymond of Boxboro', born 1787. She died 
November 23, 1855. 


1. Harriet^ Raymond, born March, 1836; died 1873, 

or 1874. 

2. Ephraim Hapgood^, born March, 1838; married 

Eunice Blanchard; resides in Somerville ; a 
milk dealer. 

3. Marcus Morton^ born February i, 1841 ; married 

and resides in Somerville ; a milk dealer. 
III. Maria^ born May 14, 1809; married, January i, 1829, Ira 
Stockwell of Chesterfield, New Hampshire, born 1805. 


1. George Baldwin^ Stockwell, born July 21, 1830; 

died December 3, 1886. 

2. Cyrus Hapgood^ born July 16, 1832 ; resided in 

Peoria, Illinois; enlisted in Company G, Sev- 
enty-seventh regiment, Illinois Volunteers, made 
sergeant; died May 13, 1864, at New Orleans, 
of wounds received in battle. 

3. Eben Smithy born April 17, 1838; resided at 

Healdsburg, California, where he died March 
28, 1867. 

4. Ann Maria^ born March 28, 1840; married, Octo- 

ber II, 1861, David Woods. He died, and she 
married, second, George W. Greene. 

40 IV. Ephraim^ born September 16, 1812; married, February 

19, 1837, Harriet Amanda Whitten of Cavendish, Ver- 
V. Ann', born February 25, 1817 ; drowned in a small brook, 

quite near the house, September 10, 1819. 
VI. Thomas Tuttle^ born October 26, 1820; died October 27, 

41 VII. Andrew^ born August 28, 1823 ; married Eliza Ann Adams 

of Hollis, New Hampshire. 
VIII. Edwin^ born July 21, 1830; died August 8, 1831. 


Nathaniel^ {Ephraim^, Ephraim^, Hezekiah^, NathanieP, 
Shadrach^), born March 21, 1784; married by Reverend E. 


Ripley, February 22, 18 10, Rebecca, daughter of Nathan and 
Abigail Stowe of Concord, born May 22, 1783 ; died February 
28, 1873. He died February 10, 1874, at Acton; a farmer 
and leading citizen. 

I. Nathan Stowe'', born December 13, 1810; died December 

14, 1831. 
II. Rebecca^, born March 7, 1812; died June 28, 1836. 

III. Mary^ born April 19, 1814; died March 24, 1816. 

IV. Nathaniel^ born March 5, 1816; taught school in early man- 

hood ; went to California, 1849 ; returned to the farm at 
Acton and was for many years one of the "selectmen," 
a prominent and much esteemed citizen. Driving with 
his uncle, Benjamin Franklin, was struck by a train on 
the Fitchburg Railroad at Hapgood's Crossing in West 
Acton, and both were instantly killed, March 17, 1864. 
He was unmarried. 

42 V. Cyrus^ born July 16, i8i8, at Acton; married, January i8> 

1842, Eleanor Wheeler. 

43 VI. Joseph^, born May 26, 1821 ; married, August 11, 1847, 

Almira Jane Holmes. 
VII. Mary', born May 26, 1821, twin with Joseph, with whom she 
resides in California ; unmarried. 


Simon® {Ephrairyv', Ephraim'^, Hezekiah^, Nathaniel"^, Shad- 
rach^), born January 2, 1788; married, February 26, 1817, 
Mary Frazier of Athol, born December 25, 1791 ; died April 
26, 1873. He died December 21, 1874, at Acton. An 
excellent farmer, and respected citizen. 


I. Mary^ born April 9, 1818; died March 15, 1822. 
II. Simon', Jr., born January 19, 1823; married, February 27, 
1853, Mrs. Abby (Howard) Willis of Warwick, Massa- 
chusetts, born January 25, 1821. Had adopted son, 
Oscar Duane, son of Wellington Fisk, born May 17, 


1859, at New Salem, Massachusetts; adopted March 
2, 1861, and resides at Orange, Massachusetts; a 
machinist; unmarried. 

III. Nathan Frazier'', born May 4, 1825; married, July 4, 1862, 

Mrs. Mary (Temple) McCollom of Acton, born March 
14, 1828. 

I. Flora Lamira^ born March 30, 1863, at Ashby; 
II. Lula Viola^ born March 11, 1866, at Ashby; 

IV. Lucy^ born July 22, 1827, at Acton; unmarried. 

V. Benjamin^ born November 27, 1833, at Acton, where he 
resides ; unmarried ; a farmer. 


JoHN^ {EpJirainv", Ephraim^, HesekiaJ^, Nathaniel, Shad- 
rach^), born February 10, 1802 ; married, April 20, 1826, 
Mary Ann, daughter of Nathan Davis and Rebecca (Ball) 
Hosmer of Acton, born June i, 1808; died April 13, 1890. 
He resided in Fitchburg, where most of his children were 
born; removed to Acton, where he died January 15, 1867. 
An industrious, frugal, well-to-do farmer. 

I. John^, born January 26, 1827, at Acton ; died September 16, 
1842, at Fitchburg. 
II. Mary Ann'', born October 12, 1829, at Acton; died Novem- 
ber 27, 1829. 
III. David Wood^ born August 24, 1833; married, October 11, 
1861, Ann Maria Stockwell, born March 28, 1840, 
daughter of Ira and Maria^ (Hapgood) Stockwell of 
Acton, granddaughter of Abel Stockwell of Chester- 
field, New Hampshire, and great granddaughter of 
Silas Stockwell from Barre to Chesterfield. He 
was educated in the public and private schools of 
Acton, and at Appleton Academy, New Ipswich, New 
Hampshire; prevented by illness from teaching, 1852; 


went to California, 1853, worked in the mines; with 
partially restored health, returned 1859; became inter- 
ested in Snow's PatJifitider and Railway Guide, pub- 
lished in Boston, which he edited nearly up to the 
time of his death, which occurred at Bricksburg, New 
Jersey, May 11, 1869, whither he had gone for his 
health. He had fine musical talents, and his pleasant 
residence in Somerville, Massachusetts, was a resort 
for musical people. A man of strict integrity and 
unswerving honor. No children. 
IV. Maryette^, born April 27, 1836; died May 25, 1837. 
V. Clarissa'', — better known as Clara, — born January 15, 1839, 
at Fitchburg, Massachusetts. Her parents, John and 
Mary Ann (Hosmer) Hapgood removed to Acton in 
1846, where Clara attended the public schools. Sub- 
sequently she was transferred to Pierce Academy at 
Middleboro', then to Appleton Academy, New Ipswich, 
New Hampshire, graduating from the advanced class 
in the State Normal School, at Framingham. She was 
a successful teacher, and after graduating taught in the 
High schools of the State, at Marlboro' and Danvers. 
January i, 1869, she married, at West Acton, Fred- 
erick Cushing Nash, born at Columbia, Maine, January 
31, 1839. Soon after her marriage, Clara commenced 
the study of law, and in October, 1872, was admitted to 
the bar of the Supreme Judicial Court of Maine, being 
the first woman admitted to the bar in New England. 
Mr. Nash was graduated from Tufts College, 1863; 
admitted to the bar of Maine, 1866, where he practised 
till 1881, when he removed to Massachusetts, and was 
admitted to the bar, with office at Boston and residence 
at West Acton ; much interested in education and the 
cause of temperance, an eminent lawyer, a good citi- 
zen, and highly esteemed. 


1. Frederick Hapgood^ Nash, born January 3, 1874, 
in Portland, Maine, was graduated from Harvard, 
June 26, 1895, elected to the Phi-Beta- Kappa, 
the first eight in the class, April, 1894, entered 
the Boston University Law School, 1896, and 
the next year appointed instructor in contracts, 
and is a young man of great promise. 


VI. Henry^, born February 5, 1842; resided with his parents 
up to the time of the "little unpleasantness with the 
South," when he took up arms in defence of his 
Country's flag, by enlisting August 31, 1862, in Com- 
pany E, Sixth Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteers ; 
was in engagements at Ludlow Lawrence's Plantation, 
November 18, 1862, Joiners Ford on the Blackwater, 
December 12, 1862, Deserted house, January 30, 1863, 
Siege of Suffolk, April 11, 1863. Served out his term 
of nine months, came home with his company, sick, and 
died November 25, 1863. Though cut down so young, 
he left to the world the legacy of a noble, upright and 
honorable character. 
VII. Luke', born January 13, 1846, at Bolton, Massachusetts; 
married, June 30, 1886, at South Hanson, Georgiette 
Leavitt, born December 19, 1850, at Columbia, Maine, 
daughter of George and Mary Ann Leavitt. He 
remained on the farm with his parents till 1874, when 
he went to Boston and occupied a stall in Washington 
Market up to 1882. In 1886 he removed to Brockton 
and went into the grocery and provision business, 
which he is still prosecuting energetically. No children. 
VIII. Ephriam', born October 22, 1848, at Acton; married, April 
IS) i875) 3.t Waltham, Catherine Heleanor, daughter 
of Uriah and Mary Ann (Coolidge) Hadley, born Feb- 
ruary 13, 1852. He was graduated from Brown Uni- 
versitjs Providence, Rhode Island, Class of 1874, 
studied Theology at Newton Theological Seminary, 
ordained a Baptist minister, October 21, 1875, at South 
Windham, Vermont; removed to Nebraska 1878, hav- 
ing been previously called to the pastorate of the Bap- 
tist church in Seward City. His next pastorate was 
in David City, Nebraska. He returned East and was 
settled over the church at South Hanson, Massachu- 
setts. He is now (1896) in the service of the Massa- 
chusetts Total Abstinence Society. 


I. Marion Hadley^ born March 17, 1876, a graduate 

of the State Normal School, 1895, now a teacher. 

II. Ernest Granger^ born February 12, 1878, at South 

Windham; now fitting for college at Colby 

Academy, New London, New Hampshire. 



Benjamin Franklin** {Ephrainv', Ephraim'^, Hezekial^, 
Nathaniel', SJiadracJi"), born November 3, 1805 ; married, 
September i, 1833, Perciveranda Joy of Brattleboro',Vermont, 
born March 23, 181 2 ; resided in West Acton, on the home- 
stead. The following appeared in the journals of the day : 

"Fatal accident on the Fitchburg Railroad: — a wagon, 
containing two gentlemen, named Benjamin F. and Nathaniel 
Hapgood (his nephew), while crossing the track of the 
Fitchburg Railroad, at Hapgood's Crossing, in West Acton, 
this morning {March 17, 1864), was struck by the first 
inward passenger train from Fitchburg, and both of the men 
were instantly killed and the team demolished." 

His widow died in Hudson, Michigan, May 5, 1895, and 
was interred in her son's tomb, at West Acton. 


I. Sarah Joy^ born July 21, 1834 ; died June 9, 1855, at Acton. 
II. Alonzo Franklin'', born December 8, 1835; died July 6, 
1872, at Brattleboro. 
III. Hiram Joy^, born September 8, 1837; married, Novem- 
ber 22, 1 87 1, Augusta Ann Parker, born at Westford, 
Massachusetts, August 18, 1847; educated in the 
public schools; entered the store of his brother-in-law, 
Charles Robinson, in West Acton, and later went as 
clerk in the extensive miscellaneous goods store of 
James Tuttle & Company, South Acton. The firm 
name was changed to Tuttle, Jones & Wetherbee, but 
his valued services were retained and he was made 
purchasing agent for the house, which position he now 
holds. Held office of selectman five years, overseer of 
the poor, road surveyor, trustee of the library, and 
held other offices of honor and responsibility; a 
prompt, energetic, and reliable business man, worthy 
the generous confidence reposed in him. 


I. Ida Augusta^ born June 16, 1875; was graduated 
from the Concord High and Training schools ; 


became a successful teacher in the graded 
schools, and now promoted to teacher in the 
Grammar School. 
II. Frank Elbridge^ born July 25, 1878; graduated 
from the Concord High School, now (1896) in 
Burdett's Business College, Boston. 

IV. Perciveranda^, born August 19, 1839; married, March 7, 
1858, Charles Robinson, born at Newfane, Vermont, 
August 13, 1822. He died December 22, 1891, at 
West Somerville, and his widow, December 27, 1891. 

Children, all born in West Acton. 

1. Lizzie Maria^ Robinson, born August 11, 1859. 

2. Charles Ellis^ born February 18, 1861 ; died 

October 31, 1862. 

3. George^ born September 18, 1864. 

4. Mabel Louise^ born October 14, 1871. 

5. Edward Hollis^, born June 13, 1874. 

V. Marshall^ born August 8, 1841 ; married, February i, 1864, 
Emily M. Palmer, born June 30, 1845, at Stamford, 
Connecticut, where he was killed by a railroad acci- 
dent, April II, 1890. 

I. Emily Jeannette^ born May 28, 1866; died July 28, 
II. Harriette Isabelle^ born May 9, 1869; married, 
September 26, 1889, Albert Owen, born in 


1. Hattie Marion' Owen, born August 12, 1890. 

2. Annie Beatrice', born September 26, 1893. 

VI. George^, born October 30, 1843; died June 21, 1890, at 
Hudson, Michigan; unmarried. 
VII. Elvira', born January 28, 1847 ; married, December 9, 1870, 
William C. Ames, born in Marlboro', Vermont, Sep- 
tember 17, 1849; resides in Hudson, Michigan; a 
farmer. No children. 
VIII. Emily', born September 16, 1849; married, May 18, 1871, 
Albert E. Thurber, born February 16, 1843, at Guil- 
ford, Vermont; resides at Brattleboro', Vermont; a 



1. Minnie E.* Thurber, born December 14, 1875. 

2. Rubie Evelyn^ born June 29, 1887. 

IX. Eugene^, born September 23, 1851, at Acton; went to 
Brattleboro' and worked for his uncle ; removed with 
his mother to Pella, Iowa, where she purchased a 
small farm which he and his brother George cultivated. 
They removed to Hudson, Michigan, where she bought 
land which her sons cultivated successfully. They 
bought more land and raised garden vegetables and 
small fruits for the town market, up to the death and 
their mother. George died, 1890, and Eugene inherited 
the property and continued the business; unmarried. 


Ephraim^ {HezekiaJv', Ephraun'^, Hezekiah^, NathanieP, 

ShadracJi}), born January 3, 1785 ; removed with his father, 

1797, from Stow, Massachusetts, to Waterford, Maine, where 

he resided and died, August 29, 1836; an extensive farmer; 

married, January 7, 1812, Fanny Willard, a native of Harvard, 

Massachusetts, born February 21, 1788, and died April 30, 



I. Eliza Ann'', born July 23, 1813; married, October 26, 1835, 
at Waterford, Charles Asia Ford, born December 20, 
1810, at Sumner, Maine, son of Charles and Rebecca 
(Fletcher) Ford. 


1. Charles Horace^ Ford, born June 8, 1836, at Water- 

ford; resides at Portland, Maine, a painter; 
married, November 28, 1865, Henrietta Coleman 
Loring, born in Portland, January 5, 1845. 

2. Acelia Emma^, born November 25, 1837; resides 

with her brother Charles, in Portland ; unmar- 

3. Oscar RodolphusS born June 22, 1840, at Water- 

ford ; married, 1863, Minnie Cobb of Norway, 


Maine; was engineer in United States Navy, 
1862. After the war he was in railroad service, 
and now in New York in mercantile business. 
No children. 

4. Ella Frances^ born May 30, 1843, at Waterford; 

resided in Boston, Assistant Matron at Institu- 
tion for the Blind, and later held a position at 
Parker House ; unmarried. 

5. Ada Augusta^ born September 29, 1846; married, 

September 28, 1875, at Melrose, Massachusetts, 
John M. Houdlett of Dresden, Maine; resides 
in Charlestown, Massachusetts. 

44 II. Sherman Willard'', born January 12, 1815, at Waterford; 

married, May 4, 1839, Abigail Fletcher of North Anson, 

III. Frances Willard'', born January 30, 1817, at Waterford; 

resides with her brother Sherman at North Anson; 

IV. Conant Brown', born Julys, 1818; died December, 1838; 

a saddler at North Anson ; unmarried. 

45 V. Charles C.^ born July 31, 1821 ; married, October 19, 1843, 

Salome Savage of Kingfield, Maine. 
VI. Nancy Longley'', born August 2, 1825 ; married March 10, 
1844, at North Anson, Gustavus, son of Daniel and 
Olive Stewart, a lawyer at North Anson, born June 8, 
1817; died August 28, 1853. She resided several 
years in Boston, and married second, November, 
1867, William Weymouth, born September, 1825; 
died October i, 1885. She died January 7, 1892, and 
was interred at North Anson with her first husband. 
No children. 


William^ (HezekiaJv', EpJiraini'^, HesekiaJ^, Nathaniel'-, 
Shadrach^), baptized April 5, 1790; married, 181 3, at Frye- 
burg, Maine, Mary Harnden of Wilmington, Massachusetts. 
He removed, with his father, from Waterford to East Frye- 
burg, 1 8 10, where he died November 24, 1871 ; a large and 


prosperous farmer and prominent citizen. His widow died 
September 2, 1872. 

46 I. William', Jr., born May 28, 1814; married, December 31, 

1840, Maria McKay of Saccarappa, Maine. 
II. Maria^ born April 30, 1816, at Saco, Maine; married, 
1842, Stephen L. Ladd. She died October 24, 1865, 
at East Fryeburg. 


1, Augustus Ladd, born — 

2. Charles T. Ladd, born 

III. Melinda'', born October 25, 181 7, at East Fryeburg; 

married, 1837, Joshua H. Warren of East Fryeburg; 


1. Alonzo^ B. Warren, born April 14, 1839, at Darien, 

Georgia; married, September 13, 1862, at Den- 
mark, Maine, Sarah Ann Harnden, born Febru- 
ary 26, 1841 ; she died July 9, 1873. Resides 
in Denmark ; a farmer. 

2. Eldora^ born F,ebruary 23, 1843, at Fryeburg; 

married, July 25, 1869, at Conway, New Hamp- 
shire, David P. Lord, born at Stowe, Maine, 

3. Edwin Baker*, born February 14, 1847; married, 

October 11, 1869, at Fryeburg, Ellen Rebecca 
Harnden,' born in Fryeburg, April 18, 1852; 
resides in Fryeburg; a farmer. 

4. Charlton Hynes^ born September 21, 1850; mar- 

ried, September 18, 1878, Sarah Jane Harnden, 
born November 22, 1859, at Fryeburg. 

5. William Byron*, born March 4, 1853, at Denmark; 

married, November 25, 1880, Cora Etta Harnden, 
born October 11, i860, at Fryeburg. 

6. Adela Maria*, born December i, 1857; died Sep- 

tember 26, 1865. 

IV. Hezekiah^ born March 25, 1822; married , who 

soon died ; resided at Lowell, Massachusetts ; a barber 
and musician; died October 14, 1875. No children. 
V. Mahalah', born April 18, 1824; married, 1845, Alfred Per- 
kins of Nashua, New Hampshire; a mechanic. She 
died July 4, 1855. 



1. Child, died young. 

2. Child, died young. 

3. Abby Jane^ Perkins, born ; married Frank 

Piper; resided in Fitzwilliam, New Hampshire. 

VI. Mary^, born October 20, 1825; married, September, 1875, 
Samuel Sawyer; a farmer of West Bridgton, where 
she resides, his widow. 
VII. Malvina', born April 11, 1829; married, May, 1853, Richard 
Douglass; resided at West Bridgton. He died June 
10, 1878; she died at Denmark, January 24, 1890. 


1. Herbert^ Douglass, born August, 1854. 

2. Carrie^ born April, 1856. 

3. Fred^ born February, 1859. 

4. Jessie^ born May, 1872. 

VIII. Martha^ born February 8, 1831 ; resides in Biddeford, 
Maine; unmarried. 
IX. Marilla', born February 3, 1834; married, July 8, i860, 
Leonard Abbott, son of Leonard K. and Dorcas L. 
(Abbott) Ingalls, born January 5, 1837 ; resides in Den- 
mark, Maine ; a merchant. 


1. Katie F.^ Ingalls, born February i, 1862, 

2. Lilly G.^, born January 19, 1864; married, Decem- 

ber 26, 1880, George A. Smith of Denmark. 


Sprout*^ {HezekiaJv', Epkraim\ HezekiaJi^, NathaiiieP, Shad- 
rach^), born April 27, 1793 ; married, March 3, 1822, Betsey 
Sawin of Sudbury, Massachusetts, born April 9, 1797; died 
September 7, 1874. He was adjutant of the militia, 1832, 

on a commission for distributing surplus revenue ; 

postmaster ; nine years moderator ; served the town 

as her representative in the Legislature ; resided at Water- 
ford, keeping a store at the Flats, west side of Temple Hill ; 


was a large farmer and one of her most energetic and useful 
citizens. He died September 23, 1849, at Augusta, Maine. 

I. Lyman Sawin^, born December 10, 1822, at Waterford, 
Maine; married, February 11, 1850, Elizabeth Porter, 
daughter of Joseph Porter and Abigail (Baker) Smith, 
born at Boston, February 9, 1823, where she died 
March 18, 1868; no children. He died at Boston, 
March 27, 1896, of pneumonia. Among the press 
notices was the following : — 

" He was a quiet man and highly esteemed by those 
who knew him well; was a representative in the 
Massachusetts General Court ; paymaster in the 
army; a number of years president of the Mercantile 
Savings Institution, and a prominent member of the 
Theodore Parker Society. He also held various 
ofifices in other institutions." 

II. Margarette Matilda^ born May 31, 1825; married, January 
21, 1847, Enoch Clark Moody of Saco, Maine, born 
June 13, 1820; died May i, 1878, at Camden, Maine. 
She died September 24, 1884. 


1. Charles Henry^ Moody, born November 22, 1847; 

died October 26 1862. 

2. Lyman Hapgood^ born April 22, 1851 ; died Feb- 

ruary 18, 1852. 

3. Frank H.^ born February 3, 1853 ; died September 

27, 1854. 

4. Mary Elizabeth^, born July 22, 1858; died June 6, 


5. Frederick Clark^ born May 18, 1868, at Camden, 

Maine; removed to Boston, 1878, was a student 
at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a 
mechanical draughtsman ; and now resides in 

III. Lydia Jane^, born May 16, 1827; married, April 19, 1846, 
Levi Howard, M. D., from Harvard, Massachusetts, 
born at Bolton, May 26, 1820; removed 1849 to 
Chelmsford, Massachusetts, where he had an exten- 
sive practice, and died January 23, 1885. His widow 
deceased April 11, 1893. 



1. Sarah Elizabeth^ Howard, born February 28, 1848, 

at Harvard; died September 17, 1849, at 

2. Jenny Lind^ born July 8, 1850; married, June 30, 

1874, James H. Willoughby. 

3. George Levi^ born December 18, 1852; died Jan- 

uary 29, 1875. 

4. Mary^, born February 3, 1855; married, January 

20, 1894, Elwyn H. Fowler. 

5. Amasa* (M. D.), born April 20, 1857; married, 

May 21, 1878, Louisa C. Warner, born Octo- 
ber 16, 1858, at Chelmsford. 

6. Edwin^ born May 18, 1861 ; was graduated from 

Harvard College. 

7. John Galen^, born May 8, 1864; graduated from 

Boston Latin School ; student at Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology ; spent several years in 
Paris, France; married, August i, 1893, Mary 
Robertson Bradbury of New York, where he is 
a practising architect. 

IV. Frances Elizabeth'', born June 15, 1829; died December 

13, 1887; unmarried. 

V. Ann Maria', born September 14, 1831 ; died April 4, 1832, 
at Waterford, Oxford County, Maine. 
47 VI. Andrew Sidney'', born (twin with Ann Maria) September 

14, 1S31; married, January iS, 1870, Annie Winter of 

VII. Antoinette Maria'', born December 8, 1834; resided at 
Chelmsford, Massachusetts, where she died July 4, 
1897 ; unmarried. 
VIII. Helen Louise'', born February 24, 1837; died February 29, 
1884; unmarried. 


Captain Thomas'' {Heackia/v', Ephraim*, HezekiaJi^, 
Nathaniel-, Shadrach^), born July 12, 1802 ; married, Decem- 
ber 2, 1830, Jane McWain, born at Putney, Vermont, March, 


1810 ; removed with his father, Hezekiah, to Fryeburg, 18 10; 
went to Gorham, New Hampshire, 1846; returned to Water- 
ford, 1850; removed to Brasher Falls, 1856, and to Bangor, 
New York, 1857; back again to Waterford, 1859, where he 
died December 26, 1864, a farmer, miller and lumberman. 
His wife died at West Bangor, New York, February 17, 1859. 

I. David Thomas^ born November 17, 1832; married, Octo- 
ber 23, 1856, Helen, daughter of Daniel and Alma 
(Gliddon) Stanard of Brasher Falls, Essex County, 
New York, born November 16, 1837; resided at Gree- 
ley, Colorado, where he died May 16, 1882. 

T. Lillian Adaline^ born November 18, i860; died 

February 17, 1864. 
II. Harry S.^ born December 4, 1866; died Septem- 
ber 9, 1867. 

IL Laura Jane^ born August 18, 1835; died December 31, 

III. Lura Adaline'', born July 21, 1838; married, March 9, 1859, 

at Malone, New York, Sylvanus Wait, son of Samuel 
and Mehitable Cobb of Norway, Maine; removed to 
Durango, Colorado, where he died June 3, 1897. 


1. Elizabeth Jane^ Cobb, born January 17, i860, at 

Norway; married, at Conway, New Hampshire, 
Charles A. Pike of Portland, Maine; removed 
to Durango, Colorado. 

2. Grace Wait^ born January 19, 1863, at Norway; 

resides in Durango, unmarried. 

3. Charles Henry^ born at Waterford, Maine ; died 

in infancy. 

IV. Andrew Sprout'', born November 11, 1841 ; educated in the 

public schools of Waterford ; worked for his father in 
the saw mill till 1861 ; enlisted in Company G, First 
regiment, Maine Volunteers (three months' men); 
reported at Washington for service ; performed guard 
duty till term expired; removed to California, 1862, 

anC^icw Sprout IbaptiooD. 


and worked in a saw-mill two years; went to Idaho 
and worked a placer gold mine for a year or more, then 
crossed the Plains, i,6oo miles, to Omaha on horse- 
back, 1865; returned to his native town, resumed his 
saw-mill and lumber business ; taught school one win- 
ter in Bangor, New York, and two in Waterford ; a 
man of strict integrity and temperate habits; chairman 
of the board of selectmen two years, and represented 
the town in the Legislature, 1895 ; married, July 7, 
1870, at Lovell, Maine, Irene, daughter of Eben and 
Hannah (Barker) Willard, born December 14, 1844- 
died February 12, 1895; no children; he married 
second, August 9, 1896, at North Bridgton, Leiona 
Green, daughter of Horace W. and Ellen F. (Widbur) 
Willard of Waterford, born March 20, 1870. 
Charles Henry ^ born February 8, 1846; died January 12, 


Ephraim** iOlivei'^, Ephraim^^ HezekiaJi^, NathanieP, 
Shadrack^), born November 26, 1786; married, March 24, 
18 16, at Boston, Joanna Salmon, born in that place, January 
26, 1798; died July 26, 1876, at Bethel, Maine, The 
proprietors of the town of Waterford, in order to encourage 
immigration, gave to a few of the first settlers, their lands. 
They also offered a premium of fifty acres of land to the first 
boy that should be born in the town and live to become of 
age. Ephraim Hapgood was the recipient of that bounty. 
He removed, February, 1830, to Bethel ; was an enterprising 
and prosperous farmer, prominent in town affairs. Died 
September 29, 1864. 

I. Lucy Elizabeth', born May 7, 1817, at Boston; married, 
January 11, 1838, at Bethel, John Bryant of Waterford, 
born May 2, 1808; removed to Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts, about 1840; performed police duty for several 


years, served as night watch at Boston & Albany Rail- 
road Station, six years, and died at Cambridge, Sep- 
tember lo, 1874; Mrs. Bryant removed with members 
of her family to Waltham, Massachusetts, July, 1883, 
where she now resides, his widow. 


1. Richard^ Bryant, born September 5, 1839; died 


2. Leon^, born August 6, 1843 ; died young. 

3. Malinda^ born June 21, 1845. 

4. Frank^born December 23, 1851. 

5. Elliott^ born November 8, 1853. 

6. Martha^ born August 26, 1859; died October 9, 


48 II. William Salmon^ born at Boston, June 17, 1819; married, 

March 23, 1843, Rebecca W. Mason of Gilead, Maine. 

49 III. Oliver'', born February 13, 1822; married, September 20, 

1848, Mary Jael Sanderson, born in Sweden, Maine, 
December 29, 1828. 

50 IV. John Francis'', born September 9, 1824; married, April 25, 

1 85 1, Mary L. Young of Sherburn, New Hampshire. 
V. Martha Jane^, born September 4, 1829; died March 20, 
VI. Abigail Swan^ born February 16, 1832; died November 10, 

51 VII. Richard', born February 24, 1 841, at Waterford; married 

Nellie G. Pike. 


Artemas^ {Oliver', EpJiraim^, Hezekiah^, NatJianiel'^, Shad- 
rach^), born June 14, 1789; married, January 16, 1814, at 
Waterford, Polly Haskill, born 1790, at Sweden, Maine, 
where he died December 7, 1865 ; a farmer. She died 
August 10, 1873. 

I. Mary Ann^ born November 23, 1814; married, December 
21, 1845, at Waterford, Eleazer, son of Eleazer and 


Jollie Hamlin, born September 4, 181 1 ; died June 25, 
1886. She died March 29, 1893. Had one child, died 
in infancy. 
62 II. Artemas^ born September 2, 1816; married, September 17, 

1848, at Sweden, Sarah Ann Parker. 

III. Calvin^, born September 3, 1818; married, December 23, 

1874, widow Marr, who died at Sweden ; s. p. 

IV. Mary Jane^ born March 12, 1821 ; married, December 23, 

1874, at Harrison, Joseph Adams, born at Stoneham, 
Maine, August 6, 1819; resides at North Bridgton, 


1. Ella Maria^ Adams, born December 12, 1844, in 

Stoneham; married, June 11, 1865, at Sewell, 
Harris Birney Kneeland, born at Sewell, July 9, 
1840 ; resides at South Waterford. 

2. Mary Ann^ born October 20, 1846, at Stoneham; 

died August, 1S55. 

3. Calvin Hapgood^ born April 13, 1848; married, 

January 22, 1875, Abbie Ellen^ Hapgood, his 
second cousin, daughter of JoeF and Columbia 
(Wheeler) Hapgood, born at Portland, July 7, 
1858; resides at South Waterford; a farmer. 

4. Frances Elizabeth^ born June 24, 185 1, at Sweden ; 

married, June 2, 1866, at Portland, Elden Brown, 
born at Sweden, April 23, 1834; resides in 
Norway, Maine. 

5. Daniel Townes^, born November 1 1, 1854, at Stone- 

ham ; married, October 26, 18S4, at Waterford, 
Ella F. Abbott, born March. 1861, at Fryeburg, 
Maine; resides at Sweden; a farmer. 

6. Lemuel Goodwin^ born August 29, 1858, at Stone- 

ham; resides at North Bridgton; unmarried. 

7. Joseph Nelson^ born January 9, i860; married, 

November 8, 1887, Hattie Gertrude Flint, born 
May 21, 1868, at Bridgton; resides at North 
Bridgton, Maine. 
V. Eliza^, born February 12, 1824; died at Waterford, March 
28, 1 841. 
VI. Betsey^ born July 26, 1827; married, October 29, 1846, at 
Sweden, William Parker, born February 28, 1829, at 
Biddeford, Maine, and died at Waterford, May 10, 
1892. She died at Waterford, January, 1894. 



1. William Gardner^ Parker, born August 7, 1850. 

2. Emily J.^ born December 18, 1851 ; died July 5, 


3. Charles^ born December 11, 1853; died October 

13, 1865. 

4. Mary A.^ born January 17, 1856, at Bethel ; mar- 

ried, at Waterford, July 24, 1874, Frank T. 
Green, born in Portland, November 15, 1848; 
resides in Norway, Maine. 

5. Flora E.^ born April 10, 1858 ; married, September 

7, 1884, Elma A. Bacon of Norway. She died 
May 24, 1885. 

6. John^ born January 28, i860; died September i, 


7. George^, born January 24, 1862, died May 6, 1863. 

8. Malinda^ born September 12, 1863; died Septem- 

ber 26, 1865. 

9. Adelbert E.^ born April 18, 1865 ; married, July 4, 


10. Kate N.^ born March 4, 1868; married, February 

21, 1885. 

11. Ida M.^ born April 30, 1870; married, February 

18, 1888, Charles E. Packard. 

VII. Lydia^ born March 29, 1831 ; died April 7, 1833. 
VIII. Maria', born October 10, 1834. 


Oliver^ {Oliver', Ephraim^, Hezekiah^, Nathaniel"^, Shad- 
rach}), born December 30, 1794; married, January 30, 1826, 
at Sebago, Maine, Abigail Welch of Raymond, Maine, born 
November, 1803. He resided at Waterford, where all his 
children were born. During the war of 181 2, he was 
employed by the Government in the Commissary department. 
At the age of twenty-five he had a severe attack of rheumatic 
fever, which greatly impaired the use of one leg, rendering 


him a cripple and unfitting him for active business during 
the remainder of his life. He died at Waterford, August 22, 
185 1, and his widow died at the residence of her daughter, 
Mrs. Lewis, at Portland, July 14, 1890. 


53 I. Joel^ born August 23, 1827; married Columbia Wheeler. 

II. Lucy'', born September 27, 1829; died March i, 1833. 

III. AbigaiP, born July 19, 1831; married, December i, 1851, 

at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Albion G. Lewis, 
born at Hiram, Maine, September 7, 1826; died at 
Portland, February 20, 1881. No children. 

IV. Rebecca Nourse'', born June 29, 1833 ; married, June 8, 1863, 

at South Dedham, Massachusetts, Cloyes W. Gleason, 
M. D., born May 13, 1821; removed, 1865, to Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania, where he has since resided, 
enjoying a large practice. He is the author of a valu- 
able book, entitled " Everybody's own Physician ; or, 
How to Acquire and Preserve Health." No children. 
V. Lucy'', born August 23, 1835; died February 14, 1836. 
VI. Joanna'', born January 29, 1837; married, May 8, 1857, at 
Bridgton, LendoU S. Brackett, born in Naples, Maine, 
August 20, 1 83 1, where he resides; a farmer and 


1. Melville S.^ Brackett, born November 30, 1858; 

married, December 27, 1891, Minerva Moins of 
Otisfield; resides in Naples. 

2. Dana L.^ born October 14, 1862; married, Novem- 

ber 30, 1891, at Portland, Mary Davis of Boston ; 
resides in Portland. 

3. Lillie G.^ born January 20, 1866; married, January 

I, 1887, Herbert A. Edwards of Bethel; resides 
in Portland. 

4. Cora M.^ born January 12, 1870; resides in Naples. 

VII. Oliver'', Jr., born September 1 1, 1839; died September 1 1, 
VIII. Sarah^, born April 28, 1S42; died April 26, 1885, at Port- 
land, Maine. 



Cornelius^ {Jonatha?i^, Ephraim^, HezekiaJi^, Thomas^, 
Skadrach^), born October 13, 1789; married, March i, 1819, 
at Moira, New York, Betsey, daughter of Cyril Hutchins, 
born March 6, 1794; died December 16, 1858, and he mar- 
ried second, March 23, 1859, at Malone, New York, the 
widow, Maria (Chapin) King, daughter of John King, born 
in New Hampshire, April 8, 1800; died September 21, 1870, 
at Westville, New York; he died September 11, 1874, at 
Malone ; a thrifty farmer. 

CHILDREN, all by first wife. 
I. Sarah^ born June i, 1820, at Constable, New York; mar- 
ried Jefferson Smith. 


1. Byron^ Smith, born . 

2. Elizabeth*, born ; resided in Boston, where 

she died January 19, 1891. 

3. Clara", born ; married George Adams, and 

resided in West Groton, Massachusetts. 

4. Millard^ born . 

II. Jonathan'', born November i, 1821, at Moira; married, 
October 11, 1849, at Malone, Lucy M. Hogel, born 
in Canada, October 17, 1824; resides in Cherubusco, 
New York; a farmer; no children. 
III. Mary'', born March 19, 1824, at Constable; died young. 
54 IV. Cyril William', born March 9, 1825; married, May 9, 

1851, Adaline Leigh. 
V. Dimis^ born January 16, 1827; married, June i, 1848, Joel 
C. Taylor of Malone, born July 16, 1824. 


1. Jeanette* Taylor, born June 10, 1849, ^-t Boston, 

Massachusetts; married, July i, 1875, Henry 

2. Herbert^ born June 8, 1850, at Constable ; married, 

March 26, 1871, Christina Bean. 

3. Guy*, born January 22, 1858. 


4. Alice', born February i6, 1862; married, Decem- 
ber 25, 1889, Leslie Spencer; resides in Malone; 
a farmer. 

VI. Mar ilia'', born December 29, 1828; married William Miller. 


1. Kilburn* Miller, born ; resides in Hague, 

Warren County, New York. 

VII. Guy^, born December 20, 1829, at Constable; died Decem- 
ber 21, 1 87 1, at Malone; a farmer; unmarried. 
VIII. Betsey'', born July 15, 1831 ; died November 15, 1845. 
55 IX. Wesley'', born July 3, 1835; married, July 3, 1859, Delia 

X. Allen', born January 5, 1839; married, April 15, 1861, 
Charlotte Hutchins, and died December 3, 1890, at 
Malone ; a farmer. 


Amos^ {Jonathan' y Ephraivi^, NathanieP, NathanieP, Shad- 
rac/i^), horn 1799; married, February 25, 1821, Harriet S., 
daughter of Lemuel Holmes of Malone, born 1801. She 
died January 29, 1866, and he married second, Mrs. 
Aldrich Bunker, born 1825 ; died August, 1892. He died 
at Malone, May 2, 1875, in his seventy-sixth year. 

CHILDREN, all born in Malone. 
I. Edwin Cornelius^ born January i, 1822; died May 5, 1828. 
II. Caroline Celia'', born August 24, 1823; married, October 
12, 1841, Oren James Ward, born in Vermont, July 21, 
1820; settled in New York; removed to Rockford, 
Illinois, October, 1852; sold out in 1854; purchased 
160 acres and later added 80 more in Iowa, and 
occupied the same September 5, 1854. His wife being 
feeble, he took her for a tour through Southern Iowa, 
Missouri and Kansas, spending July 4, 1871, at Arkan- 
sas City, Kansas. In March, 1872, he purchased what 
is now the town site of Genda Springs, Kansas, where 
he permanently located. His wife died there May 4, 


1874, and he calls that his home, though much of his 
time is spent with his children. 


1. Helen E. Asenath^ Ward, born February 27, 1844, 

at Malone ; married, March 22, 1865, at Bethel, 
Iowa, John J. Broadbent, born in England, 
October 5, 1839; removed to Genda Springs, 
1871, and in 1893 to Rock Falls, Oklahoma, 
their present residence. 

2. Royal Leroy^ born March 16, 1847, at Lawrence, 

New York; married, April 18, 1878, Eva High- 
land, born April 15, 1853, at Puma; resides in 
Kansas ; the owner of several large farms, one 
especially devoted to fruit growing, which has 
proved successful. 

3. Silas LemueP, born February 16, 1849, at Law- 

rence; married, October 7, 1879, ^t Princeton, 
Missouri, Angie Carter, born March 14, 1850; 
resides in Kansas ; a hotel proprietor. 

4. Henry Oren^ born August 13, 1851 ; married, 

October 21, 1879, at Ness Centre, Kansas, Claro 
Gully; resides at Wichita, Kansas; a retail 
merchant. In 1886 he was locating agent at 
Syracuse, Hamilton County, Kansas. One fine, 
clear morning he took a couple of friends out to 
view the surrounding country. At about 10 
o'clock a heavy, black cloud suddenly gathered, 
and in twenty minutes a thick mist with fine 
rain and snow burst upon them with such fury 
as to blind the horses and men so as to prevent 
a movement in any direction. The cold became 
intense, and the storm continued forty-eight 
hours. During the next two days, January 7th 
and 8th, eleven dead bodies were brought into 
that little town, victims of the blizzard. Henry 
escaped with his life, but lost both feet, while 
both his companions were frozen to death. He 
died at Fort Smith, Texas, March 18, 1895. 

5. Chester Orson^ born December 9, 1852, at Rock- 

ford, Illinois ; married, July 26, 1887, at McPher- 
son, Kansas, Mary Skinner of Illinois, born 
September 7, 1865; resides in Oklahoma Terri- 
tory; a blacksmith. 


6. Amos Pierce^ born March 3, 1855, at Bethel, Iowa; 

married, February 10, 1882, at McPherson, 
Kansas, Huldah Munyon, born February 10, 
1863 ; resides in Cares Grandes, Mexico. 

7. Harriet Celia^ born June 14, 1858, at Bethel, Iowa; 

married, February 7, 1886, at Genda, Kansas, 
James E. Lobdell of New York, born March 
30, 1856; resides in Portland, Sumner County, 
Kansas; a blacksmith. 

8. Herbert Howard^ born April 7, i860, at Bethel; 

married, March 30, 1884, Lizzie Echternach, 
born in Reading, Pennsylvania, 1862; resides in 
Oklahoma Territory. 

9. Linda Sophia^ born March 9, 1862; died August 

29, 1863. 
10. Llewellyn Orcutt^, born August 23, 1865; resides 
in Mexico. 

Ill, Harriet Asenath^, born January 23, 1826; married, Febru- 
ary I, 1848, Henry W. Hobbs; resided in Ellenburgh 
Centre, Clinton County, New York. No children. 
She resides in Star, Clinton County, New York. 

IV. A daughter^ born April 18, 1828 ; died May i, 1828. 
V. AbigaiP, born March 17, 1829; died December 7, 1829. 

VI. Austin A.^ born September 25, 1830; died February 20, 

VII. Ruth Amelia^ born May 18, 1833; died May 22, 1851. 
56 VIII. Lemuel BicknelF, born March 5, 1836; married, Septem- 
ber 13, 1863, Sarah Goodwin Clark. 

IX. Howard^ born September 30, 1839; married, September 
II, 1862, Caroline, daughter of Jason Hutchins of Con- 
stable, New York ; enlisted with his brother, Lemuel, 
in Company D, I42d regiment. New York Volunteers, 
in War of Rebellion, and was killed at battle of Drurys 
Bluff, May 10, 1864. No children. 
X. Mary Caroline', born May 22, 1841, at Malone; married, 
March 14, 1866, at Bangor, New York, Ezra J. Car- 
penter, born November 19, 1841, at Hinesburg, Ver- 
mont ; settled in Constable ; a large real estate owner. 
Enlisted August 23, 1864, in Company C, Third regi- 
ment Cavalry, New York Volunteers, and was mustered 
out June 7, 1865. He engaged in mercantile business 
at Whippleville, and in 1893 removed his family thither 


and continued the general merchandise business in 
company with his son, Frank Lemuel, under firm name 
of E. J. Carpenter & Son, and they recently opened 
another store at Owls Head, New York. 


1. Henry Amos^ Carpenter, born January 26, 1867, 

at Constable; married, November 29, 1893, at 
Tacoma, Washington, Lelia May Carpenter ; 
resides in New York City ; a railroad contractor. 

2. Fred Wesley^ born November 9, 1868, at North 

Yakima, Washington; married there, July 3, 
1890, his third cousin, Emma Carpenter ; resides 
at Yakima; a farmer. 

3. Frank LemueP, born October 16, 1870; married, 

July 29, 1896, Fannie Benedict of Ottawa, 
Canada; resides in Whippleville ; in general 
merchandise business with his father. 

4. Ada Blanche^ born December 17, 1872; resides 

with her parents. 

5. Albert Ezra^, born December 7, 1874, at Con- 

stable; a farmer. 

6. Oren Howard^ born March 13, 1877, at Constable. 

7. Caroline Elizabeth^, born August 20, 1878; resides 

with her parents at Whippleville. 

8. Wilber Austin^ born April 10, 1885, at Constable ; 

resides in Whippleville, attending school. 

XI. MindwelP, born January 3, 1844; died August 28, 1870. 
XII. Samuel Marsh', born February 10, 1847; married, January 
I, 1874, at Fort Covington, Lucinda Manson; resides 
in Belmont ; a farmer. 

Children, all born at Malone. 
I. Anna Adaline^ born October 21, 1874; married, 
September i, 1894, Fred McGowan. 
II. Amos Austin^ born August 27, 1876. 
III. James Manson^ born June 19, 1878. 


John® {Jolm^, Shadrach^, ShadraM^ Nathaniel', Shadrach^), 
born March 18, 1807 ; settled on the Patterson farm and lands 


taken from the original homestead of the Hapgoods adjoin- 
ing, and was quite a prominent citizen, having filled various 
important offices. He inherited and accumulated a handsome 
property, which was judiciously invested for the benefit of his 
family. He married in Harvard, September 27, 1829, Mary 
Ann, daughter of Joseph and Polly (Blanchard) Munroe, born 
February 26, 18 10. She was an excellent housewife, but about 
1838, was attacked by a disease, probably rheumatism, which 
caused her joints to swell and ossify to such extent as to 
deprive her of locomotion, but by the assistance of others, 
she was moved from one part of the house to another, direct- 
ing with singular precision the affairs of her household, mani- 
festing great patience and cheerfulness under severe trials. 
The malady baffled all medical skill, increasing from year to 
year for nearly thirty years, when the heart of that loving 
soul and sweet disposition ceased to beat, on the eleventh 
day of March, 1868. By the aid of his daughters and son-in- 
law, the business of the farm moved steadily forward ; a 
large house and barn were erected, the families were united 
and harmonious, and the last years of John's life were 
crowned with deserved joy and happiness. During all those 
thirty long years of anxiety for his suffering companion he 
was gentle, kind, patient, and attentive to every want, and 
on the i6th of February, 1886, went to his reward. 

I. Mary Ann'', born May 7, 1838; married, January 10, 1861, 
Charles Corey Maynard, born at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, December 2, 1836. The condition of her 
mother's health was such as to require the presence of 
the young couple, and they settled with her father on 
the homestead which he had created. He is a quiet, 
intelligent, kind-hearted man, with a disposition that 
would make friends anywhere ; generous, faithful and 


attentive to the affairs of town, church, or neighbor- 
hood, and withal an industrious and prosperous farmer, 
worthy of the homestead of which he is now proprietor. 

1. John Edward^ Maynard, born March 17, 1865; 
educated at the public schools and Bromfield 
Academy ; studied civil engineering, which voca- 
tion he desired to fit himself for and follow, but, 
being an only child, the loving hearts of his 
parents clung to him with such tenacity as to dis- 
suade him from his purpose. He taught school 
successfully for several years ; established a 
greenhouse, and became a florist ; is a land sur- 
veyor; served on the School Board nine years, 
and is the able assistant to his father on the 
large farm. In 1897 he built a house on the 
opposite side of the road from his father, and on 
the 5th of January, 1898, married Elizabeth May, 
daughter of Henry Hartshorn of Harvard, born 
May I, 1868, and they are now happy in the new 

II. Clara Charlotte^, born August 13, 1851 ; has always resided 
with her parents and sister on the homestead ; promi- 
nent in all charitable duties; active in the Unitarian 
Sunday School and other church and charitable work, 
and is a fine assistant in the household affairs, in which 
she excels; unmarried. 


Henry^ {Jabez^, Shadrach*, Shadrach^, NathanieP, Shad- 
rach^), born January 2, 1808. Was educated at the public 
school in " Old Mill" ; remained with his parents on the 
farm during his minority; married, May 8, 1839, -^^^ Matilda 
Estabrook, born in Shirley, December 23, 1821 ; purchased 
the farm adjoining his father's, including the "Old Mill" 
built by John Prescott, 1669, then a part of Groton, and after 

Jonatban ^Fairbanh IbapciooO. 


being incorporated in the town of Harvard, 1732, the north- 
erly part of that town was known as "Old Mill." He was 
a quiet, industrious, patient man, bearing all the misfor- 
tunes of life bravely, but as his wife became a confirmed 
invalid, he could not carry on the business of the farm and 
the mill, and after many years of struggle, he concluded to 
dispose of his property there and remove to Ayer (then South 
Groton), to take charge of a large grist mill. He continued 
this business, under somewhat discouraging circumstances, 
up to the time of his death, April i, 1879. ^is wife never 
recovered her health, and died at Ayer, July 1 1, 1888. 


I. Charles Henry^ born October 7, 1840, at Old Mill, Har- 
vard. Educated in the public schools there; learned 
the baker's trade, at Groton; worked at Clinton some 
years before the war; enlisted for three years in Com- 
pany C, Fifteenth regiment, Massachusetts Volunteers, 
Infantry ; severely wounded in the right shoulder, 
placed on invalid corps, remained to end of term ; 
mustered out, returned to Clinton, and worked at his 
trade. Resides in Worcester, unmarried. 
II. Augusta Angelina Porter'', born September 22, 1843. Her 
mother being too ill to give proper training and in- 
struction to the child, she was placed in the hands of 
her maternal grandparents in Shirley, where she was 
educated. In 1864, her mother being still feeble, she 
was summoned home, where she remained, faithfully 
performing her duty as companion, housekeeper, and 
nurse, to the end. She resides in Ayer, unmarried. 


Jonathan Fairbank'^ {Joel'", Shadrack*, ShadracJi^, Nathan- 
ieP, Shadmch^), born January 15, 1814; spent his minority 
on the farm with his father ; received such education as the 


district schools of that day afforded, and established for him- 
self a high character for industry, energy, and fidelity. After 
attaining his majority, he worked in several towns, among 
them Ashburnham, in a tannery. While engaged here, he 
married and took his young bride to his home, in 1839. 
February 28, 1842, he was left a widower with an infant 
child, who was kindly cared for by his maternal grandmother 
in Harvard, where he was born. April 9, 1843, he married 
his second wife ; returned to Harvard in 1844, purchased the 
Robbins farm in the northwesterly part of the town, and 
turned his attention to farming. This, however, did not 
prove as lucrative as he had anticipated, and the California 
gold fever, that led away so many of our best young men 
in 1849, carried him also. Placing the farm, with his wife 
and three small children, in the care of his brother Warren, 
he, with others, took passage, December' 7, 1849, on board 
the ship " Marcia Cleves " for San Francisco, via Cape Horn, 
to seek a fortune in that auriferous region. When the 
tedious six months' voyage was ended, a "sea of troubles" 
still environed the fortune hunters. No framed houses had at 
that time been erected in San Francisco, which to-day is the 
finest built city on the Pacific coast ; thousands of miners 
from all parts of the world were rushing in the wildest con- 
fusion for the mines ; Jonathan and his companions were 
among them. He remained, working in the mines about two 
years with moderate success, returning in November, 185 1, 
for his family. From this project he was, however, diverted ; 
his father, then about sixty-four, felt the necessity of secur- 
ing some one to take charge of the farm, and himself, then 
growing feeble, he offered it to him on condition that he 
should during his lifetime, and that of his wife, receive one 


half the products of the farm. This was accepted and faith- 
fully performed to the end. Jonathan had inherited from his 
ancestry — dating back in this country on the paternal side 
to 1656, and on the maternal side to 1633 — not a large, but 
well knit, muscular, wiry frame that seemed never to become 

Probably no man of his age and weight (about 157 pounds) 
in that town had ever performed more hard labor than he. 
In 1854 he built the large barn, and from time to time 
greatly improved the farm. He was blessed with twelve 
children, and the half income of the farm being inadequate to 
their support, the deficit was supplied by his indomitable 
energy, lumbering in winter, and doing outside work with his 
team at other seasons. Nor was he deficient in mental vigor ; 
a genial, social companion of considerable vivacity, quick at 
repartee, a good neighbor, true as steel and as trenchant, and 
thoroughly imbued with that stern integrity so characteristic 
of the Pilgrim Fathers. His principal amusements were with 
rod and gun, and he was justly counted one of the best shots 
in Worcester County. He was also an expert pickerel fish- 

He was fond of music, and many a social party was indebted 
to his violin and sonorous prompting for their evening's 
amusement. Still vigorous and active at sixty-two, he was 
planning new enterprises and improvements on the farm. 
Late in the autumn of 1875, he began to feel some derange- 
ment of the stomach and digestive organs ; along into winter 
he experienced some difficulty of breathing, grew weaker, 
food was rejected, as in dyspepsia ; said he had a " lump " in 
his stomach ; as spring approached he was unable to work, 
and the farm was carried on by other hands. He could retain 


no food upon his stomach, and what nourishment he obtained 
at last was by absorption. He died August 29, 1876. An 
autopsy disclosed an indurated cancer in the pyloris, which 
entirely closed that canal, so that no food could pass from 
the stomach to the intestines, and death ensued from abso- 
lute starvation. Not so painful at first, but seriously dis- 
tressing at last ; and yet he was beautifully calm, brave and 
uncomplaining, retaining his mental faculties up to within a 
few moments of the end. 

He married, first, December 25, 1839, Susan, daughter of 
Charles and Susan (Randall) Wetherbee of Harvard, born 
November 26, 1822. She died February 28, 1842. He 
married, second, in Ashburnham, April 9, 1843, Dolly 
Mosman, born in Westminster, September 29, 1822; died 
at the house of her daughter, Susan (Hapgood) Leonard, in 
Marlboro', Massachusetts, January 4, 1894. Interment at 

57 I. Alfred Warren^ (by first marriage), born November 17, 

1841 ; married, at Harvard, March 3, 1861, Eliza 
Rebecca Davis. 
II. Susan Wetherbee' (by second marriage), born December 
31, 1845, at Harvard; married, July 10, 1872, John 
Hiram, son of Hiram and Hannah (Drake) Leonard, 
born April 23, 1831, at Stoughton, Massachusetts; 
educated there in the public schools; graduated from 
Bridgewater academy, 1847; learned the painter's 
trade in Stoughton; carried on the business in several 
towns up to the breaking out of the War of Rebellion; 
enlisted, September 14, 1861, in Company I, First 
regiment, Massachusetts Cavalry Volunteers, for three 
years; served out his term, and was mustered out in 
front of Petersburg, Virginia; returned home and 
worked three years in the Navy Yard at Charlestown ; 
followed painting in Hudson, Ayer, Leominster and 
Marlboro', where he now resides, receiving a small 
pension from the government ; no children. 


III. Hiram Fairbank'', born January 31, 1848 ; drowned, together 

with Albert and John Oscar Rand, while skating on 
"Old Mill "pond. Harvard, November 21, 1861. 

IV. Theodore Goldsmith^, born February 25, 1850; died 

April 17, 1851. 
V. Sarah Mosman^ born October 10, 1852; died July 9, 1870, 
of consumption. 
VI. Mary Elizabeth^, born December 26, 1853; died June 10, 
1869, of typhoid fever. 
58 VII. Jonathan Gardner^, born in Harvard, February 10, 1855; 
married, December 23, 1877, Mary Adaline Barnard. 
VIII. Hannah Gamage', born November 4, 1856; married, Sep- 
tember 25, 1879, Frederick Alonzo, son of Francis L. 
and Susan A. Joslin, born in Leominster, August 14, 
1855; educated in the common schools; learned the 
trade of shoemaking of Isaac Smith, with whom he 
lived for eleven years after the death of his father, in 
i860; became an expert shoe and shirt cutter; now 
employed by -the G. A. Gane Shirt Company in 
. Leominster; an upright, industrious, reliable man; 
built a house on Oak avenue, Leominster, 1895, where 
he resides, much respected. 


1. Theodore Goldsmith^ Joslin, born February 20, 

IX. Ella Maria^, born February 11, 1858 ; lived with her parents 
till September 4, 1876, when she resided with her 
uncle Warren, in Boston; attended school for three 
years; learned dressmaking, and in October, 1882, 
removed to Leominster with the intention of pursuing 
that business, but her health requiring more exercise, 
she felt obliged to abandon that occupation, and on the 
I2th of December, 1883, entered the employ of F. A. 
Whitney & Company, as trimmer in their large baby- 
carriage factory in Leominster. She became interested 
in the Orthodox Congregational church, to which she 
was united November 6, 1887, becoming an active, use- 
ful co-worker in that organization. Having a taste for 
music, she learned to play the guitar, and often joined 
a troupe to entertain an audience. She remained in 
the trimming department of the factory up to the time 


of her marriage to Fred Austin Spring, April 26, 1S93; 
resides in Leominster; a mason by trade. 

1. Warren Hapgood^ Spring, born June 19, 1895. 

59 X. Charles Butler'', born August 21, 1859; married, August 

25, 1880, Frances Augusta Foster of Harvard. 
XL Theodore Goldsmith^ born October 18, i860; died March 
ID, 1883, at Duane, Adirondacks, New York. The 
following obituary appeared in the Clinton Courant 
of April 14, 1S83, which we reproduce in full, as giving 
a better account of his life than we could give to-day. 


" The subject of this notice, Theodore Goldsmith Hapgood, was born 
in the old Hapgood mansion, at Harvard, Massachusetts, on the i8th of 
October, i860. Up to the age of ten he had lived with his parents on 
the farm, attending the district school and making such progress as boys 
of his age usually make. His uncle, Warren Hapgood of Boston, 
believed young Theodore better adapted to some other field of activity 
than farming, and proposed to his father, the late Jonathan F. Hapgood, 
to take the boy and educate him either for mercantile or professional 

After much misgiving the proposition was accepted, and on September 
7, 1871, he bade adieu to his native hills and took up his abode with his 
uncle. The training in a village school is somewhat different from a 
city, and in some respects he was hardly up in his studies to enter a 
grammar school, but through the kindness of Master Page and a pledge 
from his uncle that he should keep abreast with his class, he was, 
September 11, admitted to the Dwight grammar school. He was now 
nearly eleven years of age, a gentle, timid, delicate boy, as innocent and 
unsophisticated as could be imagined, but full of kindness of heart, 
sweetness of disposition, and a determination to do his whole duty, 
unflinchingly and without complaint. He was what would be called a 
thoroughly ^(7^^ boy. Seven years were most agreeably spent in the 
Dwight school where, by his great industry, patiently toiling through 
his home lessons and obtaining a double promotion, he graduated, 
receiving his diploma July 2, 1877. 

In point of scholarship he was not the highest, nor was he ever numer- 
ically below the middle of his class, and sometimes he was "head boy." 
During the whole time he was in school he lost not a day by sickness 
nor was he absent but a single day, and that to attend the funeral of his 
honored father, September i, 1876; and what is more remarkable and 
greatly to his credit, we do not recall a single instance of a "tardy." 
It is a great thing to train a boy to regular habits, because it is of incal- 
culable service to him in after life. The report of his teacher was 
usually "conduct excellent." As several of his fellow graduates from 
the grammar school had decided to enter the Roxbury high school he 
concluded to join them, and entered September, 1877. For two years 

G^beoCiorc ©olDsmitb 1bapgoo&. 


the same habits of industry and punctuality that had carried him suc- 
cessfully through the grammar school won for him the love of his 
teachers and the respect of his classmates in the Roxbury high school. 
Military drill is one of the excellent auxiliaries to the Boston system of 
high-school education. Theodore was fond of this kind of exercise, 
becoming quite efficient in tactics, even competing for the individual 
prize. Company A, Roxbury high school, to which he belonged, won 
the first prize both years, at the prize drill at Boston Theatre. 

He regarded the last year in the high school as more ornamental than 
useful, and as he was in the nineteenth year of his age, and as he had 
decided to adopt a mercantile rather than a professional field of duty, 
and, moreover, feeling that the time spent in a store, at his age, would be 
of more value to him than in a schoolhouse, he abandoned the last year 
of his course, and on September 23, 1879, entered a store, selecting the 
leather business as most congenial to his taste. During the winter of 
1S81-82 he attended an evening class in Comer's Commercial college. 
Late in February he took, in these rooms, a slight cold, and as the season 
advanced, instead of removing it he seemed to add more to it. It did 
not, however, cause serious alarm till early in April, when a physician 
was summoned, his lungs examined and found to be inflamed, but not 
necessarily dangerously so. He was always so patient, brave and 
uncomplaining that it was difficult to determine how seriously he was 
affected. As the cough became more aggravated, a trip to a more con- 
genial clime was suggested, and on May 3 he took passage on board 
steamer for Norfolk, visiting Baltimore, Washington and Richmond, 
without receiving the slightest benefit. His physician next recom- 
mended some hill country, and he was sent to his native town of Harvard. 
This was as signal a failure as the southern trip, and only seemed to 
provoke the cough, under the baleful influence of which, he was losing 
nearly half a pound in weight daily. Another examination of the lungs 
revealed the melancholy fact that his lungs were much inflamed, and 
that he was in a very critical condition. 

As a last resort his physician now advised his being sent to the 
Adirondack woods, hoping that the fir-impregnated atmosphere of that 
elevated region would heal the lungs and restore him to health. Fortu- 
nately a consumptive man who owned a camp and had lived on Lake 
Meacham — one of the most beautiful lakes in the world — was found, 
and he kindly undertook to carry the patient thither and to take care of 
him and administer to his wants. On July 11 they set out upon their 
tedious journey, and two days later the weary pilgrims arrived in camp. 
The " Lake Meacham Hotel," admirably kept by A. R. Fuller, was hard 
by the camp, and here thev were to get their meals. The atmosphere 
here, at an elevation of 1,600 feet above sea level, is very pure, and our 
patient improved slightly, giving promise of ultimate victory. But this 
insiduous disease, phthisis, feels not the throbbing heart of relative or 
friend, and is ever ready to deceive. The patient gained two pounds in 
weight in a short time, and the night sweats nearly ceased. All this, 
however, was before winter set in. 

As the Lake Meacham House was to be closed for the winter, the 
patient was removed to the well-kept hotel of William J. Ayres, at Duane, 
ten miles from Meacham and fifteen from Malone. Relays of fruit and 
game were sent to him and every care taken of his physical comfort. The 
most hopeful symptom in the case was, that he ate and slept well. He 


struggled on bravely and cheerfully through the winter, never losing 
heart, and probably never for a moment doubting that he should win and 
come out a healthy man. But, despite all efforts to the contrary, he 
gradually failed as the spring approached. His last letter, dated March 
4, represented him as walking with some difficulty, but still it was cheer- 
ful in tone. A telegram on the afternoon of March lo, announced the 
sad intelligence of his death at 10.20 A. m. of that day. The body was 
expressed to Ayer, and the funeral obsequies held on Thursday, March 1 5, 
from Unitarian church in Harvard, and the remains were deposited in 
the family lot, where also repose the ashes of his father, brothers and 

Of his character, it hardly becomes us, who have for twelve years been 
constantly with him and watched over his education and development, to 
speak, and yet we can not refrain from expressing our appreciation 
of his uniform courtesy, kindness and gentleness of temper, his affec- 
tionate and unselfish disposition and readiness to do a favor for others. 
The advice of Wolsey to Cromwell, " Be just and fear not," seemed to 
find a home in his heart. He was one of those rare specimens of a boy 
who did not think the world all made for him. Nothing seemed to give 
him greater pleasure than to show attention and respect to elderly peo- 
ple, often going out of his way and sacrificing a delightful hour with 
young people, to do them a kindness. He was in no sense 2, fast young 
man, was strictly temperate in all his habits, never, to our knowledge, 
using tobacco or spirituous liquors — except as a medicine in his last 
sickness — in any form. In his youth he was feeble and small of his 
age, but as he advanced in years he became more robust and hardy, and 
at the age of twenty was but little below medium size. Quite as much 
care had been bestowed upon his physical as his mental development, 
particularly during his grammar school period. 

He became early attached to the Reverend Doctor Edward Everett 
Hale's Sunday school and society, was baptized by him on Easter Sunday, 
April 5th, 1874, was deeply interested in the Sunday school, especially 
while in Mr. Hale's own class, where he was much beloved by his teacher. 
At the risk of wearying the reader, we make the following extract from a 
letter received from a very intelligent gentleman, who was for several 
years his teacher in a more advanced class in the Sunday school: — 
" In running back over my memory of our being together in the Sunday 
school, I have only one thought of him, a manly, true-hearted young 
man; his bearing in the class was as nearly perfect as it was possible to 
be, setting a high tone and example to the others, always loyal, earnest 
and faithful in all he did, and helpful to me in everything. There were 
few in that large class of some thirty young people, who won my respect 
and affection more than he did. I had some earnest talks with him, and 
I knew that his aims were high, and that the standard he set for himself 
was one only to be reached by a truly religious consecration. But your 
devotion and faithful affection has had its reward in seeing so earnest, 
pure-minded and faithful a spirit taking on new graces day by day, as 
the years from childhood to youth passed on into his young manhood, 
giving such promise of usefulness, which now must have its fruition in 
another world." 

Faithful to every duty at home, in school, in the church, and particu- 
larly in his business, where he was as prompt and faithful as he had 


been in the other walks of life, his genial temperament and gentlemanly 
conduct brought around him warm friends and admirers. Does any one 
doubt that with these traits and tendencies, had he lived, he would have 
made for himself an honorable mark in the world — would have left a 
reputation and a name any one might be justly proud of as a Boston 
merchant? We do not, but an All-wise Providence has seen fit to 
remove him just as he was upon the threshold of usefulness, and we are 
left to mourn his loss." 

Boston, March 31st, 1883. h. 

XII. Martha Ann'', born May 23, 1862; died October 22, of the 
same year. 


Warren^ {Joel^, Shadmc/i*, SJiadrach^, NathanieP, 
Shadrach^), born October 14, 18 16. 

" Advantageously known as a merchant and a gentleman of 
liberal attainments and enviable social position, is properly 
the father of this genealogy. For he it was, who, impressed 
with the various uses it might subserve, and affectionately 
regardful of the benefit of the race, first conceived the enter- 
prise of snatching it from oblivion ; and it has been through 
his liberality alone that the labors of compilation have been 
sustained. This acknowledgment may satisfy him, but not 
his many obliged and ardent friends, nor the Hapgood race. 
All will be curious to know the minute history of a cousin 
who has placed them under such obligations. 

He was born in Harvard, upon the original Hapgood farm 
in that town. In childhood he was sprightly but not robust ; 
entered with zest into the sports of his playmates, but had 
no instifictive willingness for labor upon the farm. He was 
early sent to the district school, where he was marked for 
attention to his books, and rare proficiency in every branch 
of study which he pursued. In his youth he conceived a 
desire for a liberal education ; but instead of being sent to 
college he was placed in a store at Fitchburg, spring of 
1834, where his employer soon failed, and he returned to the 


farm, for which the father fondly designed him. A youth, 
however, who had begun to yearn for college, would not be 
a farmer." 

His stepmother, a most excellent woman, with a kind and 
generous heart, and sound judgment, took in the situation, 
and used her best endeavor to have him released from the 
farm, so distasteful to him, and to place him in a more con- 
genial position, and one better suited to his capacity. Early 
in September, 1834, the way was opened for him to enter 
the large general merchandise store of Archibald Babcock, 
on Charlestown Neck. Goods purchased in Boston by mer- 
chants of New Hampshire and Vermont were transported 
thither by heavy six or eight-horse teams. Babcock kept a 
large stable and lodging rooms, and it became a rendezvous 
for these teams and the farmers who marketed their own 
produce. The teamsters often had orders to buy heavy 
articles, such as molasses, salt, etc., and much of that trade 
fell to this store. The introduction of the railroad system, 
soon after this period, ruined this business. Warren's salary 
for the first year was $25 and board in the family of Mr. 
Babcock. He drew no money from his father, and at the 
end of the year had a balance in the treasury, which was 
increased by a present of five dollars from his employer. 
The second year his salary was doubled, but the sale of the 
business to Simonds & Ford, and the retirement of Bab- 
cock before the end of the year, threw him out, and he had 
to seek employment elsewhere. He had, by force of cir- 
cumstances, been obliged to practise the most rigid economy, 
and it was a good lesson for him. It is a blessing in disguise 
for any young man to be .brought in touch with poverty. If 
by energy and force of character he works his way out, he 
knows how difficult and dangerous the road is, and he will 


be more likely in after life to sympathize with and assist 
those who are struggling in that direction. Every step for- 
ward will bring its reward, and having reached the goal of 
his ambition, he is equipped to enjoy every blessing that 
wealth may bring, and more likely to share it with others 
than if reared in affluence. 

It is so easy for a young man, from day to day, to fritter 
away his small earnings, and then when he is old, have 
nothing to fall back upon, or rely on to carry him into 
business, and he must forever play a subordinate part in the 
drama of life. He, however, found employment in a count- 
ing-room in Boston, where nearly eight years were spent, at 
first as assistant and next as principal book-keeper and 
manager of the business. 

" During this period a fine opportunity occurred for indulg- 
ing his early desire for reading. The large libraries of Boston 
were now accessible to him, and he left no moment to be 
wasted in idleness. He appropriated much of his first earn- 
ings to the purchase of books, and took lessons in book- 
keeping, chemistry, rhetoric, the French language, etc. He 
also belonged to several literary societies, sharing in their 
honors and offices. But the labors of the counting-house 
and his reading at home — the latter frequently extending 
through the entire night — made such inroads upon his 
health it was deemed necessary for him for a time to give 
up book-keeping, which he did, and spent the winter of 
1843-4 ^t the home of his youth in Harvard. He had 
never fully abandoned the hope of a liberal education, 
and at this period, having accumulated sufficient funds, he 
seriously contemplated entering college ; but a difficulty of 
the eyes, together with his advanced years, induced him, 
with much reluctance, forever to abandon it. His active 
mind and temperament required employment, and in the 
spring of i844he returned to Boston and resumed his former 


employment. Still feeble in health, which was augmented 
by the confinement of a counting-room, he at the end of the 
year determined to try a more active life. He now engaged 
with a wool and domestic goods commission house, as travel- 
ling agent through the Western States ; an employment for 
which his address eminently fitted him. So successful was 
he, that he was solicited to visit the Southern States for the 
same firm, which he did, spending part of the winter of 
1845-6 in New Orleans. Another year was spent in the 
same capacity, travelling through New England and New 
York, and in attending to the correspondence of the house. 
He adopted the wise plan of keeping a full journal of all his 
travels. He also made many pleasant acquaintances, and 
obtained much valuable information. Greatly improved in 
health, he now determined never again to enter a counting- 
house, and in August, 1847, embarked in the cloth and 
clothing business." 

A copartnership was formed with Samuel B. Appleton, 
under the firm name of Hapgood & Appleton, for the pur- 
pose of doing a ready-made clothing and tailoring business, 
at 18 Dock square, Boston. At the end of the first year the 
firm was dissolved and Hapgood assumed the responsibilities 
of the concern. The business increased, and in 1855 he 
removed to the large store, 50 Washington street, where he 
conducted the three branches, ready-made clothing, tailoring, 
and gentlemen's furnishing goods. 

The store was demolished in 1872, and he moved to 
number 48, next door. The block in which 48 was situated 
was sold to A. J. Wilkinson, hardware merchant, and in 
1874 he removed to chambers, 383 Washington street, 
where he remained about four years, and in February, 1878, 
removed to 17 Court street. In 1886, he decided that in 
the following year he would retire, having been fifty-three 
years in active business, forty of which had been on his own 


account ; never borrowed money or asked for a discount, 
though said to be the oldest depositor in the Exchange 
Bank, and always paid one hundred cents on the dollar. On 
the first of February, 1887, he turned the business over to 
the Messrs. Richardson & Swett, two of his experienced 
employees. The building, 17 Court street, was, in 1889, 
taken down to make room for a more modern structure, and 
the young firm moved to 21 Court street, taking the old 
proprietor with them, where he may still be found, a hale 
and hearty octogenarian. It took several years to settle up 
the affairs of the old concern, but in 1888, he, with his wife, 
spent about four months travelling in Europe. Other 
journeys were made, in later years, to the Pacific Coast, 
Yellowstone Park, Canada, the Saguenay River, and other 
points of interest in America. 

His mother died of consumption when he was barely three 
years old, and as he advanced in age, the fatal disease 
appeared to have made a lodgement in him. Later on, that 
most distressing malady, asthma, assailed him, and for many 
years tormented him fearfully ; then quietly disappeared, 
almost entirely. During these critical periods, his physician, 
the late Doctor Oliver Wendell Holmes, then a practising 
physician in Boston, advised more out-of-door exercise. The 
change from the active duties of a New England farmer boy 
to the close confinement and mental work of a counting- 
room, together with change of diet consequent, was too 
much for a constitution, not naturally robust. The physi- 
cian's recommendation was adopted, and as sporting was his 
choice, whenever a few hours could be snatched from busi- 
ness, they were appropriated in that way. The beaches and 
marshes of East Boston, at that period, offered a fair field 


for marsh-bird shooting, and thither he occasionally repaired, 
with gratifying results in health, if not in hunting. This, 
however, could not be indulged in to any great extent while 
he was employed as a clerk, but when he went into business 
for himself, it was different, and he could gratify his taste 
and spend more time afield than before. That order of 
Doctor Holmes was undoubtedly the initiative to his future 
sporting career. 

Partridge, woodcock and snipe were much more abundant 
fifty years ago than at present, and their pursuit afforded 
him ample exercise and amusement. After his brother 
Jonathan came in possession of the homestead farm, that 
was the most favorite resort. Jonathan was also fond of 
gunning, and was a most cheerful companion, an excellent 
shot, and an indomitable worker. The dogs and guns received 
the best of treatment under his supervision, and he and his 
team were ever in readiness for a tramp. For more than a 
quarter-century were the coverts of not only their native 
town, but other towns contiguous, beaten over with satisfac- 
tory results. Jonathan was, furthermore, an expert fisher- 
man, especially for pickerel, and the two brothers did not 
neglect the trout streams in that vicinity. After the death 
of his brother, Warren found other resorts, but for several 
years has devoted some time to shore-bird shooting. "The 
grasshopper is a burden " at eighty, and the limbs, as well 
as the mental faculties, at that age, are less elastic and 
nimble than at forty, and long tramps afield become tedious 
and irksome. His love of nature, and keen observation of 
the ways and habits of birds and animals, led him to the 
study of ornithology, and to the collecting of specimens ; his 
collection now embraces nearly all of the Limicolae (shore 


birds), as well as the game birds of New England, with many- 
others. He often remarked that he did not regret any day 
or dollar spent in sporting, and he firmly believed that if 
business men would, before it was too late, take an occasional 
day off, in some kind of congenial out-of-door exercise and 
amusement, there would not be as many total wrecks of 
body and mind, as at present reported. It is the "ounce of 
preventive" that is better than the "pound of cure." Nor 
did he confine himself alone to the woods and waters of his 
native State. He fished and hunted the Adirondack and 
Rangeley regions ; caught trout in the Merced, Yellowstone 
and Washington Territory (now State) streams ; spent a part 
of six or eight winters in North Carolina, quail (partridge) 
shooting; organized the Monomoy Branting Club in 1862, 
and was its president and manager for thirty-four years ; has 
been a member of the Massachusetts Fish and Game Protec- 
tive Association twenty years ; also a member of the Boston 
Art Club, and the Museum of Fine Arts, the Bostonian 
Society, the New England Historic-Genealogical Society; 
belongs to Doctor Edward Everett Hale's church, and the 
Hale Club ; has served on the Boston School Board ; always 
a Whig or Republican ; subscribes liberally to periodical and 
other literature; donated a handsome sum to complete the 
Public Library of his native town, and made an address at its 
dedication ; presented her citizens a clock to be placed upon 
the Unitarian church; published, in 1894, a History of Har- 
vard for free distribution, no copy ever being sold ; and wrote 
numerous articles for the press, mostly on sporting matters. 
Unfortunately for him, he had no children to share with and 
enjoy the results of his life-work, but he contributed in 
various ways to aid in such worthy objects as came to his 


notice. He took his brother's son, Theodore Goldsmith 
Hapgood, when he was about nine years old, and kept him 
in school about as much longer, and would have cheerfully 
fitted and sent him to college, but the young man preferred 
mercantile business, and the purpose was abandoned. He 
also aided several of his brother's other children in the way 
of education. 

It was through his instrumentality that Hell Pond, in 
Harvard, was stocked with black bass. The fish were taken 
from Half-Way Pond, in Plymouth, by Thomas Pierce and 
transported to Boston by rail, carted across the city to Fitch- 
burg railroad, and thence to Ayer, where they were met by 
Jonathan F. Hapgood with an ox team, in a pouring rain, and 
the tanks conveyed to the pond, where the seventeen large 
bass were liberated, the effort proving in every way successful. 
He was also most conspicuous in introducing European quail 
{Coturnix Communis) into this country. Of the thousands 
that were afterwards imported, from some cause unknown, 
none are believed to have survived. 

" The active duties of business absorbing much of his time, 
he has found less leisure than formerly for literary pursuits ; 
yet these have not been wholly neglected, nor the happy 
effects of previous culture obscured. In social intercourse 
he is frank without being abrupt, genial and sympathetic ; 
and many bear witness to his kindness and generosity. 

"As a merchant he is high minded, honorable and ener- 
getic. Abhorring those little tricks that tradesmen some- 
times resort to, and believing that mere pecuniary gain at 
the cost of honor is not success, he has won for himself a 
reputation worthy of emulation. 

"Mr. Hapgood married, January 14, 1852, Julia Adelaide 
Gamage, a lady of congenial tastes, who had enjoyed the 
advantages of public and private schools in Boston, receiving 

Julia BOclaiDe (©amatie) tbapgooD. 


medals from each as the award of scholarship. From her 
youth to the present time she has been engaged as pupil, 
teacher, and patron of Sunday schools, and takes an active 
part in the support and management of various other charit- 
able institutions. She was born July 28, 1821, in Boston, 
the daughter of Nathaniel and Sarah (Cowdin) Gamage, and 
the granddaughter of William Gamage, M. D., of Cambridge, 
by his second wife, Lucy Watson, and great granddaughter 
of William and Abigail Gamage of Cambridge, and great 
great granddaughter of Joshua and Deborah (Wyeth) Gamage 
of Cambridge, the common ancestor of all of the name in 
this country. He was not improbably a merchant from 
London, where only was the name reported two hundred and 
fifty years ago, and then in connection with knighthood. 
On the maternal side, Mrs. Hapgood was the granddaughter 
of Daniel Cowdin, by his wife, Zabiah Davis, who was the 
daughter of the honored and revered General Amasa Davis 
of Boston, born August 17, 1744; died January 30, 1825, 
who married Sarah Whitney, daughter of William and Mary 
(Pierce) Whitney of Weston, and great great granddaughter 
of John and Elinor Whitney of Watertown. 

Nathaniel Gamage was a merchant of Boston, born in 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, December 18, 1793 ; died Janu- 
ary 3, 1823; married. May 24, 181 2, Sarah Cowdin, born 
July 27, 1794, in Boston, where she died March 2, 1867." 

No children. 



William Estabrook Stearns^ {James*^, Abrahanv', 
Ephraim^, HezekiaJ^, NathanieP, Shadrach^), born Novem- 
ber 19, 1823, at Acton; married, February 17, 1847, at 
Lowell, Massachusetts, Maria Haven, born October 19, 18 19, 


at Laconia, New Hampshire. He died at Lowell, Febru- 
ary 1 6, 1872 ; by trade a painter. His widow survives him. 


I. Frank Wesley^ born April 23, 1848; married, January 25, 
1878, Jennie Ingalls Hildreth, born in Lowell, May 22, 
1849, where he resides, a machinist. 
II. Mary Louisa^ born April 23, 1848, twin with Frank Wesley ; 

died August 25, 1849, ^^ Lowell. 
III. James^ born December 25, 1850; married, May 14, 1879, 
Etta May Huckins, born June 9, 1859, at Deerfield, 
New Hampshire; resides in Lowell, a machinist; s. p. 
IV. Charles Haven^, born October 18, 1853 ; married, Decem- 
ber 26, 1875, Luella Googin of Lowell, where he 
resides, a jeweler. 

I. Sarah Mariah^, born June 9, 1877. 


Ephraim' {Ep/waim^, Ephrainv', Ephraim*, HezekiaJ^, 
Nathaniel', Skadrach^), born September 16, 1812; went to 
Lowell, 1832 ; learned the carpenter's trade ; worked at mill- 
wright business ; became associated with Milton Aldrich for 
about seven years in the manufacture of shuttles and wood 
screws, then went into tinware and stove business with Wil- 
liam T. and Charles P. Whitten, and next into junk, rag, 
cotton waste and paper stock, which he pursued till 1870, 
when he started a mattress factory, which resulted in the 
present extensive establishment of E. Hapgood & Son, High 
street, Lowell. He married, February 19, 1837, Harriet 
Amanda, daughter of Joseph and Eleanor (Taylor) Whitten 
of Cavendish, Vermont. He died November 30, 1873. His 
widow still survives him. 


Edwin D.S born October 26, 1838, at Lowell; married, Jan- 
uary 12, 1862, Mary Agnes, daughter of Mathew and 
Lucinda (Elkins) Currier of North Troy, Vermont, born 
May 12, 183S. She died January 6, 1892. 

1. Frank Elkins', born October 20, 1862, at Lawrence ; 
married, October 15, 1890, Nettie Anderson of 
North Cape, Racine County, Wisconsin, born 
November 12, 1864; resides in Chicago, Illinois; 
in mattress business. No children. 
II. George Currier^ born May 14, 1865; died Janu- 
ary 29, 1869. 

Edgar^ born April i, 1845; resides in Lowell in company 
with his brother Edwin, as successors to their father's 
extensive business ; unmarried. 


Andrew^ {Ephraim^, Ephrawv", Ephraim^, Hezekiah^^ 
Nathaniel, ShadracJi}), born at the home of his father, near 
the Fitchburg railroad crossing, West Acton, August 28, 
1823 ; educated at the district and private schools ; remained 
on the farm during his minority ; went to Lovv^ell and worked 
at various kinds of mechanical business. His father being 
feeble, he returned, 1847, to Acton; and assisted in carrying 
on the farm till his death, February 3, 1849; he then pur- 
chased of the heirs their interest in the estate, where he has 
since lived, and, by industry and frugality, prospered. This 
farm which Ephraim^ bought was known as the " Brooks 
estate." Andrew held the office of Justice of Peace for thirty 
years, and served the town in several minor offices ; married, 
August 12, 1846, at Lowell, Eliza Ann, daughter of William 
and Martha Lawrence Adams of Hollis, New Hampshire. 


I. Esther Ann^ born at Acton, July 12, 1847 ; married, Decem- 
ber 16, 1874, James Trescott Dinsmore of Lubeck, 
Maine, born April 21, 1847; resides in Dorchester; 
in the employ of the American Rubber Company, 


1. Walter Andrew^ Dinsmore, born November 25, 

II. Lucius^ born February 14, 185 1; educated for business; 
was in the employ of Messrs. Peters & Derby, at 
Hudson; much esteemed for integrity and business 
capacity; died September 30, 1870. 

III. Josephine^ born July 31, 1854; married. May 19, 1875, in 

Acton, Samuel Spencer Perkins, who has for many 
years been a leading grocer in Lynn, Massachusetts. 
She died December 30, 1892. 


1. Charles Shipley' Perkins, born April 17, 1876. 

2. Samuel Ernest', born April 22, 1878. 

3. Clarence Andrew', born October 15, 1884. 

4. Albert Harrison?, born October 12, 1888. 

5. Edith Eliza', born December 2, 1890. 

6. Nelson Wolcott?, born May 13, 1892. 

IV. Irving^ born July 7, 1858, at West Acton; removed to 

Lynn, in 1879; married, September 30, 1885, Annie M. 
Kennedy of Whitefield, Maine ; is with his brother-in- 
law, S. S. Perkins, in the grocery and provision 


L Roy Glendon', born November 4, 1888. 

V. Ellsworth^, born February 26, 1 861 ; married, September 
30, 1890, Eliza Ellen Tabour, born July 20, 1857, at 
Salem. He resides in Lynn; proprietor of the well 
known and popular Lynn express. 

I. Edna Frances', born November 4, 1892. 
II. Mabel Eliza', born June 14, 1895. 
III. Marion Esther', born June 30, 1896. 


VI. Herbert^ born November 15, 1865; resides in Cambridge- 
port; traveling agent for Plymouth Rock Gelatine 
Company; unmarried. 


Cyrus^ {Nat/ianiel^, Ephrahn^, Ephraim*, Hesekiah^, 
NatkanieP, Shadrach^), born July 16, 1818, at Acton ; mar- 
ried, January 18, 1842, Eleanor Wheeler, born February 23, 
1817; died March 31, i860, in Cambridge, and he married 
second, March 7, 1861, Mrs. Abby H. Lewis, daughter of 
Josiah Davis, Esquire, of Concord, born September 6, 1817; 
died February 8, 1895, at Everett. At the age of fourteen, 
he went to work for his uncle Stowe in his soap and candle 
factory in Concord, and at nineteen, succeeded him in that 
business. Two years later, 1839, the factory was burned and 
he lost everything, except "pluck." He next went into the 
butchering business with Jabez Reynolds, in Concord. After- 
wards he removed to Bedford, where for eight years he was 
in the meat business. He then moved to Cambridge, where 
for fifteen years he conducted a wholesale slaughter-house 
for Boston market, and then retired from active business, and 
has resided in Newtonville, Acton, and now in Everett, Mas- 


60 I. Cyrus Stowe^ born November 23, 1842, at Concord; mar- 

ried Clara Augusta Conner. 
II. Henry Augustus^ born March 16, 1845, ^^t Concord; died 
March 4, 1849, ^t Bedford. 
III. Ellen Frances^ born August 24, 1849; resides with her 
venerable father in Everett. 



Joseph^ {Nathaniel^, Ephraim^, Ephraim^, Hezekiah^^ 
Nathaniel, Shadrack^), born May 26, 1821 ; married, August 
II, 1847, Almira Jane, daughter of Nathaniel Holmes of 
Londonderry, New Hampshire, born August, 1827. She 
died September 28, 1868, at Gibsonville, Sierra County, 
California. He went to California in 185 1, but came back 
September, 1861, for his wife, two boys, and twin sister, and 
took passage on board steamer from New York, November 
I, 1 861, for his residence at Rocky Point, Sierra County. 
His present residence is Mohawk, Plumas County, California, 
farmer and miner, still expecting, at seventy-five, to realize a 
fortune from his mining interests. 

I. Nathan Henry*, born September 15, 1848, at Dorchester, 
New Hampshire; married, September 20, 1880, Alice, 
daughter of Henry M. and Eliza T. Kingsbury of 
Berlin, Wisconsin, born May 19, 1854; resides in 
Beckwith, Plumas County, California. 


1. Maude Estelle', born July 31, 1881, at Quincy, 

Plumas County, California. 
II. Iva Alice', born November 27, 1890, at Reno, 

III. Hattie May', born April 18, 1894, at Reno. 

II. Joseph Frank^ born June 7, 1850, at Dorchester, New 
Hampshire ; went west, engaged in stock raising on 
the south fork of Pitt River, Modoc County ; on June 

2, 1880, while attempting to ford the river with two 
horses, near Centerville, California, he was drowned, 
but no one ever knew how it happened. He was a 
man of excellent habits, fearless and determined, and 
had he lived would have made his mark in the world; 
was not married. 

III. Mary Lizzie^ born July 11, 1852, at Londonderry, New 
Hampshire; died August 11, 1853. 


IV. Nathaniel^ born September 27, 1862, at Gibsonville, Sierra 
County, California ; worked on the farm, with his 
father, at Mohawk Valley; resides at Wash, Plumas 
County, California; unmarried. 
V. Matthew Holmes^ born August 19, 1865, at Gibsonville; 
resides in Truckee, Plumas County, California; lum- 
berman; unmarried. 


Sherman Willard^ {Ephraini^, HezekiaJv', Ephrahn*, 
Hezekial^, NathauieP, Shadrach^), born January 12, 181 5 ; 
reared on the farm of his father Ephraim, in Waterford ; 
received a fair district school education, such as was 
accorded to the New England boy of that period ; removed, 
May, 1832, to North Anson ; learned the harness maker's 
trade, but subsequently went into hotel business with his 
brother-in-law, William Brown, keeping the Somerset House 
at North Anson. They also became interested in a line of 
stage coaches from Waterville to North Anson, via Nor- 
ridgewock, where they opened a hotel. After this, he fol- 
lowed farming at Anson for about two years. The next 
enterprise was a tannery, the product of which was converted 
into harnesses and boots. The sale of boots in that section 
was limited and he was obliged to ship his goods west for a 
market. In 1879, becoming weary of business and feeling 
old age slowly creeping upon him, he concluded to retire 
and enjoy the closing years of his life at North Anson, in the 
midst of his family and friends, where he was much beloved 
and esteemed. He married. May 4, 1839, Abigail, daughter 
of Joel and Abigail Fletcher of North Anson, born Octo- 
ber 12, 1820. He died September 23, 1896, in North Anson, 


I. George Edmund^ born January 21, 1838; married, 1873, 
Ella, daughter of Luke and Abigail Mantor of North 
Anson, born May 20, 1845. George was a trader 
at North Anson; removed to California, September 
12, 1859, and after varying fortunes, in 1868 he 
returned to the place of his birth, where he still 
resides ; a merchant. 

L Florence Talbott9, born March 10, 1874; married^ 
October 15, 1894, Charles Tarbell of George- 
town, Maine, born April 20, 1872. 
IL Nellie9, born January 9, 1877. 
IIL Sherman^, born September 11, 1884. 
IL William Henry^ born September 12, 1839, ^^ North Anson ; 
married, April 15, i860, Betsey Manley of Skowhegan^ 
Maine, born July 7, 1839. He was in the harness busi- 
ness, but abandoned it to join his brother Solon, in a 
hotel at Milford, Massachusetts. Went west, 1876^ 
and has not since been heard from. 

I. Caroline Manley', born November 11, i860; mar- 
ried, December 10, 1890, T. Starr Hittinger of 
Boston ; resides in Townsend, Massachusetts ; 
no children. 
IL Blanche Sherman', born January 14, 18.63 ; married, 
December, 1885, Charles W. Baxter; resides 
in Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

1. Alice'° Baxter, born March 29, 1885. 

2. Charles Sherman'°, born December 19, 1887. 
III. Solon Eugene^ born July 9, 1842; married, December 24, 

1868, Frances Libbey of Milford, born July 9, 1845. 
He was educated, with the other members of the fam- 
ily, in the district schools of North Anson; was a 
clerk in the Somerset House; i860, formed a co-part- 
nership under firm name of Hapgood & Thompson,^ 
as proprietors of the Curritunk House at Solon, Maine. 
Returning to North Anson, 1864, he opened a store for 
the sale of furniture, under firm name of Hapgood & 
Mantor. This proving unsatisfactory, he sold out and 


removed to Milford, 1871, where for a quarter century 
he has been the successful proprietor of the Mansion 
House in that flourishing town. 

I. Helen Maud', born October 18, 1869, at North 
Anson; married, January 10, 1890, Wallace 
Stimpson of Milford. 

IV. Abbie Frances^ born July 12, 1846; married, February 22, 
1863, George Frank, son of Dennis Moore, Judge of 
Probate for the county of Somerset, Maine, born 1835 ; 
resides in North Anson. 


1. Lewis Sherman' Moore, born December 24, 1865; 

died September 14, 1887. 

2. Fred Dennis', born October 12, 1870; resides in 

North Anson ; a farmer. 

3. Annie', born April 10, 1874. 

4. Eda', born October 10, 1876. 

V. Eda Augusta^ born July 12, 1846, twin with Abbie Frances ; 
married, June 8, 1868, Thomas Boyd, son of Manley 
and Almeda Townsend of Calais, Maine, born Febru- 
ary 28, 1844; removed, September i, 1890, to Kansas 
City, Missouri ; in real estate business ; Mrs. Townsend 
has a divided interest between her husband and her 
venerable father, and is part of the time with each ; s. p. 
VI. Fannie Estelle^, born June 18, 1843, at Norridgewock, 
Maine; married, October 10, 1871, William Caswell 
of North Anson ; a farmer. 

1. Gertrude' Caswell, born April 15, 1884. 


Charles C.^ {Ephraim'', HezekiaJt', Ephraim\ Hezekiah^, 
NathanieP, ShadracJi"), born July 31, 1821 ; married, Octo- 
ber 19, 1843, at North Anson, Salome Savage, born in King- 
field, March 9, 1824; he learned the trade of saddler and 


harness maker; spent two years in North Anson, two in 
Waterford, then returned to North Anson, where he died, 
May 9, i85i,and his widow removed, 1852, to Boston, where 
she has since resided. 


I. Albion Danville^ born March i, 1845, at Waterford; mar- 
ried, June 20, 1866, at East Boston, Delia Smith of 
Maine, born April 17, 1846; resided in Boston, a clerk; 
enlisted, January 4, 1863, in Third Massachusetts Cav- 
alry; was with General Banks in his Red River cam- 
paign, came home sick, was in Readville hospital six 
months ; returned to the front and served to the end 
of the war, when he was mustered out ; he removed 
to Omaha, Nebraska, 1869, and to West Glendale, 
Southern California, 1887; a small fruit grower, with 
a pension, and impaired health. 

Children, all but Hattie born in Omaha. 

I. Hattie', born April 17, 1867, at East Boston; mar- 
ried, 1889, Frank Vance of Ohio; resides in 
Los Angeles ; a carriage painter. 


1. Alice'° Vance, born January 8, 1894. 

2. EtheP°, born July 28, 1895. 

IL Charles'', born August 6, 1870; married, January 
15, 1896, at Ontario, Colorado, Alice Brown from 
Minneapolis; resides in Los Angeles; a clerk. 

III. Susan', born January 15, 1874; married, August 

18, 1892, Albert Miller of San Fernando, Cali- 


1. Stella"° Miller, born August 24, 1893. 

2. Annie'°, born June 23, 1896. 

IV. Stella', born July 11, 1876; died October 25, 1879. 
V. May', born March 10, 1881. 

VI. Alma', born September 18, 1885. 



William^ {William^, HezekiaJc', Ephraim^, Hezekiah^, 
Nathaniel'^, Shadrach^), born May 28, 18 14, at East Fryeburg, 
Maine; married, December 31, 1840, Marcia McKay, born 
at Westbrook, Maine, August 28, 18 16, and resides with her 
daughter, Mrs. Berry, in East Fryeburg, where WilHam died 
January 4, 1892 ; he had spent several summers in business 
at North Conway, New Hampshire. 

CHILDREN, all born in East Fryeburg. 
I. Charlottes born June i, 1842 ; died September 8, 1848. 
II. Marcia^ born June 13, 1843; married, July 20, 1862, Joshua 
Ames, son of Simeon and Sally Harnden of Denmark, 
Maine; she died May 23, 1865, and he, March 28, 1888. 

1. Byron Elwood^ Harnden, born June 25, 1863, at 
Denmark; resides in Bridgton, Maine. 

III. Henriettas born August 4, 1845 ; died July 12, 1851. 

IV. FranklinSbornJuly I, 1848; died July 17, 1851. 

V. Lottie^ born April 13, 1851; married, August 2, 1872, at 
Denmark, Harmon Velrufas, son of Joseph and Abigail 
Berry, born April 18, 1849, ^^ Denmark; resides in 
East Fryeburg; a farmer. 


1. Lulu Marcia' Berry, born October 31, 1877. 

2. William Hapgood^ born January 27, 1885. 

VI. WilliamS born May 20, 1853; died May 24, 1854. 
VII. WillisS born February 11, 1855; died November 11, 1855. 
VIII. George Leonard^ born June 8, 1857; died March 25, 1864. 
IX. Sherman^ born March 2, i860; married, November 24, 
1881, Lena May, daughter of Wyman and Eliza Harn- 
den of Fryeburg, born April 25, 1862 ; resides in Port- 
land, Maine ; a merchant ; no children. 


Andrew Sidney^ {Sprouf, Hezekiah^, Ephrahn^, Hezekiah^, 
Natha7iiel", Shadrach^), born September 14, 183 1 ; married, 


January i8, 1870, Annie Winter of Gloucester, Massachusetts,. 
born March 14, 1838; he received his early education in the 
public schools of Waterford, Maine, but later the family 
removed to Augusta, where his father died, and here he 
learned the tanner's trade and established himself in that busi- 
ness ; he afterwards moved to Boston, where he was employed 
in the lobster canning business on the coast of Maine, and in 
the oyster business on the Maryland coast. In 1864 he 
went to California and formed a copartnership with William 
Hume, and established the first salmon canning factory on 
the Pacific coast, at Sacramento, under the firm name of 
Hapgood & Co. Here they carried on the salmon canning 
business for two years. About this time they heard much 
of the great quantities of salmon that were found in the 
Columbia River, and of the superior quality of the fish. In 
1866 they erected the first salmon cannery on that river, at 
Eagle Cliff. This was the pioneer factory. Here they con- 
tinued the business until 1873, when the firm was dissolved 
and Mr. Hapgood built a new factory and works three miles 
below Eagle Cliff, calling it Waterford, after his native town, 
where he carried on the business of canning for two years. 
Failing health compelled him to give up business, and in 
August, 1875, he sold out. The following nine months he 
spent in California, and in May, 1876, he came East, where 
he died November 26, 1876, of consumption ; his widow sur- 
vives him, residing in Gloucester. 


I. Son^ born January 13, 1873 ! ^^^^ ^^ birth. 
II. Lyman Sawing born July 22, 1874, at Gloucester; was a 
student at Harvard University, class 1897. 


William Salmon^ {Ephraim^, Oliver^, Ephraim^, Heze- 
kiah^y NathanieP, Shadrach^), born June 17, 18 19; removed 
from Waterford to Bethel, 1830, with his parents, and in 
1863 to East Stratford, New Hampshire; carried on a large 
farm ; manufactured and sold lumber extensively ; was an 
energetic and enterprising man; married, March 23, 1843,. 
Rebecca Woodsum Mason, born in Gilead, Maine, May 
19, 1824; died July 18, 1891, of heart disease; he died of 
pneumonia, February 20, 1896, at the residence of his son 
Calvin, in Stratford. 


I. Abbie Scribner^ born May 29, 1844, at Bethel; married, 
March 11, 1865, William Pingreeof Denmark, born Jan- 
uary 10, 1843; resided in Fryeburg, Maine; removed 
to North Conway, New Hampshire, September 12, 


1. Georgiana9 Pingree, born March 9, 1866, at Den- 

mark ; married, September 9, 1883, at North 
Conway, New Hampshire. 

2. Fred William^, born September 6, 1871, at Bethel, 

twin with Wilhelmina; married, March 22, 1894, 
Arvilla Gordon of Fryeburg ; telegrapher. 

3. Wilhelmina', born September 6, 1871 ; kinder- 

gartner; unmarried. 

4. Charles Henry', born January 11, 1882, at Lovell. 

61 II. Charles Arthur^ born March 29, 1846; married, at Strat- 

ford, January 2, 1868, Jennie Vilonia Paguin. 
III. Catharine Matilda^ born April 18, 1848, at Bethel; married, 
October 21, 1866, at Norway, Simon, son of John and 
Judith Grover, born January, 1845, at Berlin, New 
Hampshire ; resides in Stoneham, Maine. 

1. Ada Louisa' Grover, born April 17, 1868, at Bethel, 
Maine ; married, October 27, 1888, James Edwin 
Day of Brownfield, Maine ; resides in Norway. 



1. Willie Loren'° Day. 

2. Mather Ada'°. 

3. Bertie Roland'". 

2. Mary Ellen', born March 13, 1870, at Stratford, 

New Hampshire ; married, October 6, 1887, 
William John Culbert of Province of Quebec, 
Canada ; resides in North Stratford. 


1. Mather Mary'° Culbert, 

2. Perciville'°. 

3. Maggie'°. 

4. Abbie Susan'°. 

3. William Salmon', born March i, 1872, at Strat- 

ford ; resides in Albany, Maine. 

4. John Carter', born April 18, 1874, at Stratford; 

resides in Stoneham. 

5. Charles Barnett', born May 29, 1876, at Stratford; 

married, November 28, 1894, at Otisfield, Flor- 
ence Gould; resides in Otisfield; farmer. 

6. Artemas Benjamin', born March 15, 1878, at 

South Columbia, New Hampshire ; resides in 
Stoneham, Me. 

7. Frank Henry', born March 14, 1880, in South 

Columbia; resides in Stoneham. 

8. Abby Almon', born November 4, 1882, at North 


9. Clarence Henry', born November 22, 1885, at 

10. Alton Everett', born June 18, 1890, at Stratford. 
IV. Calvin Lewis^ born April 30, 1850, at Bethel; married, 
March 24, 1876, Lizzie Fostina Barnett, born February 
27, 1857, at Columbia, New Hampshire; resides in 


I. Burton Lee', born February 21, 1877. 

IL Elwin Edwin', born September 14, 1878. 

III. Melvin Barnett', born July 31, 1880. 

IV. Benjamin William', born April 28, 1882. 
V. Rebecca Mason', born June 13, 1883. 

VI. Guy Forist', born August 8, 1885. 
VII. Gertie Louise', born December 3, 1887. 


V. Oliver Massina^ born February 1 1, 1852, at Bethel, Maine ; 
married, August i, 1873, Nettie Walker, born Octo- 
ber 22, 1855; settled in Columbus, Ohio; removed to 
California, where he engaged in the business of nur- 
seryman. About 1895 or 1896 he returned to Massa- 


I. Eliott Elwood', born May 9, 1874, a-t Marion, Ohio ; 
married, February 22, 1895, Rosilla Baker, born 
October 24, 1878, at Marion. 
II. Ola Frank', born May 6, 1876, at Stratford, New 
Hampshire ; married, March 3, 1894, Rosa Lucy 
Schumacher, born October 28, 1872, at Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 

III. Britta Mart?, born April 7, 1878, at Marion, Ohio; 

married. May 20, 1896, at Natick, Massachu- 
setts, James Wood, born in Fall River, Massa- 
chusetts, October 13, 1864; resides in Natick; 
by trade, a painter. 

IV. Marion^ born August 17, 1880, at Foristell, Mis- 

souri ; died at Marion, Ohio, January 2, 1881. 
V. Harley Horace?, born June 13, 1882, at Stratford, 
New Hampshire. 
VI. Percy Ray', born February 18, 1885, at Wells 
River, Vermont; died August 13, 1885, at 
Plymouth, New Hampshire. 
VII. George Epler?, born September 10, 1887, at Holder- 
ness, New Hampshire. 
VIII. Myrtle Jeanette'.born April 9, 1890, at Springville, 
Kentucky; died January 8, 1896, at Boston, 
IX. Bertha?, born October 17, 1892, at Columbus, Ohio. 

VI. William Salmon^ Jr., born December 14, 1853, at Albany, 
Maine; married, October 9, 1873, at Stratford, New 
Hampshire, Harriet Barnett, sister to his brother Cal- 
vin's wife, born June 10, 1854, at South Columbia, 
New Hampshire, where he resides, a large farmer and 
lumber dealer. 

I. Florence May', born November 2, 1874; married, 
October 12, 1892, at Columbia, William Jesse, 
son of Joseph and Mary Jane Ormsby, born 


January 4, 1845, at Guildhall, Vermont; resided 
in Columbia, New Hampshire, where she died 
September 29, 1893. 


1. Florence May'° Ormsby, born September 8, 
1893; died September 10, 1896. 

II. Minnie Eliza', born July i, 1877, at Columbia ; died 
April 3, 1878. 

III. Durwood Malcom', born December 8, 1878, 

IV. Georgie Eva', born November 30, 1880. 
V. Flora Bell', born January 18, 1885. 

VI. Delia Bertha', born May 10, 1888. 
VII. Ruth', born May 24, 1893. 
VIII. Harold Bryan', born August 4, 1896. 

VII. Richard Frank*, born December 9, 1855, at Albany ; married, 
June 6, 1880, Mary Elvila Buzzell, born October 31, 
1861, at Granby, Vermont; resides at Stratford. 

I. Effie Rebecca', born July 9, i88i. 
II. William Solon', born March 30, 1883. 

III. Lucy Elnora', born November 15, 1885. 

IV. Blanche Florence', born November 18, 1895. 

VIII. Lucy Elnora^ born February 27, 1857, at Bethel; married, 
November 9, 1874, at North Stratford, David Gillanders 
of Broughton, Province of Quebec, Canada, born Octo- 
ber 9, 1851 ; died May 1 1, 1889, at Sherbrook, Province 
of Quebec; she married second, April 22, 1896, at 
Groveton, New Hampshire, Alexander McDonald of 
Nova Scotia, whose father was Donald McDonald of 

Children, by first husband. 

1. Carrie Maud' Gillanders, born August i, 1878, at 

North Stratford. 

2. Jessie Beulah Brown, born May 25, 1880. 

IX. Josie Eva^ born November 22, 1858, at Bethel, Maine; 
married, August 7, 1875, at Lemington, Vermont, 
Charles Augustus Morse, born in Columbia, New 
Hampshire, May 30, 1848; resides in Lancaster, New 
Hampshire; a blacksmith. 




Ella9 Morse, 

Mary Ella' Morse, born February 22, 1880, at 
Bloomfield, Vermont. 
2. Prescott Howard', born January 21, 1883, at River- 
ton, New Hampshire. 

X. Martha Jane^ born August 21, 1862; married, November 

20, 1876, Melvin Young, born at Stratford, March 16, 



Clara Eva' Young, born March 19, 1878. 
Edward John', born April 25, 1880. 
Josie Maud', born April 27, 1882. 
Nellie Maria', born July i, 1884. 
Fred Ray', born April 17, 1889. 
Colin Herman', born May 25, 1891. 
Cristy Pearl', born May i, 1893. 

XI. Cora IsabeP, born August 20, 1864, at Stratford; married, 
May 3, 1882, Lincoln H. Holmes of Jefferson, New 
Hampshire; resides in Albany, Maine, and Lancaster, 
New Hampshire ; no children. 
XII. Jennie Rose^ born June 10, 1867; married, July 5, 1887, 
Nathaniel White Bennett of Albany, Maine, where he 


1. Rebecca Cora' Bennett, born February 22, 1892. 

2. William Hapgood Sylvanus', born July 3, 1893. 


Oliver' {Ephraim^, Oliver^, Ephraim^, Hezekiah^, Nathan- 
ieP, ShadracJi"), born February 13, 1822 ; educated in the 
public schools of Waterford ; removed to Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts; was employed in the gas-fitting business ; married, 
September 20, 1848, Mary Jael Sanderson, in Sweden, Maine ; 
resided at Cambridge till the breaking out of the war, when 
he enlisted in Company I, Nineteenth regiment, Massachu- 
setts Volunteers ; was killed June 30, 1862, at the Battle of 



Frazier's Farm, Virginia, while performing his duty as- 
Orderly Sergeant. His widow died April 4, 1869. 

I. Oliver Massina^ born July 31, 1849, ^t Cambridgeport^ 
Massachusetts; received common school education; 
married, September 11, 1895, at Cambridge, Fanny Fay 
Cartwright of Cambridge, born December 31, 1867;. 
resides in Cambridgeport ; foreman of electric street 
II. Henry Clifton^ born July 20, 1851, at Cambridgeport; 
resides in Haverhill, Massachusetts ; a motorman, 
III. Mary JaeP, born September 6, 1861 ; married, October 21, 
1885, Milton Augustus Parker, born September 2, 
1855, at Hopkinton, Massachusetts; resides in Welles- 
ley, Massachusetts. 

1. Chester Curtis' Parker, born August 6, 1886, at 
Arlington; died December 11, 1886. 
Roy Milton9, born October 3, 1887, at Cambridge. 


3. Harold Bryant', born December 22, 1891. 


John Francis^ {Ephrahn^, Oliver', Ephraim'^, Hezekiah^,. 
NathanieP, Shadracli^) was born September 9, 1824; enter- 
prising, energetic and courageous. In 1848, at the age of 
twenty-two, he purchased of Barker Burbank, in Bethel,, 
about 300 acres of land, only five of which were cleared. 
There was also a very small house upon the lot. Thrift 
followed sharp upon the footprints of industry, but some- 
thing was wanted — a companion to share his toils and 
fortunes, and cheer the lonely hours of a forest home. Such 
an one was vouchsafed, and on the 25th of April, 185 1, he 
was united in marriage, at Sherburne, New Hampshire, with 


Mary Lemine Young, born at Gray, Maine, April 14, 1833. 
The union proved a happy one ; they have worked and pros- 
pered together. In 1869 he built the large mansion house, 
now occupied by the family, though all of the seven children, 
except Fred, were born in the old house. Family traits are 
singularly uniform and expressive. The earlier settlers of 
New England were from agricultural districts in England ; 
the Hapgoods were among them, and as farmers, were very 
industrious, frugal and prosperous. One trait was a desire 
for many buildings, and a great lot of cattle ; in the present 
instance, John had the traditional characteristic. In addition 
to the new house, rose into view two barns, a stable, and 
sheds innumerable. One half of the 300 acres original pur- 
chase are now under cultivation, and 400 acres of wood and 
pasture land have been added by the father and son John, 
who has always lived at home, and is now, in the waning 
years of the father, the mainstay. Nor is he suffering for 
want of exercise, with the care of the extensive farm, and 
seventy-one head of cattle to look after, summer and winter ; 
in fact, he is one of the most successful and richest farmers in 
that section of the State. 

CHILDREN, all born at Bethel. 

I. John^ born January 24, 1S53 ; married, November 26, 1879, 
Inez Anna, daughter of Otis and Vianna Hayford, born 
January 3, 1857, at Albany, Maine, died July 2, 1886; 
no children. He is a quiet, intelligent, industrious 
man, deeply interested in farming, and has pretty 
much the entire care of the large estate since his 
father has felt old age creeping upon him. 
II. Albert^ born October 21, 1855; died December 17, 1873. 

III. George^ born February 14, 1858; died March 9, 1861. 

IV. George Joseph^ born July 29, 1861; married, May 2, 1886, 

Mae Lizzie, daughter of Emery and Lucy Emerson, 


born at Fryeburg, August 2, 1868; resides in Bethel; 
a merchant. 

I. Ula Alice?, born July 27, 1888. 

V. Franks born May 15, 1864; resides at Bethel; a farmer; 
VI. Ella Mary^ born November 23, 1868; married, August 23, 
1888, Charles Edgar Whittier, born January 17, 1850, 
at Lisbon, Maine. He died March 23, 1895, at Lewis- 
ton, Maine. 

1. Mildred Hapgood' Whittier, born June 30, 1889, 
at Bethel, where both mother and child reside, 
with her father, at the old homestead. 

VII. Fred^ born July 9, 1872; resides in Bethel; unmarried. 


Richard^ {Epkraim^, Oliver^, Ephraim'^, Hezekiah^, Nathan- 
ieP, Shadrach^), born February 24, 1841 ; married, December 
22, 1868, Nellie Grace, daughter of Carlos Lapere and Eliza- 
beth C. Pike, born November 24, 1848, at Hebron, New 
Hampshire ; resides in Cambridge, Massachusetts ; General 
Roadmaster of the West End Street Railway Company. 

I. Charles Carlos^ born December 9, 1870; married, October 
26, 1892, Mary Alexander Gardner of Cambridge, born 
November 8, 1871 ; resides in Cambridge; educated in 
the public schools; went west, January 7, 1885; two 
years on a stock farm in Nebraska, returned, and 
entered the employ of Hosmer, Robinson & Co., hay 
and grain merchants, which position he has faithfully 
filled for eleven years ; no children. 
II. Emma Lizzie^ born October 26, 1874; married, April 26, 
1893, at Cambridge, Arthur Spencer Cummings; in 
piano business. 
III. Nellie Arline^ born April 24, 1876; died June 11, 1878. 



Artemas^ {Artemas^, Oliver^, Ephrann}, Hezekiah^, Nathan- 
ieP, Skadrach^), born September 2, 1816 ; married, September 
17, 1848, at Sweden, Maine, Sarah Ann, daughter of Reuben 
and Sally Nevers Parker, born August 25, 18 19, at Portland, 
He died January 8, 1890 ; she survives him at Waterford. 

I. Lyman^ born October 21, 1849; married, February 22, 
1883, at Steep Falls, Maine, Hattie B. Merrill of 
Limington, Maine. He was killed in a pulp mill at 
Gorham, Maine, September 11, 1890. 


I, Sarah Isabel', born June 16, 1885. 

II. Harold', born March 4, 1887, at Windham, Maine. 

II. Arzelia Worcester^ born January 22, 1854; died August 

II, 1862, at Sweden. 


JoEL^ {Oliver^, Oliver^, Ephraim*, Hezekiah^, NathanieP, 

Shadrach^), born August 23, 1827; married, October 10, 

1852, at Gorham, New Hampshire, Columbia Wheeler, born 

August 4, 1828, at Albany, Maine ; died at South Waterford, 

Maine, June 10, 1854; no children; and he married second, 

April 25, 1855, at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Ellen 

Mariah, daughter of John and Almira (Smith) Coburn, born 

at Portland, May 24, 1836. He died February 13, 1887, at 

South Waterford. 


I. George Albert*, born January 25, 1856 (by second wife), 
at Portland ; married, February 16, 1878, at Lawrence, 
Massachusetts, Jennie Durden, born August 9, 1852, 
at Chessetts Wood, England; resides in Portland, a 



I. Harry Llewellyn', born March 14, 1879, Lawrence. 
IL Ernest Albert?, born August 22, 1880, at South 
in. Blanch Maria', born November 5, 1885; died 

December 27, 1885. 
IV. Bertha May', born November 24, 1886, South 

V. Ralph Durden', born October 24, 1888, at Portland. 

II. Abbie Ellen^ born July 7, 1858, at Portland; married, Jan- 
uary 22, 1875, at Sweden, Maine, Calvin Hapgood* 
Adams, son of Joseph and Mary Jane' (Hapgood) 
Adams, born April 3, 1848; resides in South Water- 


1. Gertie May' Adams, born November 15, 1875, at 

Sweden; married, January 20, 1895, South 
Waterford, Eugene K. Kilgore of Waterford, 
where they reside. 

2. Lizzie Maud', born May 6, 1877, in Waterford ; mar- 

ried, March 7, 1894, Daniel Wood; resides in 
North Bridgton, Maine. 

3. Ethel Carrie', born August 9, 1878, at Waterford. 

4. Bessie Mabel', born November 9, 1879. 

5. Fred Harold', born July 9, 1881. 

6. Walter H.', born November 13, 1882. 

7. Stella', born November 18, 1883. 

8. Ellroy', born September 9, 1884. 

9. Marjory Ellen', born July 27, 1891. 

10. Frank Clifford', born September 13, 1892. 

11. Mildred H.', born September 24, 1893. 

III. Charles Henry^, born February 2, i860, at South Water- 
ford; married, July 2, 1881, Jennie Mary Cox, born 
December 4, 1861, at St. Johns, New Brunswick; 
resides in South Waterford. 

I. Hallie Louise', born February 28, 1884; died 
August 20, 1884. 
II. Walter William', born March 20, 1886, at Deering, 

III. Freda Frances', born June i, 1892, at Waterford. 


IV. Ella Maria^ born April i, 1862, at Waterford; married, 
June 6, 1880, at Lynn, Massachusetts, Leamon, son of 
Alanson Dawes ; resides in Harrison, Maine. 

1. Josephine' Dawes, born March 27, 1882. 
V. Llewellyn Nelson^ born February 14, 1864, at South Water- 
ford; resides in Portland; insurance agent, unmarried. 


Cyril William" {Cornelius'^, Jonathan^, Ephraini^, Heze- 

kiah^, Nathaniel'^, SJiadracJi"), born March 9, 1825; married, 

May 9, 1849, Adaline, daughter of Elijah and Sarah Leigh, 

born April 13, 1829, at Malone, where he resided, and died 

February 29, 1882; an extensive and prosperous farmer, of 

ability and standing. 


L Eliza Jane^ born June 2, 1850; died at Constable, New 

York, October 10, 1867. 
IL Cornelius^ born September 18, 1852; married, January i, 
1873, at Malone, Jennie, daughter of Wesley and Sarah 
Brown of Georgia, Vermont ; resided at West Bangor, 
New York, where she died January i, 1895. He is a 
large farmer and leading citizen. 

I. Adelbert', born June 21, 1874, at Malone ; married, 
March 16, 1892, Susie, daugher of Miner and 
Clara Hutchins, born June 4, 1874, at Brandon, 
New York; resides in Bangor; a farmer. 

1. Eugene CardelP°, born August 6, 1894, at 
II. Nina Lee', born October 26, 1889, at Brandon, 
New York. 
III. George^ born October 5, 1855; resides in Springfield, 
Massachusetts; an employee in freight department, 
Boston & Albany Railroad. 



IV. Ada^ born March 15, 1858; married, September 11, 1873, 
at Malone, Charles Montgomery, born March 23, 1851, 
at Detroit, Michigan ; resides in Kansas City, Missouri. 
V. WilHam^, born August 15, i860; married, September 14, 
1887, at Holyoke, Massachusetts, Kate McTigue of 
Ireland, born April 24, 1862; resides in Bangor, New 
York ; a farmer. 


I. Sarah Ann', born May 14, 1887, at Holyoke. 
II. William Dana', born October 8, 1889, at Chicopee, 
III. Anna May', born March 11, 1891, at Chicopee. 



Emma*, born September 26, 1862; died January 27, 1864. 

Minnie Amie', born September 22, 1865; married, Septem- 
ber 30, 1884, Eugene Frederick Cardell, born at Read- 
ing, Massachusetts, September 4, 1863; resides in 
Lowell ; in employ of Association of Fire Under- 
writers ; no children. 

Dana Boardman^ born April 27, 1870, at Constable, New 
York ; resides in Fay, New York, a farmer; unmarried. 


Wesley^ {Cornelius^, Jo7iathan^, Ephraini^, HezekiaJt^, 
NathanieP, Shadrach^), born July 3, 1835; married, at 
Malone, July 3, 1859, Delia, daughter of William and Orpha 
Earl, born May 2, 1836. On the death of his grandfather, 
Jonathan, the original farm of 300 acres was divided among 
his five children; Abigail having died previously, Amos 
took for his share, the framed house and 75 acres of land ; 
Cornelius took the log house, where all his sisters were born, 
and lived there till 1840, rearing a family of ten children. 
In that year he erected a framed house about 100 rods west 
of the log house, which he vacated and finally demolished. 
He subsequently bought two of the girls' shares, making his 

Xcmuel JSichncll IbapgooJ). 


farm 150 acres. Here he resided till 1866, when he sold the 
place to his son Wesley for six thousand dollars. On the 
death of Cornelius, the son received his full share of the 
estate in cash. After the death of his uncle Amos, Wesley- 
bought his 75 acres, which enlarged his farm to the unwieldy 
size of 225 acres. In 1889 Wesley died, leaving the farm in 
possession of his widow, to be divided at her decease, between 
Ida, who lived on the homestead with her mother, and John 
Guy, who occupied the farm of 75 acres, formerly owned by 
his uncle Amos. Wesley died April 29, 1889; his widow 

still survives. 


I. Eunice*, born January 29, i860, in Belmont, New York; 
married in Malone, March 16, 1880, Benjamin, son of 
Benjamin and Sarah Lester, born April 16, 1856, at 
Duane, New York; resides in Constable; a farmer. 


1. Wesley^ Lester, born December 11, 1880. 

2. Bessie', born March 27, 1882. 

3. Myrtle', born September 23, 1887. 

4. Burnie', born November 10, 1889. 

5. Lawrence', born August 24, 1891. 

6. Ray R.', born May 27, 1893. 

7. Asa Morton', born March 30, 1895. 

62 IL John Guy*, born October 5, 1862, at Constable, New 

York; married, December 27, 1883, at Malone, Laura 
in. Ida*, born August 13, 1865, at Constable ; married, Decem- 
ber 24, 1889, at Malone, Lawrence Westcott, born 
February 24, 1866, at Chasm Falls, New York; resides 
on the original 150-acre farm of her father, the old 
homestead, with her mother; no children. 


Lemuel Bicknell^ {Amos^, Jonathait', Ephraim^, Heze- 
kiak^, Nathaniel'^, ShadracJi^), born March 5, 1836; married, 


September 13, 1863, at Fort Covington, New York, Sarah 
Goodwin, youngest daughter of Asa Clark of North Hero, 
Vermont. The following notice appeared in a local paper : 
" Mr. Clark, the oldest member of Centenary Methodist 
Episcopal church of Malone, died September 8, 1896. Born 
August 19, 1804, he had passed his ninety-second birthday. 
He had also reached an unusually advanced age in Christian 
life and service. The last eighteen years of his life has 
been spent with his daughter Sarah (Clark) Hapgood, at 
Malone," whose patience and loving care of her venerable 
father was most admirable and praiseworthy. Lemuel, 
with his brother Howard, enlisted in Company D, I42d regi- 
ment. New York Volunteers, served three years in defence 
of his country's flag, and honorably discharged, 1865, now 
receiving a small pension. He is a much esteemed citizen 
and well-to-do farmer in Malone. His most excellent wife 
manages her family with good judgment, and has a special 
pride in the education and training of her children. 


I. Carroll Lemuel*, born April 30, 1866; married, January 12, 
1888, Hattie, daughter of Thomas Thompson of 
Malone. He also is a respectable tiller of the soil at 


L Harold Morton', born November 23, 1888. 
IL Gertrude Mae', born January 26, 1893; died eight 
months after. 

IL Carrie Lucretia^ born April 19, 1867; drowned in a brook 
running between the house and barn at Malone, when 
only three years old. 
III. Harriet Adeline^ born May 28, 1869; graduated from 
Franklin Academy, June, 1887, and from Pottsdam 
Normal School, June, 1892; taught school in Orange, 
New Jersey, and in her native town up to March 23, 


1897, when she married John Alexander, son of Dun- 
can and Eliza Grant of Bells Corners, Ontario, born 
October 14, 1862. His early education was at the 
public schools of that place. He then entered St. 
Catherine Collegiate Institute, and after one year he 
changed for a year in Ottawa Collegiate Institute, then 
attended the Normal School at Ottawa. After leaving 
the Normal School he taught a year in Hull Model 
School, and two years in Alymer Academy. In 1883 
he began the study of medicine in the University of 
the City of New York, from which he was graduated 
in March, 1887. In July of the same year he com- 
menced the practice of medicine in Malone, where 
he has since resided. 
IV. Sarah Mae^ born August i, 1871 ; was graduated from 
Franklin Academy, Malone, 1889, and the Pottsdam 
Conservatory of Music with honor, 1892; entered 
Plattsburg Normal School as teacher, 1892, which 
position she held up to the time of her marriage, at 
Malone, March 23, 1897, to Robert Henderson, eldest 
son of Alfred and Sarah (Wever) Guibord, born in 
Plattsburg, New York, April 6, 1869. He was gradu- 
ated from the High School in Plattsburg, 1887. The 
next year he spent in Wilbraham (Massachusetts) 
Academy, after which he entered Wesleyan University 
at Middletown, Connecticut, graduating in 1892. He 
then opened an insurance office in Plattsburg, which 
he has conducted successfully up to the present time. 
He is also a member of the Greydenburgh Pulp Com- 
V. Howard Clark^ born November 17, 1877; was graduated 
from Franklin Academy, June, 1896, and entered the 
insurance office of R. H. Guibord, his brother-in-law, 
in Plattsburg, New York, as a clerk. 


Alfred Warren^ {JonatJian^, JoeP, SJiadrach^, Shadrach^, 
NatkanieP, Shadrach^), born November 17, 1841, at the house 
of his maternal grandparents in Harvard, where his mother 


died February 28, 1842, when he was barely three months 
old. He received the tender and generous care of his grand- 
mother Pollard until his father married second, April 9, 1843, 
when he was removed to Ashburnham. He spent much 
time under the care and supervision of his step-grandmother 
Hapgood in Harvard, who became much interested in him, 
and he enjoyed her loving kindness during the remainder of 
her life. He attended the " Old Mill " district school, and 
under the patronage of his Uncle Warren, in 1849, he was 
sent to the academy in Groton ; but academic honors had no 
charm for him, and his term was brief and fruitless. Being 
fond of horses he took to teaming for a livelihood, which he 
pursued with varying fortune in Harvard, Ayer and Leomin- 
ster, residing for many years in the latter place. He married, 
March 3, 1861, in Harvard, Eliza Rebecca, daughter of Henry 
and Hannah (Giles) Davis, born December 29, 1841, in 
Lexington, Massachusetts. 


I. Russell Warren^, born September 9, 1864, in Harvard; 
many of the happy days of his childhood were spent 
with his step great grandmother Hapgood; he had the 
advantage of a fine district school education ; worked 
in a shirt factory in Leominster; was captivated by 
the rage, then prevalent, for cattle-raising, and in 1883 
became a herder on a ranch in Wyoming; some two 
years' experience as a ranchero satisfied him with life 
in the " Wild West " ; he retured to Leominster and 
the factory; married, September 16, 1889, Agnes Gove 
O'Neil of Brechin, Scotland, born October 12, 1868. 

L Edna May', born at Leominster, April 30, 1896. 



Jonathan Gardner^ {Jonathan^, JoeP, Shadrach\ Shad- 
rach^, Nathaniel^, SJiadrach^), born February lo, 1855 ; '^i^-''- 
ried, December 23, 1877, Mary Adaline, daughter of Josiah 
and Martha Ann Barnard of Harvard, born July 2, 1857, at 
Watertown, Massachusetts. Resides in Harvard ; a farmer. 


I. Wesley Gardner*, born August 14, 1878, at Harvard; edu- 
cated in the public schools and Bromfield Academy ; 
lived with his parents up to 1896, when he entered the 
Industrial Institute at Springfield, Massachusetts, with 
a desire to become a practical machinist. 
II. Edith Elizabeth*, born April 15, 1884, at Shirley, Massa- 
chusetts; resides with her parents, and attends the 
public school. 


Charles Butler^ {Jonathan^, JoeP, Shadrach^, Shadrach^, 
NathanieP, Shadrach^), born August 21, 1859; married, 
August 25, 1880, Fannie Augusta, daughter of Henry and 
Katharine Foster of Harvard, born October 27, i860, at 
Ayer, Massachusetts. Charles was educated, like unto most 
other farmer boys, in the district school, and worked on the 
farm with his father until his death, 1876. To settle the 
estate, the farm had to be sold, subject to a claim of the 
widow of Joel to one half the product or income of the place. 
In order to protect the interests of the widow of Joel, Warren 
Hapgood bought the farm, and at the age of seventeen, 
Charles was placed in charge. For several years he had 
exhibited considerable skill and judgment in the manage- 
ment of the farm, which further experience hardly sustained. 


His step-grandmother, Charlotte Hapgood, died in 1884, and 
in 1885 he retired from the management, and the place was 
let to Asa Burgess for two years, but as there was no prob- 
ability that any member of the family would succeed to the 
ownership, the grand old mansion, the venerated home of 
five generations of the race, with all its hallowed memories 
and associations, its joys and its sorrows, passed into other 
hands; at first, November 10, 1888, I. W, Sprague became 
the owner, and later on the place was sold to Stephen N. 
Lougee, the present owner, who has made many improve- 
ments on the estate. Charles took up his abode in Lancaster, 
where he has resided most of the time since. 

CHILDREN, born at Harvard. 
I. Warren Foster^ born November 15, 1881. 
II. Charlotte Augusta^, born October 9, 1883. 

III. Charles Henry^, born July 20, 1885. 

IV. Bertha^ born July 3, 1890, and lived only a day. 



Cyrus Stowe^ {Cyrus', Nathaniel'^, Ephrahtt', Ephraim^, 
Hezekiah^, Nathaniel-, SJiadrach^). He was born Novem- 
ber 23, 1842; educated in the public schools of Cambridge, 
and Chauncey Hall, Boston ; entered the wholesale provision 
store of Potter & Dinsmore on City wharf, as assistant 
book-keeper. At the end of the first year he took the posi- 
tion of book-keeper for S. S. Learnard, 52 Faneuil Hall 
Market. He did not long remain book-keeper, but was 
admitted a general partner, which position he has held up to 
the present time. The firm prospered and became one of the 


largest of the many large beef dealers in the city. He is a 
very active business man and one of the leading citizens of 
Everett, Massachusetts, where he resides. He married, 
November 25, 1863, at Cambridge, Clara Augusta Conner 
of Orland, Maine, born October 18, 1842. 


I. Clara Learnard', born November 25, 1864; married, April 
27, 1887, Charles Hapgood Mead, from New Hampton, 
New Hampshire; contractor and builder. 

1. Stanley'" Mead, born August 31, 1889, at Everett. 

II. George Henry', born November 19, 1868, in Chelsea; 
died August 29, 1871. 

III. Alice', born August 2, 1872, in Chelsea, where she was 

educated, and graduated from the Museum of Fine 
Arts in Boston ; travelled extensively in Japan and 
other countries ; engaged to be united in marriage, 
April 27, 1898, with Charles Henry Miller, born in 
Waterford, Connecticut, June 14, 1869. 

IV. Charles Warren', born April 18, 1875; graduated from 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1896; super- 
intendent of the Learnard & Bird Oil Company at 
Brighton, Massachusetts. 
V. Cyrus Howard', born in Everett, August 27, 1880 ; a student 
in Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 


Charles Arthur^ ( William Salmon', Ephrai^n^, Oliver', 
Ephraim'^, Hezekiah^, Nathaniel'^, Shadracli}), born March 
29, 1846; married, January 2, 1868, at Stratford, New Hamp- 
shire, Jennie Vilonia Paguin, born December 9, 1850, at 
North Danville, Vermont ; resides in Stratford ; an extensive 


I. Louisa Jennie', born September 28, 1869; died April 21, 
IL Emma Rose', born December 13, 1870; married, June 5, 
1889, David Henry Stone, born January 6, 1859, at 
Stratford, where he resides ; a lumber manufacturer. 


1. Florence'" Stone, born May i, 1890. 

2. Harold David'°, born October 20, 1893 ; died 

November 17, 1893. 

III. Ella Maud', born November 30, 1872; married, September 

24, 1889, at Bloomfield, James Moore, son of Nicholas 
and Eliza Hagar Stone, born April 16, 1870, at Strat- 
ford, brother to her sister Emma's husband ; resides 
in Stratford. 


1. Everett Nicholas'" Stone, born March 8, 1891. 

2. Flora Eliza'°, born February 27, 1892. 

3. Earl James'°, born July 4, 1895; died July 20, 1895. 

IV. Arthur Lee', born December 22, 1875; watchman. 

V. Fred Charles', born December 3 1, 1878; resides in Stratford. 
VI. Dora Bell', born September 17, 1881. 
VII. Edward Leroy', born March 25, 1883. 


John Guy* {Wesley^, Cornelius^, Jonathan^, Ephraitn*, 
Hezekiah^, NathanieP, Shadracli"), born October 5, 1862, at 
Constable; married, December 27, 1883, at Malone, Laura, 
daughter of William and Sophia (Fletcher) Wells of Brandon, 
Vermont, born February 23, 1863 ; he was educated in the 
common school, much after the fashion of his predecessors ; 
resided with his parents and faithfully performed duty on the 
large farm till 1889, when his father died, and he took the 
house and land acquired upon the decease of his Uncle Amos. 












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BBi^ > JW''''^ 


In 1893 he dismantled the old house and built a new one 
near by, which he occupies with his capable and accomplished 
companion and five bright, healthy boys, — no other such 
family of boys in the entire race of Hapgood, up and down 
the land, — " May his tribe increase," — tilling the same soil 
and reaping the harvests as his great grandfather did, nearly 
a century before, — and may his descendants prosper and 
flourish as did their worthy ancestors. 

CHILDREN, all born in Malone. 
I. Guy Grover', born February i, 1885. 
II. Willie Wesley' born November 5, 1886. 

III. John Jay', born February 28, 1888. 

IV. Fay Gilbert', born July 13, 1893. 

V. Warren Earl', born January 9, 1896. 



"Thomas^ {Shadrach^), born October i, 1669, as well as his 
brother Nathaniel, began life with considerable means, and, 
like him, aspired to manorial possessions. According to a 
reliable tradition, he had been brought up in Concord, and, 
following the course of the Assabet River, he penetrated the 
Indian Reservation of Agogonquemeset, consisting of 6,000 
acres, which had been purchased of them in 1686 by the 
planters of Marlboro', and which now forms the north north- 
eastern part of that town ; here he decided to settle. He, 
accordingly, purchased of Edmund Rice, February 28, 1694, 
for jQ^, a 30-acre right in the entire tract ; and of John Fay 
and Nathan Brigham, October 30, 1699, for £>iy, another 
30-acre right; and of William Ward, December 31, 1706, 
"for a reasonable sum," another 30-acre right ; and of Thomas 
Howe, December 31, 171 3, "for a reasonable sum," a 30-acre 
right ; and of Jonathan Forbush, April 6, 171 1, "for a reason- 
able sum," a 30-acre right, including the first division already 
made. These five rights enabled him to draw, at subsequent 
divisions, a great amount of land, and he actually owned and 
occupied, in one body, between 500 and 700 acres of the 
mica-slate formation, several farms of which have remained 
in the hands of his descendants to this day. The spot where 
he encamped the first night on arriving upon his land, and 
the location of his house, was about four miles from his 
brother's in Stow, two miles south of Feltonville, 40 rods 
southwest of Round Hill, and four or six rods east of a 
spring ; it is still pointed out. But these were not his only 


purchases, creating foundations for homes and independence 
to generations of his race. 

February 21, of the first year of the reign of George I^ 
1714, he purchased for £14, of John and Lydia Hanchett of 
Suffield, Connecticut, their right to 80 acres in an undivided 
tract of 3,200 acres on the north side of Quinsigamond Pond, 
which had been granted by the General Court, 1650, to Isaac 
Johnson, "for ^400, adventured in the common stock" and 
laid out, 1657, to his executors, Thomas Dudley and Increase 
Newell, as 4,200 acres, requiring Newell to pay £10, due to 
the treasury of the colony.* On these 80 acres he, no 
doubt, settled his son Thomas, and, April 18, 1738, gave him 
all the land laid out and to be laid out unto the whole of the 
fifteenth house lot in Shrewsbury, showing that he had 
become a proprietor of Shrewsbury. June 21, 1725, he, with 
five others, quit claimed to Deacon Samuel Wheeler their 
rights to certsim pieces of land in the Haynes farm." [From 
first edition?^ 

He seems to have been a quiet and respected citizen, who 
devoted his energies to business, leaving to others the 
management of public affairs. He was once chosen select- 
man. One of the garrison houses in Marlboro' was named 
for him in 1704, and in 1744 he was chosen on a committee of 
arbitration between opposing parties, for the location of a 
church in Southboro'. 

Tradition reports him and his wife to have been worthy 
members of the church in Marlboro'. 

He married, about 1693, at Marlboro', Judith, eldest daugh- 
ter of John and Judith (Symonds) Barker (married December 
9, 1668) of Concord, born September 9, 1671. She died 

* Mr. Newell died, and the General Court, 1657, ordered the land laid out to his exec- 
utor, Nathaniel Treadway of W^atertown, the grandfather of Thomas Hapgood, who 
sold it to John and Josiah Haynes of Sudbury, who are presumed to have sold 3,040 of the 
same to John Goulding of Worcester and Sudbury (see Morse's genealogy of the Gould- 
ingsj. The grant was probably reduced 1,000 acres to pay the £10 due to the colony. 


August 15, 1759. The Symonds family first appears on 

Woburn Records, 1644. 

Through the courtesy of an accomplished authority on 

historic-genealogical matters, we received the following note, 

in reference to the family name of Judith, which had escaped 

the vigilance of the careful compiler of the first edition. 

St. Paul, Minn., July 22, 1896. 
W. Hapgood, Esq., 

Dear Sir : — Judith Barker was the wife of Thomas Hapgood. Middle- 
sex Probate Record Docket, No. 571 : — Will of John Barker of Concord, 
Massachusetts, dated March 14, 1710-11, probate April 21, 1718, names 
" My eldest daughter Judith Hapgood," and Thomas Hapgood and wife 
Judith, sign a receipt to the Executor in October, 1718, for their share of 
the estate. Very respectfully yours, 

(Signed) Henry P. Upham. 

December 31, 171 1, she (Judith) joined with her husband, 
Thomas Hapgood, in a deed to John Forbush ; acknowledged 
December 17, 1719; recorded January i, 1720. [Book 21, 
/>a^e 30.] 

March 18, 1735 (book 36, page 641), Thomas Hapgood of 
Marlboro', deeds 105 acres in Marlboro' to (his son) John 
Hapgood of Marlboro', " in consideration of good will and 

Thomas Hapgood, November 12, 1703, petitioned the 
General Court for an allowance, alleging that " he having, in 
1690, been detached into the service against the Indian 
enemy, was engaged in the bloody fight near Oyster River, 
New Hampshire, wherein Captain Noah Wiswell and divers 
others were slain and wounded ; that he then had his left 
arm broken and his right hand much shot, so that he endured 
great pain and narrowly escaped with his life ; that he was 
thereby much disabled for labor and getting his livelihood ; 
forced to sell what stock he had acquired before being 
wounded to maintain himself since, and that in the fight he 


was necessitated to leave and lose his arms with which he 
was well furnished at his own charge." The court granted 
him £$. 

He died October 4, 1764. An English publication had 
this notice of his death : — 

Died, at Marlboro', New England, in the ninety-fifth year of his age, 
Mr. Thomas Hapgood. His posterity were very numerous, viz., nine 
children, ninety-two grandchildren, two hundred and eight great grand- 
children, and four great great grandchildren ; in all, three hundred and 
thirteen. His grandchildren saw their grandchildren and their grand- 
father at the same time. 

A double headstone marks their graves in the ancient 
cemetery in Marlboro'. 


In the Name of God amen the Tenth Day of June one Thousand 
seven Hundred and sixty and in the thirty third year of His Majestys 
Reign I Thomas Hapgood of Marlborough in the County of Middlesex 
and Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England yeoman. 
Being advanced in age and Infirm in Body But of Perfect mind and 
memory Thanks be Given to God therefor Calling unto mind the mortal- 
ity of my Body and knowing that it is appointed for all men once to Dye 
Do make and ordain this my Last will and Testament that is to say 
Principly and first of all I give and Reacomend my Soul into the Hands 
of God that gave it and my Body I Reacomend to the Earth to be Buried 
in Decent Christian Burial at the Discretion of my Executor Nothing 
Doubting But at the genaral Resurection I shall Receive the Same again 
by the mighty Power of God and as Touching such Worldly Estate 
wherewith it hath Pleased God to Bless me in this Life I Give and Dis- 
pose of the same in the following manner and form 

Inprimis I Give and Bequeath to the Heirs of my son Thomas Hap- 
good Deceased the Sum of Sixteen Pounds to be paid by My Exec- 
utors hereafter named within three years after my Deceas to be Equaly 
Divided Between them 

Itim I give to my son John Hapgood over and above what I have 
already Given him the Sum of thirty three Pounds Six Shillings and 
Eight Pence to be paid out of my estate within three years after my 
decease also one half of my husbandry tools also the one half of my 
rights in the Indian land propriety 

Itim I give to my son Joseph Hapgood over and above what I have 
already given him the sum of thirty three pounds six shillings and eight 
pence to be paid out of my estate within three years after my decease 
also I give to my said son Joseph Hapgood his heirs and assigns forever 
all my part of my dwelling and about two acres of land bounded as 


follows Southerly and westerly and northerly by his own land and east- 
erly by the high way also one half of my Husbandry tools also one half 
of my rights in the Indian land propriety 

Itim I give to my daughter Mary the wife of John Wheeler the sum 
of Sixty Six pounds thirteen shillings and four pence to be paid to her 
or her heirs by my Executors hereafter named within two years after 
my decease also one sixth part of my indore moovables after my decease 

Itim I give to my daughter Sarah Hoar the wife of Benjamin Hoar 
the sum of sixty six pounds thirteen shillings and four pence to be paid 
to her or her heirs by my Executors within two years after my decease 
also I give to her one sixth part of my indoore moovables after my 

Itim I give to the children of my daughter Judith Taylor deceased 
the sum of sixty six pounds thirteen shillings and four pence to be paid 
to them or their heirs within two years after my decease also I give them 
one sixth part of my indoore moovables after my decease 

Itim I give to my daughter Elisabeth the wife of William Taylor the 
sum of sixty six pounds thirteen shillings and four pence to be paid to 
her or her heirs by my Executors within two years after my decease 
also one sixth part of my indoore moovables after my decase 

Itim I give to my daughter Hepzibah the wife of Edward Godard the 
sum of sixty six pounds thirteen shillings and four pence to be paid her 
or her heirs by my Executors within two years after my decease also 
one sixth part of my indoore moovables after my decase 

Itim I give to my daughter Huldah Witherbe the sum of sixty six 
pounds thirteen shillings and four pence to be paid to her or to her heirs 
by my Executors within two years after my decease also one sixth part 
of my indoore moovables 

Itim my will is that the Rest of my Estate if any there be after the 
Leagesees afore said and my funeral charges are paid and my just debts 
if any there be the Rest of my Estate to be equaly divided between all 
my sons and daughters or their heirs as afore said 

Itim I like wise constitute make and ordain my two sons John Hap- 
good and Joseph Hapgood my sole Executors of this my last will and 
testament and I do hereby utterly disallow revoke and disanull all and 
every other or former Testaments wills Leagices and bequests and 
Executors by me in any ways before named willed and bequeathed 
Ratifying and confirming this and no other to be my last will and testa- 
ment in witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal the day 
and year afore written 

Thomas X Hapgood (Seal) 


Signed sealed published pronounced and declared by the said Thomas 
Hapgood as his last will and testament in the presence of us the sub- 

Joseph X Tayntor. John Warren Ezra How 

October ye 8th 1763 
We the Subscribers Being Leagetees in the afore said will are 


satisfied with the Leagecies given us therein and Desire the said will 
may be proved and approved as witness our Hands 

Mary Wheeler 
Benja Hoar Sarah Hoar 

David Taylor 
Stephen Flagg Judith Flagg 
ZiLLAH Taylor 

( Heir to 

Mary Rice ) 

I Elisabeth Taylor 

one of the heirs to 
Rhoda Goddard 

Hephzibah Godard 
Huldah Witherbe 

Middlesex SS. Octobr. 31. 1763 

Mr Ezra How (who wrote the foregoing instrument) made solemn oath 
that what the aforenamed Testator gave in this his Will — to the Children 
of his Daughter Judith Taylor — He intended that it should be equally 
divided among them, as he declared to the said Ezra; but that it was a 
casual omission in him — (in writing said Will) that it was not so 

Sworn before me S. Danforth J. Prob 

Justice of the Peace 
A true copy. 

Attest, S. H. FoLSOM Register. 

His will was proved October 31, 1763, and John having 
died in the meantime, Joseph, who was his co-executor, acted 
alone. His estate, exclusive of indoor movables, was inven- 
toried at £S33- 2S. 3d. He had, in his lifetime, given each 
of his sons farms. 

I. Mary^, born October 6, 1694; married, October 17, 1717, 
John, son of John and Elizabeth (Wells) Wheeler, 
born August 15, 1695, in Marlboro', who was a son of 
Thomas and Hannah Wheeler of Concord, in 1661, 
soon after of Marlboro', who was son of Captain 
Wheeler of Concord, who went (his son Thomas with 
him) with Captain Hutchinson and about twenty men 
(of whom Shadrach Hapgood was one) to treat with 
the Nipmuck Indians, at Brookfield, in 1675. John 
Wheeler, first mentioned, in 1718 shared in the first 
, division of land in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, and 


• • was one of the first settlers. There is no record in 

that town of the death of John Wheeler or his wife. 
After the birth of their second child they removed from 
Marlboro' to Shrewsbury, where Mary was admitted to 
the church in 1730. In 1729 he was chosen one of a 
committee to assist the town surveyor in laying out 
undivided lands. He was one of the assessors from 
1 73 1 to 1735, and for a part of that time was constable 
with Lieutenant Eleazer Taylor. In 1743 he held 
several offices of trust, being precinct (parish) clerk, 
assessor, one of the precinct committee, and one of a 
committee of nine to "seat the meeting-house." This 
first office he held for three years. In 1746 he was 
moderator of town meeting. He seems to have retired 
from public life soon after this. He was made ensign 

in 1735-6. 


1. Cyrus" Wheeler, born November 7, 1718, in 

Marlboro'; married Lois, daughter of Deacon 
Samuel Wheelock, May i, 1746; they were 
admitted to the church, 1765. He died in 
Shrewsbury, February 19, 1782, aged sixty-five. 
The death of his wife not recorded there. 

2. Darius*, born December 27, 1719, in Marlboro'. 

3. Jonathan*, born June 22, 1720, in Shrewsbury. 

4. Thomas*, born January 5, 1721. 

5. Lydia*, born March 25, 1722; married William 

Norcross, November 6, 1741. 

6. Josiah*, born October 7, 1723; married, February 

28, 1744, Elizabeth Bailey. 

7. Hezediah*, born February 16, 1725; married David 

Taylor*, her cousin, 1746. 

8. Martha*, born October 2, 1726. 

9. Philemon*, born April 11, 1728; died April 19, 1729. 

10. Persis*, born October 6, 1729; admitted to the 

church, 1748; married John Baker, Jr., June 11, 


11. Azubah*, born September 3, 1731 ; married Peter 

Larkin of Lancaster, April 4, 1751. 

12. Demaris*, born August 17, 1733 ; married, October 

25, 1751, John Barr of New Braintree. 

13. John*, Jr. (Lieutenant), born September 9, 1735, in 

Shrewsbury; married, April 3, 1760, Jedideh 


Bigelow, and with his wife was admitted to the 
church there in 1765. They "were dismissed 
in 1774 to the covenanting brethren in Newfane, 
Vermont, in order to be formed into a church 
state there." He was at Fort William Henry at 
the time of "the memorable and unparalleled 
massacre of the English and Provincial troops 
by the Indians in 1757, after its surrender to 
Montcalm, the French commander." 

14. Mary", born October 7, 1737. 

15. Hepzibah-*, born July 16, 1739. 

II. Sarah3, born February 10, 1696; married first, Jonathan 
Howe, son of Captain Daniel and Elizabeth (Kerley) 
Howe, born April 23, 1695, and died July 25, 1738, in 
Marlboro'. (Captain Daniel Howe was born 1658; 
married Elizabeth Kerley, 1688, and died April 3, 
1 7 18. He was a large landholder in Marlboro', Lan- 
caster and Westboro' ; his property was inventoried 
at ^1,264. His widow administered upon his estate, 
and died in 1735.) [Hudson's History of Marlboro\'\ 
Sarah administered on the estate and gave the following 
bond (a few words left out as they could not be 

" Know all men by these presents, that we Sarah Howe 
of Marlborough In ye County of Midlesex widow and 
[Administratrix] of Jonathan Howe late of Marlboro' 
aforesaid Deceased and Edward Goddard of Shrews- 
bury in ye County of Worcester [ ] are held and 
firmly bound and obliged unto Joseph Wilder Esquire 
Judge of the Probate of Wills and granting Adminis- 
tration in Said County In the full sum of one hundred 
pounds to be paid to ye said Judge or to his Successor 
in said office or Assigns to ye which payment well and 
truly to be made we bind ourselves our several & 
[ ] heirs [ ] and [ ] Jointly and Severally 
firmly to these presents to hold with [• ] Dated 
the first day of February A. D. 1742-3. The condition 
of the above obligation is first that whereas the Said 
Sarah on her petition to the General Court in Decem- 
ber 1742 as She was guardian to her children* Sarah, 
Damaris, Sylvanus, Mellisent, Ichabod, Abigail & 
Isaac, Children of ye Said deceased was Impowered to 
make Sale of Said minors interest of land in a certain 
mortguage or tenement of land lying in town of 
Shrewsbury whereof Daniel How of Said Shrewsbury 
died served for the most [***** *]." 
Signed, " Sarah How 

Edward Goddard." 

* The two eldest of the ten children were married, and Abigail had died. 


Sarah married second, at Marlboro', Benjamin Hoar 
of Littleton, Massachusetts, March 4, 1745-6. He 
was probably a grandson of John Hoar of Concord, 
sixth son of Daniel, who had eleven children; came 
early to Littleton and died, 1775. Sarah died, and was 
buried in the old cemetery in Littleton. Her epitaph 
reads : " Here lies buried the body of Mrs. Sarah 
Hoar, wife of Deacon Benjamin Hoar, who departed 
this life, January 16, 1770, in ye 74th year of her age." 

Children, all born in Marlboro', by first husband. 

1. Solomon'* Howe, born December 17, 1718; married 

Mary Howe of Marlboro', about 1738. 

2. Elizabeth*, born February 2, 1720; married Paul 

Howe of Paxton, Massachusetts, about 1739. 

3. Sarah*, born October 25, 1721 ; married, April 10, 

1747, Adonijah Church, born October 17, 1710. 
She died September 8, 1758, and he at Holden, 
Massachusetts, March 24, 1787. 

4. Abigail*, born September 20, 1723; died, 1729, in 


5. Damaris*, born July 31, 1725 ; married, January 25, 

1743, Stephen, son of Simon and Sarah (Woods) 
Gates, born August 8, 1718, at Marlboro'; 
resided in Rutland, Massachusetts, 1749. He 
died October 5, 1773, and she, December 3, 1809. 

6. Silvanus*, born April 6, 1727; married Mary, 

daughter of Jonathan and Mary (Earle) Rice, 
born in Worcester, 1737. He died in Peters- 
ham, 1802. 

7. Millicent*, born April 20, 1 729 ; married, September 

8, 1746, at Marlboro', Alpheus Woods, born 
February 28, 1727. She died April 16, 1761, 
and he, December 12, 1794. 

8. Ichabod*, born January 9, 1731. 

9. Abigail*, born March 25, 1733. 
10. Isaac*, born January 27, 1735. 

III. Judith^, born February 24, 1698; married, July 5, 1721, 
Lieutenant Eleazer, son of Eleazer and Lydia (Barrett) 
Taylor, born in Marlboro', December 3, 1699, brother 
to her sister Elizabeth's husband ; they were admitted 
to the church in Shrewsbury in 1728, and in 1729 were 
living on house lot No. 43, in that town. He shared 


in the first division of land in Shrewsbury in 1718, and 
he was probably in town as early as 1722, for his eldest 
child, born that year, is on the Shrewsbury record. His 
land was in the North Precinct, and in 1843, he, with 
twelve others, requested that they might be permitted 
to form a new church in that part of the town. The 
request was granted, and the next year the wives of 
these men, and some others, were dismissed from the 
first church to the second church. In 1743 they pur- 
chased the burying ground of Eleazer Taylor, and 
built a meeting-house. In 1720 he was chosen town 
collector, the first collector chosen in the town. In 
1727-28 he was town surveyor. In 1734, one of the 
three constables chosen. In 1742-43 he was treasurer 
for the North Precinct, which soon built its church, 
and in 1746 chose Eleazer Taylor one of the parish 
committee. His wife died November 8, 1742, and he 
married second, Hannah, widow of Gershom Flagg, 
March 26, 1744, and died September 20, 1753. 


1. Nathan'* Taylor, born February 24, 1722, in Shrews- 

bury; married, April 10, 1744, Sarah Hale of 
Harvard, Massachusetts, and died March 30, 

2. David", born September 17, 1723; married, April 

8, 1746, Hezediah, daughter of John and Mary^ 
(Hapgood) Wheeler. She died December 15, 
1754, and he married, second, October 28, 1756, 
Esther Jones of Marlboro'. He removed to 
Berlin, Massachusetts, where he died. 

3. Micah'', born June 15, 1726; died August 9, 1735. 

4. Eleazer"*, born August 26, 1728. 

5. Judith-*, born February 13, 1729; married, 1750, 

Stephen Flagg. 

6. Hannah-t, born November 17, 1731 ; died February 

6, 1756. 

7. Huldah*, born September 8, 1733; married, 1755, 

Thomas Drury. 

8. Submit*, born November 26, 1735. 

9. Zillah-*, born March 15, 1738; married Captain 

Nathan Howe (his second wife) in 1771, and in 


1789 she married Lieutenant Jonas Temple of 
Boylston (his third wife). 

10. Rufus*, born August 15, 1740. 

11. Elizabeth^ born October 27, 1742. 

IV. Elizabeth^, born October 4, 1699; married, November 28, 
1 71 7, Sergeant William, son of William and Mary 
(Johnson) Taylor, born February 15, 1692, in Marl- 
boro'; probably removed to Shrewsbury, prior to 1720. 
He lived, as supposed, where Captain Amasa Howe 
now resides, and was one of the founders of the church 
in Shrewsbury, to which his wife, Elizabeth, was 
admitted in 1724. In the first division of land in 
Shrewsbury, in 1718, William Taylor seems to have 
had some interest, for 70 acres were granted " to James 
Gleazon in room of William Taylor." In 1721 he was 
granted 5 acres "for Satisfaction for 15 acres of land 
which the said Taylor has alienated to the proprietors 
of Shrewsbury for to build a meeting-house upon." 
On the organization of the Shrewsbury militia, he was 
one of the four first appointed sergeants, a title of 
more regard at that time than that of colonel has since 
become. He was chosen in 1 722-23, one of a committee 
to procure a minister; in 1727-28, he was the first con- 
stable, and was one of the selectmen, 1731, 1734, 1 735 
and 1740. He died August 14, 1775, and his wife, 
March 17, 1763. 


1. Jonah* Taylor, born in Marlboro', 1718; died at 

Cape Breton, September 8, 1745. 

2. AbigaiH, born in Shrewsbury, March 5, 1720; 

married first, Moses Hastings, April 25, 1739, 
and second, Samuel Bigelow, May 7, 1770. 

3. Mary*, born in Shrewsbury, August 15, 1722; 

married, January 9, 1740, Hezekiah Rice, who 
died September 13, 1759. She was admitted to 
the church, 1744, and died April 25, 1796. 

4. Elizabeth*, born June 3, 1725; married, November 

19, 1 741, Solomon Stowe, and resided in Grafton. 
He died, and she married second, Captain 
Benjamin Fay, October 28, 1765, and resided in 
Westborough, Massachusetts. 


5. Dinah*, born March 12, 1727; married, April 10, 

1 75 1 . Ross, son of Ensign Seth and Sarah (Ross) 
Wyman (his second wife), and died November 
15. 1759; he was a farmer, kept a tavern, and 
his descendants still live in the same old house. 

6. Eunice*, born March 28, 1729; married, June 10, 

1748, Daniel Howe, who died July 5, 1750, and 
she married second. Lieutenant Marshall New- 
ton, August 13, 1751, and died July i, 1759. 

7. Lois*, born March 10, 1731 ; died October 15, 1745. 

8. Hepzibah*, born March 6, 1733; married, Novem- 

ber ID, 1748, Captain Nathan Howe, born June 
17, 1730. He was an officer in the service at 
Lake George, in the French war, and aided in 
building Fort William Henry; in 1776 he com- 
manded a company in throwing up works on 
Dorchester heights during the night; from an 
illness taken there he never recovered. His 
wife died in June, 1770, and he married second, 
1771. Zillah, daughter of Lieutenant Eleazer and 
Judith^ (Hapgood) Taylor, cousin of his first 
wife. He was chosen first lieutenant of the 
First company of militia raised in Shrewsbury, 
1774, and died March 21, 1781. 
9. Beulah*, born October 20, 1736; died October 28, 
10. Mercy*, born November 22, 1741; baptized same 
day, and died in infancy. 

V. Thomas^, born April 18, 1702; married, August 12, 1724, 
Damaris Hutchins, and died October 5, 1745. 
VL Hepsibeth^, born June 27, 1704, in Marlboro'; married, 
1822, Edward, son of Edward and Susanna (Stone) 
Goddard, born in Watertown, Massachusetts, 1697; 
was among the first settlers of Shrewsbury, and one of 
the founders of the church; she was admitted in 1728, 
and died July 19, 1763. He lived on the place of the 
late Charles H. Fitch, in Shrewsbury, where he died 
October 13, 1777. 


all born in Shrewsbury. 

Hepzibah* Goddard, born February 11, 1723; died 
unmarried, October 7, 1781, 


2. Nathan'*, born January i8, 1725; married Dorothy 

Stevens; died February 12, 1806; she died 
March 30, 1808. 

3. Elizabeth", born September 4, 1726; married 
-* Daniel Fiske, November 2, 1743. 

4. Robert", born August 13, 1728; married, January 

8, 1752, Hannah Stone; died June, 1807. 

5. David", born September 26, 1730 ; married, October 

9> 1753) Margaret Stone of Watertown, born 
October 14, 1728. 

6. Hezekiah", born August 13, 1732; died 1734. 

7. Daniel", born February 7, 1734; married, Novem- 

ber 17, 1756, Mary Willard, born in Grafton, 
April 3, 1730; died January 13, 1796. 

8. Ebenezer", born November 25, 1735; died in 


9. Ebenezer", born December 28, 1736; died Septem- 

ber 29, 1838; she died December 7, 1820. 

10. Rhoda", born February 25, 1740; married, August 

24, 1765, Reverend William Goddard, born in 
Leicester, April 27, 1740; died June 16, 1788. 

11. Miriam", born April 30, 1742; died November 8, 


12. Edward", born March 12, 1745; married, Novem- 

ber I, 1769, Lois How. He died October 13, 

4 Vn. John', born February 9, 1706-7; married at Marlboro', 

Abigail Morse. 
Vni. Huldah^ born February 10, 1709; married (according to 
the records of Southborough), November 8, 1737, 
Caleb Witherby. The record reads: — "Born unto 
Joseph Witherby & Elizabeth, his wife on ye fifth 
of January, 1 700-1 701, a Son named Caleb Witherby." 
His children's births are entered Witherbe. As the 
children married they gave the name, Witherbee. 
Huldah was Caleb's second wife, the first being, 
according to Hudson's History of Marlboro\ "Caleb 
Witherbee, born January 5, 1701 ; married, January 26, 
1726, Joanna Wheeler." His will mentions other 
children than those recorded as by his second wife. 
(The loss of a portion of the page that should give the 
years of birth of the last six children of Huldah, is 


most unfortunate.) In Caleb Witherbe's will, dated 
November 28, 1757, he makes bequests to all his sons 
then living. The estate was not settled until 1774. 
An inventory, being dated April 18, 1774, was 
signed : — 


John Witherbee 
Zacheus Witherbee." 


1. Thomas* Witherby, born November 7, 1739; i"3.r- 

ried, April 14, 1757, Anna Berry, who died at 
Southborough, December 26, 1760, and he died 
two days later. 

2. David^ born April 30, 1741 ; died December 15, 


3. Shadrach-*, born December 31, 1744; went to 

Canada, 1760, and not further reported. 

4. Nathan-*, born June 3, ; married. May 30, 1769, 

at Marlboro', Patience, daughter of Robert and 
Lydia Baker, born February 23, 1743. 

5. John*, born October 20, ; married, May 5, 

1767, Mary Newton. 

6. Ephraim*, born June 8, . 

7. Zacheus*, born December 27, 1752 (?); married, 

July 15, 1773, Sarah Snow. 

8. Huldah*, born May 7, ; died September 13, 


9. Joseph*, born January i, ; died December 11, 

1765. All of Huldah's children born in South- 

IX. Joseph^, born October 2, 17 14; married, April 26, 1739, 
Mary Brooks of Concord. 



Captain Thomas^ {Thomas^, Shadrach}), born April 18, 
1702; married, August 12, 1724, Damaris Hutchins of Marl- 
boro', born March 12, 1705, and had a numerous family, who 


settled in Shrewsbury, Petersham, and other towns in Wor- 
cester County, some of whom became quite distinguished. 
He settled in Shrewsbury, where he received from his father, 
June 30, 1725, a lot of 105 acres of Haynes' farm, 6 acres of 
meadow in Saybrook, i acre 45 rods in Great Brummit, and 
probably an interest in Poquaog, now Athol. February 2, 
7125-6, he exchanged 4 acres of the Haynes' farm with 
Ebenezer Bragg, and sold for ;£i7. los., to Nathan Wait of 
Poquaog, March 29, 1743, a lot in Poquaog. 

He died intestate, October 5, 1745, and his widow was 
appointed administratrix, and guardian to Damaris, John, 
David and Eunice, his youngest children. His estate was 
inventoried November 25, 1745, at ^4^gg8. 8s., consisting of 
his home place, live-stock, 16 acres of meadow in Saybrook, 
outlands in Shrewsbury, lands in and adjoining Poquaog, 
and a lot of rights in Housatonic. To Asa, the homestead 
was assigned ; to Seth, 220 acres on the north line of 
Poquaog; to Joab, a right to draw 300 acres; to John, the 
rights at Housatonic ; to the daughters, 5 lots of the outlands 
were assigned ; Asa being required to pay considerable sums 
to each of his brothers and sisters. The estate was com- 
pletely settled and assigned. May 15, 175 1. 

Captain Thomas removed, early in life, to Shrewsbury, 
where he became a leading citizen. He was constable in 
1729; selectman, 1731 to 1740, most of the time; surveyor 
of highways, 1732; treasurer from 1735 to the time of his 
death, October 5, 1745. At a town meeting, November, 
1745, his successor was chosen, and "a committee to look 
into the accounts of the deceased " was appointed. In 
March, 1746, the committee reported: "Settled accounts 
with the administratrix of the late Thomas Hapgood, late 


Precinct Treasurer ; we find that there is due to the heirs of 
the said treasurer, the sum of jQji- 8s. 5d. Old Tenor." He 
was chosen parish treasurer after the "setting off" of the 
north parish in 1743. This parish became Boylston in 1786. 
It is evident from the records that he was a man of sound 
judgment, and one who was highly esteemed by his fellow- 
townsmen, being often chosen to conduct matters demanding 
careful and wise consideration. His widow, Damaris, died 
June 7, 1793, aged eighty-eight ; a very superior woman. 


I. Ephraim*, born April 28, 1725; died September i, 1739, ^^ 
II. Solomon*, born September 20, 1726; died July 20, 1740. 

6 III. Asa*, born December 6, 1728; died December 23, 1791, at 

Barre ; married Anna Bowker, or Bouker. 
IV. Elijah*, born January 16, 1731 ; died October 5, 1745. 

7 V. Seth*, born October 20, 1732; died April 23, 1804; mar- 

ried, May 31, 1757, Lydia Bowker. 

8 VI. Joab*, born January 21, 1735; married Abigail Stone. 
VII. Damaris*, born March 12, 1737; married, February 12, 

1756, Gideon, son of Captain Daniel and Esther 
(Cloyes) Howe, born March 15, 1732, and lived on the 
place now improved for the support of the town's poor. 
He died February 8, 1815 ; the death of his wife is not 
on record. 


1. Lucretia^ Howe, born June 10, 1756; married, 

March 25, 1778, Artemas, son of Cyrus and 
Lois Wheelock, born December 5, 1748. 

2. Solomon', born October 21, 1758 ; married Rebecca 

Jennison, 1784. 

3. Esther', born September i, 1760; married, April 

12, 1784, Reuben, son of Ephraim and Thankful 
(Howe) Holland, born in Shrewsbury, November 
29, 1755. 

4. Charlotte', born May 6, 1762; married, January 4, 

1 781, Reuben, son of Thomas and Eunice Baker 
(second wife), born in Shrewsbury, baptized 


March 14, 1756. He died before 1812, and she, 
before 1789. 

5. John Hapgood^, born October 8, 1764; married, 

September 3, 1787, Sarah, daughter of Aaron 
and Dinah (Wheeler) Smith, born in Shrewsbury, 
March 21, 1765. He died January 3, 1839, and 
she, March 12, 1814. 

6. Damans', born November i, 1765; married, June 

24, 1792, Joseph Brooks, son of Samuel and 
Mary (Heywood) Jennison, born January 5, 1 756 ; 
removed from Shrewsbury, before 1830, to Wor- 
cester, where he became a prominent business 

7. DanieP, born March 13, 1769; married, about 

1789, in Newfane, Vermont, Hannah Hall, born 
about 1767. He died at Shrewsbury, January 
ID, 1806, and she at Worcester, March 15, 1840. 

8. Alvans, born May 12, 1772. 

9. Eunice^ born November 15, 1774; married, Sep- 

tember 24, 1797, at Shrewsbury, Joseph Cloyes, 
housewright, born in Framingham, Massachu- 
setts, and died 1799. 

10. Lymans, born June i, 1777; married, March 25, 

1802, Sylvia, daughter of George and Tabitha 
Slocomb, born at Medfield, Massachusetts, Sep- 
tember 13, 1778. He died at Shrewsbury, 
November 19, 1853, and she at same place, 
November 2, 1856. 

11. Relief^ born April 14, 1784; married. May 13, 

1802, Doctor Seth Knowlton, son of Deacon 
William and Hannah (Hastings) Knowlton of 
Shrewsbury, born May 11, 1781. He died April 
12, 1832, and his widow died May 5, 1862. 

VIII. John*, born September 12, 1739; died February 17, 1761, 
unmarried, leaving ^180. 9s. His mother adminis- 
IX. David", born February 2, 1742; died October 26, 1745. 
X. Eunice'*, born August 17, 1744; married, April 20, 1767, 
Ebenezer Hartshorn of Athol, Massachusetts. 


John' {Thovias-, Shadrach^), born February 9, 1706-7; 
settled on the northwesterly part of the homestead in Marl- 
boro', March 18, 1735. He received from his father (Book 36, 
Page 641) 105 acres in Marlboro', "in consideration of good 
will and affection." May 22, 1751, he bought ior £^0, of 
Eliphalet Howe, 30 acres, partly in Holden and partly in 
Rutland, and, December 3, 1756, resold the same to him for 
^106. He bought, with Asa Hapgood, for ^131, of John 
Morss, 80 acres in Shrewsbury, September 17, 1754, and 
sold, August 28, 1760, for £26, to William Brewer, Jr., 22 
acres in Shrewsbury. April 3, 1762, he made his will, 
bequeathing to his wife, Abigail, the improvement of all his 
homestead lands until his son John should be of age, after 
which he should have the improvement of one half of the 
same during life, and all his personal estate forever, she 
paying all his debts and funeral charges. To his son John 
he gave two thirds of his homestead, lands, and buildings, 
and the possession of one third at the age of twenty-one 
years, and of the other one third after the death of his 
mother ; but, if he died in his minority, his brother Jonathan 
should succeed to his bequest. To his son Jonathan he 
gave one third of his homestead, to be sold at the discretion 
of his wife, to give him a liberal education at college ; but, if 
he died in his minority, this bequest should go to John ; and 
if she died during the minority of these sons, his eldest then 
living should succeed to the trust committed to her. To his 
daughter Mary Brooks, to whom he had already given ;^39, 
he bequeathed 20s. ; to his daughters, Judith, Hazediah, 
Hepzibah, and Abigail, each ;^40, to be raised by the sale of 
a part of his outlands, and the remainder of said lands to be 


equally divided between his five daughters. He made his 
wife, Abigail, executrix. Will proved June 14, 1762. 

He married, February 17, 1731, Abigail, daughter of Jona- 
than and Mary (Stow) Morse of Marlboro'. He was one of 
the Alarm list attached to Captain Weeks' company in 1757, 
when threatened by the French and Indians ; selectman, 
1745, 1749, 1753, 1755, 1757. and a man of influence. He 
died May 26, 1762. His wife Abigail was born May 12, 
1712; died March 31, 1798. 


I. Jonathan*, born February 12, 1732; died December 14, 
11. David'', born July 4, 1734; died January 5, 1737. 

III. Abigail'', born January 16, 1737 ; died August 9, 1739. 

IV. Mary'*, born June 4, 1740; married, November 24, 1757, 

Charles Brooks ; resided in Princeton. 


1. Lydias Brooks, born September 11, 1759. 

2. Persis^, born January 4, 1762. 

3. Mary^ born November 13, 1764. 

V. Judith*, born November 8, 1742; married. May 2, 1764, 
Solomon Barnes, born June 20, 1740; resided in Marl- 
boro'. She died April 19, 1820. He died 1830, aged 
ninety years. 


1. Katharine^ Barnes, born July 27, 1765; married, 

November 26, 1783, Ithamar Brigham. 

2. Williams, born September 3, 1766; married, 1788, 

Elizabeth Brigham. 

3. SamueP, born 1772; died September 10, 1776. 

4. DanieP, born August 22, 1775; married, 1795, 

Louisa Howe. 

VI. Hazadiah'*, born July 7, 1745; married, May 20, 1766, John 
Nourse; resided at Bolton, Massachusetts. 
VII. Persis'', born July 19, 1748; died November 10, 1748. 


VIII. Hepzibah'', born June 5, 1749; married, May 30, 1769, Jonas 
Howe, born June 10, 1739, ^t Marlboro'; resided at 

9 IX. John*, born October 8, 1752; married, January 5, 1775, 

Lois Stevens. 
X. Abigail*, born August 13, 1755; married, September 15, 
1772, Thomas Rice of Marlboro', born 1789; died 
October 28, 1840. She died April, 1828. 


1. Lydia^ Rice, born May 26, 1778; married John 

Carruth ; resided at Northboro'. 

2. Nancy^ born September 11, 1780; married, 1804, 

Abel Maynard; died, gored by an ox. 

3. Catharine', born July 9, 1783; married, 1806, 

Jotham Bartlett. 

4. Jonathan^ born November 30, 1786; married, 

March 23, 1809, Betty Brigham. 

5. Levi', born June 23, 1789; married, September 15, 

181 1, Lucinda Bigelow. 

6. Lucy', born June 13, 1792 ; died July 11, 1796. 

7. Willard', born September 7, 1794; married, 1815, 

Anna Barnes. 

8. Solomon', born September 3, 1799; married first, 

1836, Mary H. Perkins, who died 1840, and he 
married second, Nancy Cunningham. 

10 XI. Jonathan*, born May 16, 1759; married. May 6, 1783, 

Jerusha Gibbs. 


Joseph* {Thomas'', Shadj'ach^), born October 2, 1714; 
inherited the homestead of his father, with the east half of 
his spacious farm in Marlboro' ; selectman, 1758, 1763, 1764, 
1766, 1767 ; assessor, 1766, and was a prominent and leading 


citizen ; died intestate, June 5, 1767, while administering on 
the estate of his brother Thomas, late of Marlboro' ; and his 
wife Mary, July 28, 1767, was appointed administratrix, who 
concluded the settlement of both estates, November i, 1768. 
Her husband's estate was inventoried at ;^387. 8s. lod. He 
married, April 26, 1739, Mary, daughter of Hugh and Abigail 
(Barker) Brooks, born in Concord, July 11, 1714; died, his 
widow, September 15, 1807, at the advanced age of ninety- 
three, beloved, honored and respected. 


I. Abigail-*, born October 12, 1741; died December 10, 1746. 

II. Thomas'', born August 29,1743; died December 16, 1745. 

III. Jonathan'', born November 3, 1745 ! died December 17, 1746. 

11 IV. Thomas'*, born November 13, 1747; married, December 16, 

1773, Lucy Woods. 

12 V. Joseph-*, born January 23, 1754; married Ruth Jackson. 

He died May 18, 1818. 
VI. Mary''born August 6, 1756; married, June 21,1773, Francis 
Howe, born June 26, 1750; died February 28, 1833. 


1. Joseph' Howe, born November 7, 1773; died 

August 12, 1775. 

2. Francis', born January 7, 1776. 

3. Lewis', born February 3, 1778. 

4. Ezekiel', born July 30, 1780. 

5. Thomas', born December 2, 1883. 

6. Polly^ born June 10, 1786; married, October 25, 

181 1, Aaron Cutter. 

7. Lucy', born October 21, 1788; married James 

Woods' Hapgood (31). 

8. Lydia', born February 23, 1791 ; married, 1823, 

Nathaniel A. Bruce. 

9. Lambert', born August 12, 1795 ; married Charlotte 

10. Abigail B.', born February 28, 18 10. 




Lieutenant Asa^ {Thomas^, Thomas'-, Shadrack^), born in 
Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, December 6, 1728 ; married, 
December 6, 1750, Anna, daughter of Asa Bowker (orBouker) 
of Swedish origin, born September 4, 1728 ; died June 4, 1795. 
He settled upon the homestead left him by his father, but 
was required to pay to each of his brothers and sisters con- 
siderable sums. He seems to have disposed of the home lot 
to his brother Joab, about 1754, and to have removed to 
Rutland District, now Barre, which was incorporated 1753. 
April 16, 1765, he, with his wife, signed a quitclaim, in favor 
of Charles Bowker, to her interest in the estate of Asa 
Bowker, late of Shrewsbury, and other quitclaims to Charles 
Bowker, August 26, 1765, in favor of Ebenezer and Eleazer 
Rice. The meadow in Shrewsbury, which he bought for 
;^47, March 5, 1753, may have been included in these quit- 
claims. About 1763, he began to be identified as one of the 
leading men of the Rutland District. On the 23d of Febru- 
ary, 1773, a town meeting was called, "to consider of a Cir- 
cular Letter from the town of Boston, concerning the State 
and Rights of the Province." The letter was referred to a 
committee, of which Asa Hapgood was one. The grave 
questions then agitating the colony, made it important to 
the district to be represented in the General Court. The 
warrant for a town meeting, issued March 15, 1773, had this 
article : — "To see if the District will petition the Great and 
General Court to be set off as a town, or to act anything 
relative thereto." Asa Hapgood was placed upon the com- 
mittee to present the petition. Passed, to be enacted, at 
Salem, June 14, and signed by the Governor, June 17, 1774. 


He was chosen chairman of the "Committee of Safety," 1775, 
and as chairman of the "Committee of Correspondence," 
and Board of Selectmen of the Rutland District. He had 
great influence in reorganizing the militia. In April, 1779, 
it was voted by the Legislature to call a convention of 
delegates of the towns to meet at Cambridge on the first of 
September following, for the express purpose of framing a 
form of government. In this important convention, Barre 
was represented by those clear-sighted and trusty men, 
always foremost when any grave public service was to be 
rendered, John Mason, Esquire, Lieutenant Andrew Parker, 
and Lieutenant Asa Hapgood. [See Centetinial address of 
Reverend J. W. Thompson, D. D., at Barre, Jime 17, 1874, y<?r 
the above. '\ 

He appears, with rank of private, on muster and pay rolls 
of Captain William Henry's company. Colonel Whitney's 

regiment, for service at Rhode Island on the Alarm of ; 

time of enlistment. May 3, 1777; discharged July 5, 1777; 
belonged to Barre. He enlisted, September 2, 1777, in Cap- 
tain Benjamin Nye's company. Colonel James Wilder's regi- 
ment ; discharged September 18, 1777. He died December 23, 
1 791, at Barre. 


I. Levinah^ born February 16, 1752; died, unmarried, at Barre. 
II. Thomas^, born March 22, 1753 ; appears with rank of ser- 
geant on muster and pay roll of Captain James Mirick's 
company. Colonel Josiah Whitney's regiment (under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Ephraim Sawyer, Jr.); time of 
enlistment, October 2, 1777; time of discharge, October 
28, 1777; time of service, twenty-five days; town to 
which he belonged, Bolton or Princeton ; marched to 
reinforce General Gates at Saratoga. [Massachusetts 
Archives.'] Removed to Reading, Vermont; was 
chosen her first representative in 1780; town clerk, 


1 78 1, 1782, 1783, 1784; selectman and town treasurer, 
1784; returned to Massachusetts, 1788-90, and spent 
the remainder of his life in Hubbardston; was one 
of the selectmen, 1795 to 1797, and was on a list of 
two hundred and six persons who died in that town 
over eighty years old. He married Hannah Sawyer, of 
Reading, where his widow, in 1838, sued for a pension. 
No children. 

III. Betsey^, born May 6, 1754; married, October 19, 1769, John 


IV. Sophia', born April 6, 1756; married Lyman, son of John 

and Prudence (Wilder) Wilder, born July 12, 1744, at 
Petersham. She died September 24, 1799. 


1. John* Wilder, born 1780, at Petersham; married 

Betsey Bent. 

2. Asa^ born . 

3. Nahum^ born 1791 ; married, November 21, 181S, 

at Windsor Locks, Connecticut, Laura Powers, 
born January 30, 1799. He was a soldier in the 
War of 1812, and died at Rock Hill, Connecticut, 
August 22, 1839, a farmer. She died December 
18, 1879; had six children. 

4. Prudence*, born ; married John Grout of 

Petersham ; had four children. 

13 V. David', born May 10, 1757, died July 3, 1829; married 

Sally Myrick. 

14 VI. Asa', born November 25, 1759; married Jennie Bowker. 
VII. John', born May 10, 1761 ; died July 23, 1778. 

VIII. Anna', born October 27, 1764; died April 17, 1766. 
IX. Windsor', born December 10, 1767; married; resided at 
Hubbardston, where he was instantly killed, Decem- 
ber 24, 1829; no children. 

15 X. Artemas', born March 15, 1769; married Polly Rice; died 

October 3, 1846. 


Deacon Seth* {Thomas^, Thomas', ShadracJi}), born Octo- 
ber 20, 1732; purchased land and removed to Petersham in 


1756, where, October 10, 1760, for ;^33. 4s., he sold to Nathan 
Goddard, a farm adjoining Poquaog (Athol), lying by the 
southwest corner of Royall Shire (Royalston), and April 16 
and August 26, 1765, he, with his wife, signed quitclaims to 
her interest in the estate of Asa Bowker, late of Shrewsbury. 
He married, May 31, 1757, Lydia, daughter of Asa and 
Martha (Eager) Bowker, born December 6, 1733, in Shrews- 
bury; died October 9, 1813. He died April 23, 1804. 


I. Damaris', born May 15, 1758; married, March 15, 1782, at 
Petersham, Judge William Bigelow of Guilford, Ver- 
mont. He was the son of Jotham and Mary (Richard- 
son) Bigelow of Holden, Massachusetts, where he was 
born February 20, 1751 ; when a small boy he moved 
with his parents to Guilford; he was a prominent 
man ; early chosen town clerk ; was a selectman several 
years ; represented his town in the State Legislature ; 
for a period of twenty years was Judge of Windham 
County Court. He died October 14, 1814; she died 
May 9, 1846, at Bainbridge, New York. 


1. William^ Bigelow, born January 26, 1783; married 

Lucretia Ashcroft. They resided in Guilford, 
where he was a well-known citizen, and honored 
with the title of Captain. He died October 15, 
1848; had six children. 

2. Levi^ (Honorable), born February 25, 1785; mar- 

ried, February 23, 1814, Hannah G. Goodrich; 
settled in Bainbridge, where he became promi- 
nent. He was Judge of Chenango Common 
Pleas and County Court for a period of twenty- 
two years, and served his county in the State 
Assembly ; had seven children. 

3. Rebecca^ born July 24, 1787 ; married, April i, 1810, 

Salmon Sheldon of Leyden, Massachusetts ; 
died August 7, 1858. He died February 18, 
1862; had nine children. 


4. Asa^ born January 21, 1790; married Eliza Brown- 

ing of North Adams, Massachusetts ; had four 

5. Damaris'', born May 9, 1792; married, October 31, 

1816, Daniel Garrett of Bainbridge. 

6. Betsey^ born August i, 1795; married, 

Daniels; resided in New York. 

7. Joseph^ born October 22, 1798; died at Catskill, 

New York, about 1828; unmarried. 

II. Catharine^, born October 22, 1759; died October 21, 1843, 

at Petersham. 
III. Lydia^, born May 14, 1761 ; died March 29, 1829; married, 
February 8, 1789, Jonas Bond of Maine. 

1. Newell"^ Bond, born . 

2. Thomas^, born ; resided in Cleveland, Ohio. 

16 IV. Hutchins^ born April 14, 1763; married Betsey Grout. 

V. Lucinda', born January 16, 1765; married, June 16, 1791, 
at Petersham, Captain John Fitch of Guilford, Ver- 
mont. She died July 18, 1820. 

17 VI. Solomon^ born December 30, 1766; married Azuba Burt. 
VII. Lucretia^ born September 19, 1768; died May 11, 1789; 


18 VIII. Eber^ born August 5, 1770; died July 6, 1851; married 

Dolly Grout. 

19 IX. Oliver^, born September 26, 1772; married, November 10, 

1799, Lucy Smith, and second, 1810, Anna Chapman. 
X. Eunice', born July 22, 1774; married, February 17, 1797, 
Deacon Guy Bridgman of Hinsdale, Vermont; resided 
in Kendall, New York. 
XI. Levi^ born June 8, 1775; died October 12, 1776. 

20 XII. Levi', born December 6, 1778; married, September, 1823, 

Anna (Chapman) Hapgood. 


JoAB'* {Thomas^ ^ Thomas^, Shadrach^), born January 21, 
1735. He was at Petersham, October 14, 1765, where he 
bought of Joseph Hudson, April 29, 1765, for jQiyo,/^i acres, 


with house and barn, and 26 acres; October 5, 1765, sold 
for ;^200, to Ephraim Whitney, 41 acres in the northern 
part and 26 acres in the northeastern part of Petersham. 
He, before and subsequently, lived in Shrewsbury, on the 
homestead, about one mile. southwest of the meeting-house, 
which was possessed after him by his son Ephraim. He 
married, June 20, 1765, Abigail, daughter of Lieutenant 
Isaac and Elizabeth (Brown) Stone, born at Shrewsbury, 
December 9, 1735. Lieutenant Isaac Stone was a member 
of the first board of selectmen in Shrewsbury, and a leading 
man in town, church and parish affairs. Joab died March 21, 
1803, and his widow, November 28, 1804. 


I. Lucy^ born June 25, 1766; died August 23, 185 1, in 
Spencer; unmarried. 

21 II. Ephraim', born March i, 1768; died December 15, 1843; 

married Elizabeth Cunningham Allen. 

III. David^, born November 25, 1769; died unmarried, Septem- 

ber 18, 1829. 

IV. Nahum', born October 7, 1771 ; died October 9, 1789. 

22 V. Elijah', born November 10, 1773; died July 22, 1853; 

married Eunice Baker. 
VI. Stephen', born December 14, 1775; died August 19, 1778. 
VII. Martha', born March i, 1778; died September i, 1778. 


John* {John^, Thomas'^, Shadrach^), born October 8, 1752. 
Settled in Marlboro' in sight of his cousin, Joseph Hapgood, 
who married Ruth Jackson. He married, January 5, 1775, 
Lois Stevens, who died April 10, 1776, aged twenty-one, 
leaving an infant, two months old, and he married second, 
February 7, 1782, Lucy Munroe of Lincoln, Massachusetts. 


He died February lo, 1835, and Lucy died July 25, 1835, 
aged seventy-eight. 


23 I. John', born February 9, 1776 (by first wife); married, 

October 29, 1799, Betsey Temple. 

24 II. Benjamin^ born March 9, 1783 (by second wife); married, 

August 30, 1805, Ann Whitman of Stow. 

III. Lois', born October 20, 1785, at Marlboro'; married Fred- 

erick Turner. 

IV. Henry^ born November 24, 1787; married, July 6, 1809, 

Catharine Conant of Dedham, Massachusetts, who 
died April 5, 1859, aged seventy-three; Henry died 
October 29, 1861, aged seventy-four; resided in 

I. Jane M.^ born 1810; died August 27, 1890. 
II. Adaline R.^ born 1812; died December 9, 1846. 

III. Henry M.^ born 1814; died November, 1844. 

IV. Catharine A.^ born 1817; died October 27, 1834. 
V. Lucy Ann*, born 1819; died December 5, 1845. 

V. Hannahs, born December 27, 1789; married Ebenezer 
Kenfieldof Boston, born March 18, 1795; died Novem- 
ber 13, 1880; she died June 24, 1849. 


1. William Frederick* Kenfield, born August 13, 1822. 

2. Sarah J.*, born April 17, 1830. 

VI. Mary5, born March 5, 1792; died ; unmarried. 

VII. Elizabeths, born June 23, 1794; died June 6, 1880, at 
Hudson ; unmarried. 
VIII. Sarah', born September 26, 1796; died June 7, 1874, at 
Hudson ; unmarried. 


Deacon Jonathan* {JoJm^, Thomas^, Skadrach^), born 
May 16, 1759; married. May 6, 1783, Jerusha Gibbs, born in 
Marlboro', 1762; died March 2, 1842. He was elected 


deacon of the first church, 1821, and died April 12, 1849; 
a farmer. 


25 I. David^, born June i, 1783; married, September 24, 1805, 

Abigail Russell. 
II. Persist, born May i, 1785; married, July 21, 1803, Benja- 
min Rice, born July 8, 1774, at Marlboro'; was gradu- 
ated from Harvard College, 1796 ; Deacon of the West • 
church and a magistrate; died September 24, 1833. 
His wife died January 4, 1821. 


1. Persis* Rice, born January 5, 1804; married (as 

second wife) Reverend Seth Alden. 

2. Susanna W.^ born August 16, 1805 ; married, 

1827, Lewis Bigelow. 

3. Benjamin P.^ born July 7, 1808 ; married Deborah 


4. Elizabeth^ born December 28, 1810. 

5. George^, born June 4, 1813; died at Worcester, 

June 30, 1847. 

6. John^ born November 10, 1815. 

7. Mary C.^ born August 21, 1818. 

26 III. NathanieP, born September 14, 1787; married, May 22, 

1808, Elizabeth Barber. 
IV. Abigail', born February 4, 1790 ; married Josiah Gilman of 
Tamworth, New Hampshire ; removed from that place 
some years ago; had four sons, but not further 

27 V. Francis', born August 2, 1792; married, 1814, Dorcas 

VI. Jerusha', born December 13, 1794; married Reverend 
Elisha Perry of Paxton, Massachusetts. Had three 
children, two boys and one girl, names not given. 
VII. Hepsibeth', born June 20, 1798; married, December 3, 
1818, Moses Barnes of Marlboro', born June 28, 1789; 
died February 17, 1875. She died May 4, 1865. 

1. Martha^ Barnes, born December 20, 1818 ; married, 
April 17, 1861, Henry Williams of Marlboro'; 
died April, 1876. 


2. Jerusha*, born September 24, 1820; married, 

Decembers, 1848, Artemas Walcott of Stow; 
died August, 1892. 

3. Eda^ born February 9, 1823; married, Novem- 

ber 2, 1849, Annie C. Tarbell of St. Albans, 
Vermont. She died February 4, 1892; he, 
January 4, 1895 ; a farmer. 

4. Lucy Eager^ born December 10, 1824; married. 

May 4, 1852, Henry Williams of Marlboro'. 
She died January 20, i860; he, April, 1876. 

5. Rebecca^ born April 21, 1830; died January 31, 


6. Rebecca Hapgood^ born September i, 1836; mar- 

ried, January 3, 1864, Charles H. Dalrymple, 
born September 9, 1828, at Hubbardston, Mas- 
sachusetts. He died December 28, 1892. 
She resides in Marlboro'. 

7. Joseph Weeks'', born September 19, 1838 ; married, 

December 25, 1866, Emma J. Warren, born at 
Weathersfield, Vermont, August 5, 1842; grad- 
uated from Springfield, (Vermont) Seminary ; 
died June 28, 1897; resided in Marlboro', a car- 

VIII. Mosess, born April 11, 1801 ; died April 15, 1805. 

IX. Ann Gibbs^, born March i, 1803; married, December 30, 
1830, Collins S. Cole of Wellfleet, Massachusetts, born 
1803. In early life he went to sea, as most of the 
young men of Cape Cod did in those days, and rose to 
the position of Shipmaster. As our commercial 
marine began to feel symptoms of decay, he aban- 
doned the sea-going life, and went into mercantile 
business, 1841, which he pursued up to the time of his 
death. May 30, 1868. He represented his town in the 
Legislature, and held various other offices of trust and 
responsibility in the town. His wife, before marriage, 
was a school teacher; died May 11, 1882, leaving one 
daughter, Julia A. Cole, who married Samuel Atwood 
of Wellfleet, and is still living. 
X. Hannah^ born August 10, 1805; died 1807. 



Colonel Thomas* {Joseph^, Thoynas^, Shadrac/i}), born 
November 13, 1747; married, December 16, 1773, Lucy, 
daughter of James and Hepsibeth Woods, born September 
14, 1747. He appears on the muster rolls as private in 
William Morse's company. Colonel Jonathan Reade's regi- 
ment ; enlisted October 2, 1777, discharged November 8, 
1777; term of service, one month, seven days. This com- 
pany of volunteers marched to assist General Gates, under 
resolve of September 22, 1777, belonged to Marlboro'. He 
rose to rank of colonel in the militia at Marlboro', where he 
resided, and died September 13, 1822; his widow died July 

25, 1825. 


28 I. Aarons, born September 18, 1774; married Sarah Carr of 

Sudbury. He died about 1844, at Stow. 

29 II. Thomass, Jr., born August 24, 1776; married, June 27, 

1803, Mary Witt. 

III. Abigail', born April 10, 1779; married, June 23, 1798, 

Thomas Whitney of Marlboro', born June 15, 1777. 


1. Lucy* Whitney, born September 8, 1798. 

2. William Hapgood^ born July 5, 1800. 

IV. William', born November 20, 1780 ; died young. 
V. James', born January 15, 1784; died June 19, 1784. 

30 VI. Asa', born April 13, 1785; married, 1812, Phebe, daughter 

of Jonah Rice, born February 3, 1789. 

31 VII. James Woods', born April 21, 1787; married, October 26, 

1814, Lucy' Howe, born October 21, 1788. 


Joseph* {Joseph^, Tho^nas^, Shadrach^), born January 23, 
1754; married, 1777, Ruth Jackson, born July 31, 1759; 


died February 8, 1839; resided in Marlboro'; he died 
May 18, 1818. 


32 I. Josiahs, born March 7, 1779, at Marlboro'; married, May 

29, 1806, Elizabeth Maynard, born February 7, 1783. 
II. Mary^ born November 20, 1780; married, October 19, 1803, 
Ethan Darling of Marlboro', born March 13, 1780. 
She died July 2, 1868. 
III. Sarah^ born March 25, 1783; married, March 23, 1806, 
William Wesson. She died July 6, 1869. 

33 IV. Joseph', born November 17, 1784; married, November 26, 

1807, at Bolton, Massachusetts, Mrs. Susanna May- 
nard, born May i, 1785; died April i, i860. 

34 V. Jonathan', born December 26, 1786; married, 1813, Betsey 

VI. Ruth', born November 2, 1788; married. May 7, 1807, John 

35 VII. Isaac', born March 8, 1791 ; married, September 2, 1817, 

Abigail Green of Ashby. 
VIII. Lucy', born May 12, 1793; married, October 4, 1809, Asa 
Bigelow of Marlboro', born January 19, 1791. She died 
May 13, 1828. 
IX. Lydia', born July 9, 1795; married Ezekiel Davis, and died 

July 25, 1826. 
X. Caty', born November 1 5, 1 797 ; married (published March 
6, 1818), Abraham Ray. She died April 18, 1833. 
XI. Joel', born September 20, 1801 ; died at Niagara, January 

19, 1846; unmarried. 
XII. Judith', born October 14, 1803; died August 23, 1820. 



David^ Esquire (Asa*, TJiomas^, Thomas"', Shadrack}), born 
May 10, 1757; was distinguished for enterprise, courage, 
energy, and reverence. At the age of twenty-two he left 
home, purchased a large tract, twelve miles west of Windsor, 
Vermont, near the centre of the present town of Reading, 


and immediately commenced improvements. Then there 
were only two families in the region, each miles in opposite 
directions from his location. Here he labored alone during 
the first season. But ere he had completely secured his 
little harvest, news reached him that the settlement at 
Royalton, twenty-five miles north of Reading, had been laid 
in ashes by Indians from Canada, and many out of the three 
hundred inhabitants massacred and others taken captive. 
Trusting in solitude for defence he did not flee ; until return- 
ing to his cabin from a temporary absence, he found the 
savages had plundered it of meat left over the fire, and such 
other articles as they most coveted. He now hastily struck 
his tent, returned to Massachusetts, spent the winter of 
1778-79 in enlisting his brother Thomas and other young 
men of Worcester County to accompany him back in the 
spring. Here, through privations and hardships no longer 
experienced by planters of new countries, they prepared the 
way for a large and prosperous settlement, which was 
organized in 1780, and he elected selectman and constable; 
the future history of Reading cannot fail to recognize 
him as her most efficient founder. He and his brother 
Thomas purchased, June 5, 1780, one whole right of land in 
the township of Reading, Vermont, consideration, jC^SO^ 
lawful money ; David bought of Thomas a tract of land, con- 
sideration, ;^i,i85, lawful money. June 27, 1781, David 
erected the first framed building and opened the first tavern 
in the place, and the first town meetings were held in his 
house. He was early chosen representative, and for a series 
of years served as magistrate. 

As his children attained their majority he proceeded to 
divide to them his estate, giving to each of the elder sons 


lOO acres of the south part of his farm, and to the third 
son his homestead, etc., and he lived to see all his family 
comfortably settled in life. He married, 178 1, Sally Myrick 
of Princeton, Massachusetts, born April 6, 1762; died August 
7, 1826; he died July 3, 1829. 


36 I. John^ born December 11, 1782, at Princeton; married, 

March 2, 1808, at Reading, Sally Amsden. 

37 II. David^ born February 20, 1786, at Reading; married Sally 


III. Sally Myrick^ born June 8, 1788; married, December 25, 

1815, Edmund Durrin, Esquire, of Weathersfield, Ver- 
mont; a manufacturer, afterwards an eminent landlord 
at Springfield, Vermont, who died at New Orleans, 
February 22, 1837, when in quest of health, having 
appointed Bridgman Hapgood, Esquire, executor of 
his will. She died at the home of her sister, Mrs. 
Fidelia Forbush, in Reading, July 3, 1855; s. p. 

IV. Lucinda^ born June 28, 1790; died October 21, 1835; mar- 

ried Jared Bigelow of Reading, February 2, 1812, born 
April 26, 1786; died August 2, 1856. 


1. Addison Clinton'' Bigelow, born September 28, 

1812 ; died May 21, 1813. 

2. Fidelia Hapgood^ born May i, 1814; married, 

September, 1859, William Kingsbury of Charles- 
town, Massachusetts. 

3. Mary Ann'', born January 25, 1816; married, 1836, 

George W. Fuller of Reading. 

4. Norman CJ, born January 16, 1819; married, 

April 20, 1845, Betsey Smith ; resided in Caven- 
dish, Vermont. 

5. Jared Addison'', born August 24, 1821 ; died 

March 15, 1822. 

6. Adeline LJ, born ; married, 1841, Sylvanus 

Daniels of Charlestown, Massachusetts. She 
died May 31, 1855. 

7. Laura Bigelow Durrin (adopted), born October 25, 

1824; married, 1842, Benjamin B. Snow of 
Springfield, Vermont; resides in Charlestown, 


8. Sarah^ born April 15, 1826; died August 16, 1827. 

V, Betsey^ born January 21, 1793; died August 28, 1795. 

38 VI. Artemas*, born July 16, 1795; married Rebecca Fay. 
VII. Fidelia^ born August 20, 1797; married, March 14, 1822, 

Captain Rufus Forbush, son of Rufus of Westboro, 
Massachusetts, who was proprietor of the farm origi- 
nally improved by Thomas' Hapgood of Reading. Has 
served the town for years as selectman, representative 
and magistrate, and as often as the Constitution of 
Vermont has become rickety, he has been chosen to 
conventions to strengthen it. 


1. Charles A.^ Forbush, born January 8, 1823; mar- 

ried, May 25, 1859, Lizzie Davis; resides in 
Springfield, Vermont ; cashier of the Springfield 
National Bank. 

2. Rufus Orestes^, born October 7, 1824; married, 

June 9, 1863, Eliza A. Spencer, who died Sep- 
tember 19, 1897; resides at Springfield, and was 
in company with his brother Charles, who, 
together, ranked high as honorable and thrifty 

3. Harriet Fidelia'', born May 29, 1832; died June 15, 

1839, at Reading. 

4. Agnes Victoria^, born August 30, 1835; died June 

26, 1839. 

5. Mary Jane^ born May 8, 1838; married, October 

3, 1866, Dr. Orlando W. Sherwin, born in Wood- 
stock, Vermont, October 30, 1837; where he 
resides ; was graduated from Dartmouth Medi- 
cal College, 1865. She died December i, 1885. 

39 VIII. Bridgman*, born August 13, 1799; married first, Elizabeth 

Morrison, second, Laura M. Weston. 
IX. Lucy^ born June 28, 1802; died August 11, 1806. 
X. Dexter^ born April 14, 1807; died August 30, 1847, 
unmarried, at Dubuque, Iowa. 


AsA^ {Asa\ T/wmas^, T/wmas^, S/iadrac/i^), born in Shrews- 
bury, November 25, 1759; married, about 1785, Jane or 


Jennie, daughter of Charles, and granddaughter of Asa 
Bowker of Shrewsbury, born May 26, 1761 ; settled in Read- 
ing, Vermont, soon after his marriage. August 28, 1780, 
Thomas Hapgood of Reading sold to Asa Hapgood, Jr., a 
tract of land for ;)Ci8, lawful money. He moved to Fairfax, 
Vermont, about 1796, and Jericho, 1804, and next to Rush- 
ford, New York, where his wife died February 16, 1822 ; he 
died at Jericho, Vermont, October 15, 1823. 


40 I. ElmoreS born October 29, 1787, at Reading; married, at 

Jericho, March 14, 1813, Rheuanna Smith. 
II. Sylvia^ born July 2, 1788; married John Booth of West- 
ford, Vermont. She died November 10, 1826, at 
Milton, Vermont. 

41 III. Charles^ born November 18, 1790; married Lucy Kendall. 

42 IV. Tillison^ born April 13, 1792; married, February 13, 1823, 

Cynthia Bliss. 
V. LucyS born June 2, 1794; married Eben Woodworth; 
resided in Essex, Vermont. She died March 20, 1865, 
at Underhill, Vermont. 
VI. Asa^ born December 18, 1795, at Reading; drowned in 
Lake Correnango, New York, near Maysville, April 2, 
VII. Elmira^ born June 26, 1797, at Fairfax; died at Jericho, 

December 28, 1805. 
VIII. Jane^ born March 21, 1799, at Fairfax; married, Decem- 
ber 10, 1826, at Ripley, New York, James Wells, born 
in Cambridge, Washington County, New York; 
resided and died in Harmony, Chautauqua County, 
March 28, 1854. She died January 25, 1883, at the 
house of her son, Lewis B., in Ashville, New York. 


1. Emeline Adelia^, Wells, born April 17, 1828; mar- 

ried, September 8, 1850, William W. Ball of 
Harmony ; resides in Stowe, New York. 

2. Eveline Cornelia^ born September 30, 1830; died 

September 4, 1840, in Illinois. 

3. Morrice Berry^ born January 11, 1832; enlisted 


first, in War of Rebellion, in Company C, Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers ; served about one and a 
half years ; sent to hospital for six months ; 
returned, re-enlisted, and served to end of the 
war; died November, 1895, at the Soldiers' 
Home, Erie, Pennsylvania. 
4. Lewis Berry^, born January 7, 1835; married, June 
23, 1859, Sophia, daughter of James and Mary 
Green, born May 9, 1841, at Hickory, Pennsyl- 
vania ; resides in Ashville, New York ; a farmer. 

43 IX. Bates Turner^ born November 6, 1800 ; married, Janu- 

ary 25, 1826, Alzina Taylor. 

44 X. Joel Wilson^ born April 21, 1802; married, September i, 

1830, Susan Harrington of Whitehall, New York. 
XL Martin^ born November 16, 1805, at Jericho, Vermont; 
died January 24, 1826. 


Artemas* {Asa\ T/iomas^, T/iomas-, Shadradi)), born 
March 15, 1769; married, June 16, 1799, Polly> daughter of 
Martin (a fifer in the Revolution), and Ruth Rice, of Peters- 
ham, born September 21, 1799; ^i^d October 7, 1861 ; 
resided at Barre, Massachusetts, where he died October 3, 

45 I. Horace^ born May 25, 1800; married, March 22, 1823, 

Lucy Parsons. 
II. Sylvia^, born July 4, i8ot,at Barre ; married, November 19, 
1820, Williams Hamilton of Bridport, Vermont, born 
February 5, 1797; died September 12, 1845, at Attica, 
New York, on his way home from the West. She died 
January 6, 1867, at Kenwood, Oneida Community, New 


1. Erastus Hapgood^ Hamilton, born November 6, 
1821, at Barre; married, June 26, 1844, Susan C. 
Williams of Devonshire, England ; died Octo- 
ber 15, 1864. He died September 2, 1894, at 


2. Augusta Williams^ born November lo, 1822; died 

at Barre, February 17, 1827, 

3. Chauncey', born August 18, 1825; married, Febru- 

ary I, 1849, Almira Van Wagener; died Febru- 
ary II, 1893, at Syracuse, New York. 

4. George Williams'', born April 25, 1827; married, 

June, 1849, Philena Baker, who died Decem- 
ber 13, 1893. He died April 13, 1893, at San 
Diego, California. 

5. Charles Lyman'', born April 12, 1833, at Cortland, 

New York; married, and has five children, 

46 III. Chauncey*, born October 17, 1803; married, May 2, 1833, 
Lucy F. Rice of Barre. 
IV. Direxa^ born June 15, 1805 ; married, July 22, 1828, Joseph 
K. Sperry, born September 12, 1804; died August 2, 
1879. She died February 4, 1890, at Cornwall, Ver- 
mont, where they resided. 


1. Albert Hapgood' Sperry, born June 11, 1829; mar- 

ried, November 15, 1854, Ann E. Eells. 

2. Charles Artemas^ born April 3, 1834; resides in 

Quechee, Vermont ; is a doctor of medicine. 

3. Harriet Augusta^, born September 21, 1836; mar- 

ried Judge George W. Foote ; resides at Crown 
Point, New York; secretary and treasurer of 
Crown Point Knitting Company. 

V. Mary Ann*, born February 28, 1807 ; married Amos Hamil- 
ton; resided in Bridport, Vermont. She died Janu- 
ary 29, 1864. 


1. Eugene^ Hamilton, born 

2. Henry', born . 

3. Walter^ born . 

4. Delia', born . 

5. Mary', born . 

6. Anson', born . 

7. Carlton', born . 

8. George', born . 

VI. Betsey^ born July 17, 1808, at Barre, Massachusetts; mar- 
ried, June 3, 1830, Freeman Rice, born June 6, 1806, 


who died at Barre, June 14, 1832, and she married 
second, December 8, 1842, Samuel Austin Kinsman, 
born January 24, 1808, in Hubbardston, Massachusetts ; 
died at the house of his stepdaughter, Mrs. Stitt, in 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 14, 1888; she died 
in Barre, January 19, 1882. 

Child, by first husband. 
1. Eliza Freeman' Rice, born (posthumous) July 26, 
1832; married, July 22, 1854, Seth Bunker Stitt, 
born at Athens, New York, January 20, 1822; 
resided in Philadelphia (and Newport, Rhode 
Island), since 1836; no children. 

VII. Harriet^ born February 27, 1810; married, November 28, 
1831, Abiathar Lawrence, born in Hardwick, August 
14, 1804; died in Barre, May 6, 1877; she died 
November 23, 1878. 


1. Caroline Louisa' Lawrence, born June 30, 1836; 

married, October 6, 1859, Lyman L. Harding of 
Barre, born December 25, 1835; a very active, 
intelligent business man; went to Boston, and 
later was admitted a partner in the large whole- 
sale clothing house of Freeland, Harding & 
Loomis; attacked by cerebro spinal meningitis, 
which unfitted him for business, he retired and 
removed to Chicago, Illinois, where he died 
March 29, 1893. 

2. Anson Hapgood', born September 9, 1842; mar- 

ried, October i , 1 873, Amelia Kendall of Chicago. 

3. Frederick Abiathar', born April 9, 1845; married, 

June 13, 1872, Mary Davis Palmer. 

47 VIII. Lyman Wilder^ born November 27, 181 1; married, April 

18, 1839, Eliza Jane, daughter of Levi Phinney. 

48 IX. Asa*, born July i, 1813; married Lydia Crossley of Ken- 

X. Anson^ born February 21, 181 5 ; died April 30, 1839. 
XI. Fidelia^ born May 27, 1818; married, November 17, 1842, 
John Field Woods, son of Captain James Woods of 
Barre, the fifth James Woods in direct descent, born 
November 5, 1820; died March 26, 1887; she died 
April 9, 1 894. 


Ella Eliza' Woods, born August 14, 1852; mar- 
ried, February 24, 1876, John Thomas Bottomly, 
born June 20, 1847, in England; resides in Cam- 
den, New Jersey ; a manufacturer. 


Honorable Hutchins^ {Seth*, Thomas^, Thomas^, Shad- 
rack^), horn April 14, 1763; married, October 20, 1789, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Honorable Jonathan Grout, colonel in the 
Revolutionary War, and Member of Congress ; resided in 
Petersham, an eminent and leading citizen ; eldest son of 
Deacon Seth ; represented the town eight years in the Gen- 
eral Court; postmaster for many years ; chosen a member to 
the convention for revising the constitution, 1820 ; a success- 
ful merchant ; died September 4, 1837. 

49 I. Thomas^ born June 20, 1790; married, February 3, 1818, 

Betsey Hopkins of Petersham. 
II. Hutchins^ born September 2, 1792; graduated from Dart- 
mouth College, (A. M.) class 1813; read law with 
Major John Taylor, at Northampton, Massachusetts, 
from November 6, 1814, to July, 1815, finishing the 
course at Cavendish, Vermont; did not practise, but 
turned his attention to mercantile business in New 
York City, and died in Petersham, Massachusetts, 
June 2, 1828. 
III. Eliza% born October 9, 1796; died September 24, 1835; 
married, June 27, 1826, Aaron Arms, Esquire, of 
Deerfield, Massachusetts. 


1. Hutchins Hapgood' Arms, born October 1,1827; 

died June 24, 1845, at Petersham. 

2. Elizabeth Grouty born June I, 1830, at Deerfield; 

married Reverend Doctor Heman L. Wayland, 


president of Franklin College, Indiana, son of 
the late President Wayland of Brown Univer- 
sity, Providence, Rhode Island. 


1. Lincoln* Wayland, born September i, 1861. 

2. Fanny Hapgood^ born April 12, 1864. 

3. Sophia Holland^, born March 15, 1835; married, 
October 7, 1863, Amory Bigelow of Petersham ; 
resides in Chicago; a merchant. 

IV. Maria H.*, born July 15, 1798 ; died January 28, 1842; mar- 
ried, April 28, 1823, Ephraim Hinds, Esquire, of West 
Boylston, born in Shrewsbury, 1780; graduated from 
Harvard College, 1805; studied law, and established 
an office in Harvard, Massachusetts, 1820, having pre- 
viously practised in Athol and Barre ; removed to 
Marlboro', 1834, and died at West Boylston, June 18, 


1. Alfred Hutchins^ Hinds, born ; resided in 

West Boylston. 

2. Ephraim^, born ; resided in Marlboro'. 

3. Albert^, born ; resided in West Boylston. 

4. Maria', born ; resided in West Boylston. 

5. Flora Isabella', born ; married, 

Walker; resided in Columbus, Ohio. 

6. Ellen', born . 

V. Lydia^ born September 5, 1802; died June 6, 1807. 
50 VI. Seth^ born June 10, 1805; married Lydia Seaver Wilson. 

VII. Charles^ born April 2, 1811; died September 17, 1828. 


Solomon' {Seth^, Thomas^, Thomas^, Shadrach^), born 
December 30, 1766, at Petersham, Massachusetts; died 
March 5, 1856, at Bellows Falls, Vermont; married, 1791, 
Azubah, daughter of Benjamin (who was born May 10, 
1740) and Mary (Root) Burt (born 1741) of Westminster, 


Vermont, where she was born 1771, and died at Bellows 
Falls, February 10, 1858, in her eighty-seventh year. Her 
father, Judge Burt, was appointed by " William Tryon, Cap- 
tain General and Governor of the Province of New York and 
dependencies, captain of a company of Foot in the Township 
of Westminster, Vermont"; he died June 9, 1835, aged 
ninety-five, and his wife Mary, December 15, 1831, aged 
ninety-one. Solomon was by trade a blacksmith, and for 
many years carried on that business extensively, but having 
acquired large landed estates, demanding his attention, his 
time was divided between the shop and farm, and later on, 
during the closing years of his life, the latter proved more 
attractive and congenial, and absorbed most of his time. He 
was an industrious, upright and prosperous man. At that 
period it was honorable to labor, in fact, no one was respected 
who did not. Eight children were born by this union to 
honor their father and noble mother. 

I. Lucretia^ born June 12, 1792; died March 19, 1871, at 
Brooklyn, New York; married, i8c8, at Bellows Falls, 
Daniel Tuttle, born June 5, 1788, at New Haven, 
Connecticut; died June 6, 1861. 


1. Quartus Morgan' Tuttle, born August 28, 1809; 

died, unmarried, March 19, 1877, at Althuna, 

2. Frances Adeline^ born March 15, i8ti,at Grafton, 

Vermont; married first, November 27, 1834, at 
Bellows Falls, Holland Wheeler, who died 1842, 
at Saxton's River; she married second, 1846, 
Edward Hall of Westminster, Vermont. 

3. Adaline^ born October, 1813 ; died October 3, 1818. 

4. Daniel Atwater^ born July 3, 1815 ; married, July 

27, 1842, Harriet Lombard of Springfield, 
Massachusetts, who died July 17, 1882. 


5. Caroline Matilda', born August i8, 1817; married, 

September 21, 1841, Solon Foster Goodridge of 
Bellows Falls, a China tea merchant of New 
York City, who died July 15, 1892. 

6. Lyman Hapgood^ born October 28, 1819; took a 

voyage to recover his health and was lost at sea, 
October 3, 1841. 

II. Fanny', born October 5, 1793 ; died September 14, 1794. 
III. Solomon^ born April 6, 1795 ; died March 3, 1839; unmar- 
61 IV. Lyman^ born October 29, 1799; married, November 10, 

1822, Emma Church, of Westminster. 

52 V. Seth^ born October 21, 1803; married, February 18, 1829, 

Clarinda Harvey of Chesterfield, New Hampshire. 

53 VI. Charles^ born September 17, 1805; married, October 6, 

1834, Harriet Silsby. 
VII. Levi*, born March 12, 1809; married Lucretia Leonard, 

and died June 8, 1839; no children. 
VIII. Frances Mary^ born July 31, 181 1 ; married, June 12, 1838, 
James Henry Williams, born January 16, 1813, at 
Bellows Falls, where he resided ; cashier of the old 
Bellows Falls Bank; died August 13, 1881. 


1. Caroline Frances' Williams, born February 24, 

1839; married, October 31, 1867, William Pitt 
Wentworth, born April 23, 1839, at Bellows 
Falls ; resided in Newton, Massachusetts ; was 
an eminent architect of Boston; died March, 
1896; no children. 

2. William', born March, 1841 ; died November 12, 


3. James Henry', born July 19, 1843; married first, 

Lucy Amelia Willson, and second, Fannie War- 
ren Schouler, daughter of General Schouler of 

4. Harriet Henry', born May 5, 1845 ; married, August 

30, 1866, Lucius Adelbert Morse of Rutland, 
Vermont; resides in Bellows Falls. 

5. Sarah Hubbard', born January 16, 1848 ; died 

May 28, 1878. 

6. John Harris', born November 18, 1849; married, 


October 17, 1883, Merab Ann Bradley Kellogg 

of Westminster, Vermont. 
Kate Amelia^ born December 30, 1851 ; resides 

at Bellows Falls ; unmarried. 
Mary Grace', born May 24, 1855; died June 14, 



Eber^ {Seth*, Thomas'^, Thomas'^, ShadracB), born 
August 5, 1770; married, July 13, 1803, Dolly, daughter of 
Honorable Jonathan Grout, a colonel in the Revolutionary 
War and Member of Congress, sister to the wife of his 
brother Hutchins, a very superior woman, born May i, 1772, 
in Petersham, and died July 16, 1822. He died July 6, 185 1. 

64 I. George Grout*, born February 17, 1804; married Marcia 

II. Dolly*, born October 14, 1805 ; married, September 8, 1840, 
Joel Bordwell of Cazenovia, New York, born Febru- 
ary 4, 1808, son of Reverend Joel Bordwell, A. M., 
fifty years pastor of Congregational church at Kent, 
Connecticut, and nephew of Reverend Samuel Mills of 
Torrington, Connecticut. She died July 27, 1871, and 
he married second, her younger sister, Mary Frances 
Hapgood, April 3, 1872. 


1. Lavinia' Bordwell, born August 23, 1841 ; died 

September 6, 1841. 

2. Lavinia', born July 28, 1843; a stenographer, 


3. Ellen Eliza', born September 22, 1844 i died June 3, 


4. Levi Hapgood', born December 29, 1845. 

5. Marilla', born June 7, 1847; died September 12, 


6. George Hapgood', born February 10, 1849; died 

August 12, 1849. 


7. James^ born July 9, 1850; died September, fol- 


8. Mary7, born July 7, 1851 ; died August 8, 1851. 

55 III. Charles^ born October 11, 1807, at Petersham, Massachu- 
setts; married Rebecca Hibbard of Waterford, 
IV. Lyman Wilder*, born February 7, 1810; married, March 
5, 1840, Nancy A., daughter of James and Eliza 
(McKenzie, from Canada) Pinkerton, born July 6, 1813. 
After an absence of fifteen years, one of which was 
spent in Maine, five in Lowell, and seven in Ohio, he 
returned to the homestead of his father and grand- 
father in Petersham. He died at Grafton, April 19, 

1871. She died at Petersham May 3, 1864. 


I. Eliza Pinkerton^ born January 8, 1841, at Bedford, 
Ohio; died September 14, 1845, at Munson, Ohio. 
II. Mary Frances% born September 14, 1842, entered 
University of Ann Arbor, graduated and taught 
for several years, dying of consumption at Kal- 
amazoo, Michigan; unmarried. 
V. Mary Frances^ born May 19, 1812; married, March 31, 
1840, Elijah Kimball, resided in Grafton; he died 
December 17, 1867; she married second, April 3, 

1872, Joel Bordwell of Cazenovia, New York, her 
deceased sister's husband, who died March 12, 1882; 
she died August i, 1874; no children. 

VI. Levi*, born April 2, 1814; died unmarried at Bedford, Ohio, 
December 31, 1839. 
VII. Susan Elizabeth^ born June 17, 1818; married. May 17, 
1842, Joseph Warren Upton, born April 26, 1818; 
resided in Petersham; died October 25, 1889; she 
died April 8, 1855. 


1. Mary Elizabeth'', Upton, born December 25, 1844; 

married. May 21, 1868, Silas Theodore Wheeler. 

2. Ann Eliza^ born May 25, 1846; died February 12, 


3. Lena Hapgood'', born September 29, 1854; resides 

in Orange, Massachusetts ; unmarried. 



Oliver^ {Seth^, Thofuas^, Thomas^, Skadrack^), born Sep- 
tember 26, 1772; married, November 10, 1799, Lucy Smith 
of Petersham, who died, and he married, second, in 1810, 
Anna Chapman; removed, about 1799, to New Ipswich, 
New Hampshire, and about 1801 to Sheldon, Vermont, 
where he died January 7, 181 3. 

I. Almira^ born 1800; died January 15, 1859; found dead in 
her bed, having apparently expired without a struggle. 
She married first, William Johnson, and second, 
Eliphalet Johnson; resided in Swanton, Vermont, and 
was the mother of Mrs. Lucy^ Foster of Swanton; 
Oliver H^ Johnson, Sherbrooke, Province of Quebec; 
Mrs. Caroline A^. Landon, William A^ Johnson, 
Burlington, Vermont ; Mrs. Ellen A^ Dunton, Swan- 
ton; and Myra E.^, Edwin^, and Sidney^ Johnson, 
66 II. John Weeks*, born June 3, 1811 (by second wife); married 

Rebecca Hemingway. 


Levi^ {Seth^, Thomas'^, Thomas', Shadmch^), born December 
6, 1778. Settled in Sheldon, Vermont, February, 1804, where 
he resided up to the time of his death, June 15, 1864, 
serving the town in all the offices in her gift, and the State 
in 1830-32 as a member of her Legislature. He married 
September, 1823, Anna (Chapman) Hapgood (widow of his 
brother Oliver) ; she died March 15, 1846. 

L Levi Hutchins^ born July 15, 1825; married, August 30, 
1847, Harriet Ellen Horton, born April 18, 1826, 
daughter of Daniel Gideon Horton, by wife Mary 
Drury and granddaughter of Gideon Horton, Junior, of 
Hortonville, Hubbardton, Vermont, by wife Thyrza 


Farrington, and great granddaughter of Gideon Hor- 
ton, senior, by wife Sarah Douglass, from Springfield, 
Massachusetts, and great great granddaughter of 
Benjamin Horton from Scotland to Brandon, Ver- 
mont, at its earliest settlement. Mrs. Hapgood's 
mother, Mary Drury, born June 25, 1795, married, 
January i, 1813, and died October 30, 1848, was the 
daughter of Luther and Rhoda (Hopkins) Drury of 
Plattsburg, New York, and granddaughter of Deacon 
Ebenezer Drury from Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, 
to Pittsford, Vermont, who was baptized February 
I7> 1733; married, October 21, 1761, Hannah Keyes, 
born April 17, 1742, and great granddaughter of 
Daniel Drury of Framingham (died June 5, 1786), 
by wife Sarah Flagg (born at Sudbury about 1705; 
married, July 14, 1729; died November 29, 1775), and 
great great granddaughter of John or Thomas Drury, 
and great great great granddaughter of Hugh Drury 
of Boston 1640; freeman 1654; constable 1655-56; a 
member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Com- 
pany 1659; died, and is interred in King's Chapel 
Cemetery. His wife Lydia was received a member 
of First Church, March 12, 1648, and died 1675. Levi 
Hutchins Hapgood was a leading merchant and prom- 
inent citizen of Sheldon, Vermont, up to 1876, when 
reverses in business induced him to remove to Alton, 
Illinois, and accept employment from his cousin 
nephew, Charles Hutchins Hapgood, who had estab- 
lished the immense works of the Hapgood Plow Com- 
pany, in that place, where he continued to labor till the 
time of his death, December 14, 1885. 

I. Anna Keith^, born October 9, 1848, at Sheldon; 

died August 6, 1889. 
II. Seth Chapman*, born November 3, 1828, at Sheldon, Ver- 
mont; married, November 4, 1850, Louisa Mann from 
Jamaica, Western New York, died June 10, 1867, and 
he married second, February 10, 1885, Anna Elizabeth 
Davy ; resided in Malta, De Kalb County, Illinois, but 
is now a large merchant and extensive landholder in 
Shorey, Shawnee County, Kansas. 

I. Ella May^ born October 9, 1858; died March 

26, 1865. 



Ephraim^ {Joab*, Thomas^, Thotnas^, Shadrach^), born 
March i, 1768; married, February 28, 1796, Elizabeth Cun- 
ningham, daughter of Silas and Priscilla (Plympton) Allen, 
of Medfield, Massachusetts. Settled on the homestead of 
his father in Shrewsbury; died December 15, 1843. His 
wife was born in Medfield, February, 1773, and died in 
Shrewsbury, September 24, 1863. 

I. Martha*, born in Shrewsbury, May 15, 1798; married, 
April 13, 1845, Benjamin Flagg, born in Boylston, 
1815. They lived on a portion of the farm on which 
her great grandfather Thomas Hapgood first settled. 
He died June 10, 1858, and she January 14, 1876; 
no children. 
II. Simon Allen*, born August 5, 1802; died October 5, 1803. 
III. Lucy*, born April 27, 1805; married, January 27, 1834, 
Washington, son of Joshua and Miriam Briggs, born 
July 2, 1796, in Spencer, where he resided a merchant 
and farmer, and died April 29, 1867; she died at 
Worcester, April 18, 1895. 


1. Martha Hapgood'' Briggs, born February 26, 1837, 

in Spencer; married, June 23, 1867, John A., son 
of John and Susan (Howland) Wilson, resided in 
Worcester; teacher and provision dealer. He 
died November 2, 1891. 

2. Lucy Elizabeth^, born April 19, 1841 ; died June 12, 


3. Ephraim Hapgood'', born July 4, 1842, resided in 

Boston, Massachusetts, a provision dealer; he 
died there November 29, 1876; unmarried. 


Elijah^ {Joab^, Thomas^, Thomas'', Shadrack^), born 
November 10, 1773. In 1802, purchased the Wheeler farm 


in Shrewsbury for ^3,000, paying the first instalment of 

$1,000 in silver out of old stockings. This farm was about 

half a mile south southwest of the original Thomas Hapgood 

farm in Shrewsbury, and one and a half miles southwest of 

the old congregational meeting house. To this he made 

many additions and improvements, and left it one of the 

most valuable farms in Shrewsbury. 

He married, September 26, 1802, Eunice, daughter of 

Reuben and Charlotte (Howe) Baker, born June 27, 1781. 

She died November 14, 1 841, aged sixty, and he died at 

Shrewsbury, July 22, 1853. 


I. Abigail^ born October 7, 1803; married, December 14, 
1824, John Roper, Jr., of Princeton, where she died, 
October, 1825. Date of his birth and death not reported. 


1. AbigaiP Roper, who died, aged about twenty-one 
years; unmarried. 

57 II. Joab^ born September 6, 1804; married Elizabeth Eager. 

58 III. Lemuel Bemis^ born October 12, 1805; married Amazonia 

IV. Charlotte^ born August 30, 1807; married October 4, 1830, 
at Shrewsbury, Horace, son of Alpheus and Lydia(Fay) 
Abbott, born July 29, 1806, in Sudbury, Massachusetts, 
and went to Westboro' when a boy and there learned 
the trade of a blacksmith, and carried on that business 
in a country shop. In 1836 he removed to Baltimore, 
Maryland, where he resided till his death, August 8, 
1887. He took charge of a large forge, and manufac- 
tured heavy forgings, steamboat shafts, cranks, loco- 
motives and car axles. At the breaking out of the 
Civil War, 1861, having the largest plate mill in the 
United States, and the only one capable of doing the 
work, Mr. Abbott made the armor and plates for Cap- 
tain Ericsson's first monitor, and all the armor plates 
for the monitors that were built immediately succeed- 
ing. He also furnished the armor plates which 


strengthened the fleet before Charleston; and for his 
promptness of delivery, received a letter of commen- 
dation from the then Secretary of the Navy, Mr. Wells. 
So important were Mr. Abbott's vi^orks to the govern- 
ment, particularly the naval department, that the men 
in his employ were protected by the government 
against draft into the army and navy ; thus, in effect, 
making an arsenel of the establishment. We add the 
following extract (from J. S. C. Abbotfs History of 
the Civil War, Vohtme I, Page 339), to show his patri- 
otic zeal and sound judgment, when it was predicted 
he could never fulfil the contract for the Monitor. 

"In loi days from the time the contract reached him, 
the Monitor was launched. The upper hull is 174 
feet long, forty-one feet four inches wide, and five 
feet in depth. The sides constitute the armor of 
the vessel. In the first place is an inner guard 
of iron half an inch thick. To this is fastened a 
wall of white oak placed end-wise and thirty inches 
thick. To this is bolted six plates of iron, each an 
inch thick, one over the other. The pilot house is 
made of plates of iron, the whole about ten inches 
thick. The turret is a round cylinder, twenty feet 
in interior diameter, and nine feet high. It is built 
entirely of iron plates, one inch in thickness, and 
securely bolted together. Eight of these plates, one 
over the other, with a lining of one inch iron, com- 
pletes the structure." 

He was one of the first to move in establishing National 
Banks in the city of Baltimore; was one of the organ- 
izers of the First National Bank, of which he was a 
director and vice-president until his death, as also a 
director in the Second National Bank of Baltimore. 
His widow died May 2, 1888. 


1. Lucy Fay^ Abbott, born November 14, 1831, in 

Westboro', Massachusetts ; resided with her 
parents in Baltimore, where she died, January 
8, 1850. 

2. Ella Antoinette^, born in Baltimore, January 26, 

1834; married, October 4, 1854, at Baltimore, 
John Stratton Gilman, born at Hallowell, Maine, 
March i9„i83o; she died in Baltimore, November 
26, 1855, and he, November 16, 1889. 


3. Charlotte Eunice^ born August lo, 1836; died 

September i, 1838. 

4. Horace Fay^, born September 18, 1838; died 

November 29, 1843. 

5. Charlotte^ born April 7, 1842; married, June 9, 

1863, at Baltimore, Isaac Martin, son of Isaac 
and Nancy Smart (Hobbs) Cate, born at Effing- 
ham, New Hampshire, February 6, 1838; 
resides in Baltimore. 

6. Mary Lydia^ born May 18, 1844; died at Balti- 

more April II, 1849. 

7. Horace Fay^ born July 21, 1846; died at Balti- 

more, July 23, 1848. 

59 V. Nahum Roland^ born March 6, 1809 ; married the widow 

Emily (Chase) Garfield, of Worcester. 
VI. David Thomas*, born July 19, 1813; learned the gun- 
maker's trade of his brother Joab; married, August 
13, 1840, Mary Bruce, daughter of Ephron and 
Zipporah (Maynard) Eager, born in Northboro', March 
25, 1813, sister to his brother Joab's wife ; removed 
to Baltimore, Maryland, established the business of 
manufacturing and dealing in guns and sporting mate- 
rials, somewhat extensively, and for several years pros- 
pered ; but his health failed, and he was obliged to close 
up his business and return to Shrewsbury, where he 
died August 9, 1843; "o children. His widow married, 
second, October 4, 1854, Henry Marcus Fairbanks, 
born April 9, 1 8 1 2, in Shirley, Massachusetts, a widower 
with two sons, and lived most of the remainder of her 
life in Worcester, where she died June 12, 1893. Mr. 
Fairbanks died June 25, 1861. 

60 VII. Lorenzo Elijah^ born November 9, 1815; married, Sarah 


61 VIII. Reuben Leander^ born July 10, 1817; married, Lucy 


62 IX. Ephraim Augustin^ born November 3, 1823 ; married, Nancy 

Holmes, of Grafton. 


John* {John", Jo/m^, Thomas-, Shadrach^), born Febru- 
ary 9, 1776; married, October 29, 1799, Betsey Temple, of 


Marlboro', who died December 31, 1841 ; removed, 1801, 
to Winchendon, Massachusetts, where he died April 5, 

1848 ; a farmer. 

I. Eliza^ born December 12, 1802, at Marlboro; married, 
at Winchendon, Phinehas Parks, of Winchendon. 
He died March 2, 1885, and his widow, May 9, 1887. 


1. George H.^ Parks, born . 

2. A daughter ; she married William S. Brooks, 

of Winchendon. 

63 II. George Dana^ born December 3, 181 1 ; married, Septem- 

ber 9, 1841, Catharine Wight Mixer, of Dedham. 

III. Jane^ born June 4, i82i,at Winchendon; married Bethuel 

Ellis, of Ashburnham ; resided in Winchendon, where 
she died December 5, 1867, and he April 9, 1881. 

IV. Otis Whitney*, born at Winchendon; married Sarah Ann 

Church, of Alstead, New Hampshire. He died May 
2, 1863, and she, i860. 

Other children were born to John and Betsey, all of whom died in 
infancy, but their records are not at hand. 


Captain Benjamin^ {John\ Johii^, Thomas"-, ShadrachS), 
born March 9, 1783; married, August 30, 1805, at Stow, 
Ann, daughter of Charles and Catharine (Davies) Whit- 
man, M. D. Ann was born December 12, 1787, and died 
at East Bridgewater, Massachusetts, November 27, 1868. 
Benjamin was a captain in the militia, and died at Stow, 
May II, 1836; resided in Marlboro'; a farmer. 

64: I. Charles Whitman*, born December 30, 1806, at Marlboro'; 

married first, Mary Hunter, and second, Elizabeth 


II. Catharine Davies^, born Octobers, 1807; married, Febru- 
ary 20, 1828, at Stow, Mark Whitcomb, who died 
November 29, 1886; she died August 20, 1888. 


1. William' Whitcomb, born November 4, 1828. 

2. Anna Maria', born September 24, 1830; married, 

December 7, 1852, Abraham H. Stowe, of Hud- 
son, where she died October 20, 1 881, leaving 
* three children. 

3. John Marshall', born November 8, 1832; married, 

January 6, i860, Eliza Clapp, of Stow; had 
five children. 

4. Albert', born June i, 1845 ; resides at Stow, 

III. Dorcas Whitman^ born March 15, 1809; married, Septem- 

ber 15, 1846, at Stow, Rufus Scott, born February 9, 
1800, at Amherst, Massachusetts; resided at North 
Hadley and Amherst. He died August 16, 1855; she 
still survives. 


1. Israel Storrs^ Scott, born November 19, 1848; 

died August 24, 1849, at North Hadley. 

2. Mary Helen', born July 5, 1850; resides in 

Amherst; unmarried. 

3. Israel Frederick', born July 2, 1852; died. Sep- 

tember II, 1871, at North Hadley. 

IV. Anna Whitman^ born December 19, 1810; married, first, 

November i, 1834, Charles English, born in Brighton, 
May 19, 1807; resided in Boston, Brighton, and East 
Bridgewater. He died July 2, 1859, ^t Brighton, and 
she married, second, at Elmwood, Massachusetts, 
August 25, 1864, Samuel Shaw, born August 7, 1802, 
at South Weymouth, a shoe manufacturer of wealth 
and influence, at Elmwood. He died at East Bridge- 
water, Massachusetts, September 15, 1874; she is still 


1, Anna Elizabeth^ English, born March 17, 1841; 

died September 5, 1885, 

2. Amelia Victoria', born Januarys, 1844; died July 

30, 1845, 


3. Charles Benjamin^, born August 31, 1846; married, 
May 23, 1877, Mrs, Hannah Sisson; resides 
in Chicago, Illinois. 

V. Nathan Davies^ born February 20, 1813, at Marlboro; 
was captain's mate aboard ship " Canton Packet," 
died on the voyage home from Manilla, and was 
buried at sea; unmarried. 
VI. Martha*, born January 26, 1815, at Marlboro; married at 
Stow, May 15, 1834, Timothy Atwood, who died at 
Boston, December 13, 1872, and she married, second, 
February 4, 1875, Thaddeus Smith, of North Hadley, 
where he died, October 31, 1878, She died at Well- 
fleet, August 4, 1882; no children. 
VII. Felicia Davies^ born July 30, 1817 ; died October 21, 1820. 
VIII. Elizabeth*, born July 30, 1819, at Marlboro; married, April 
6, 1843, at East Bridge water, Henry Winchester Rob- 
inson, born at Stow, Massachusetts, October 9, 1819, 
resided at North Bridgewater (now Brockton) and 
Boston. His wife died July 2, 1872, and he is now 
enjoying the well-earned reputation of an honorable 
merchant, in his pleasant home in Auburndale. 


1. Maria Louise' Robinson, born February 7, 1844, 

at Stow; married, September 29, 1867, Nathaniel 
Blake Blackstone. 

2. Joseph Winchester', born September 17, 1846; 

married, April 14, 1869, Julia Ann Sprague, 
of North Bridgewater. 

IX. Margaret*, born February 23, 1822, at Stow; married, 
December i, 1846, at East Bridgewater, Galen 
Kingman Richards, born January 9, 1823 ; she died 
February 16, 1870, at West Bridgewater, and he 
January 23, 1884. 


1. Hannah Kingman' Richards, born August 11, 

1847; died December 31, 1873. 

2. Henry', born January 11, 1851 ; died April i, 1856. 

3. Henry Galen', born August 24, 1856; died January 

31, 1877. 

4. Ann Whitman', born July 28, 1858; died June 12, 



5. Charles Benjamin^, born September 23, 1866; died 
July 21, 1885. 

X. Lucy Cotton^ born September 3, 1825, at Stow; married, 
August 19, 1856, at North Bridgewater, Baalis San- 
ford, born October 4, 1833; resides in Brockton; a 
leading merchant and prominent citizen. 

1. Irene Gertrude' Sanford, born April 18, 1859. 

Anna Cora', born August 19, i860; died September 

22, i860. 
Mabel Louisa', born July 3, 1867; died August 
22, 1869. 



David'^ {Jonathan'^, Johf^, Thomas^, Shadrach^)^ born 
June I, 1783 ; married, September 24, 1805, Abigail Russell, 
who died February 22, 1806 ; and he married, second, Decem- 
ber, 1806, Lydia Stearns, of Leominster, born March 26, 
1786; resided in Marlboro' where all his children were born. 
He died October 13, 1830, and she December 22, 1850. 


65 I. Moses^ born December 12, 1807; married, in Harvard, 

April 9, 1831, Sally Wetherbee. 
II. Joseph^ born May 15, 1810; died in infancy. 
III. William^ born July 20, 181 1 ; died May 16, 1832. 

66 IV. Rufus^ born May 31, 1813; married Maria Barnes. 

67 V. Reuben^, born May 31, 1813, twin with Rufus; married 

Ruth C. Moore. 
VI. Mary^, born May 11, 181 5 ; married, Daniel Florence, born 
in Northboro'; died May 5, 1863, at Berlin; she 
died 1844. 

1. William' Florence, born October, 1840, in North- 
boro'; resided in Berlin; a shoemaker. En- 
listed July 25, 1862, in Company I, Thirty- 
sixth Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteers, 

^■&UJ, ^. JS 

MassacraisettsTLLtjlisluriP OcEveietl:, Mass. 


discharged March 5, 1863, for ill-health, at New- 
port News, returned to Berlin and died there of 
consumption, on the 5th of May following. 
2. Mary Aravilla^ born October 15, 1844; married, 
September 13, 1863, Jonathan Mann; resides in 

VII. Nathaniel, born August 27, 1817, at Bolton, Massachu- 
setts ; married, at Natick, Malinda Muzzy ; resided 
in Bolton, where he died August, 1853. 


I. Llewellyn', born ; died young, in Marlboro'. 

II. Charles'', born September, 1851, in Marlboro'; 
resides in Hudson; a farmer; twice married; 
no children. 

VIII. Abigail RusselP, born April 28, 1819; married, May 21, 
1842, John Ingalls, son of John and Olive Taylor, born 
at Salem, Massachusetts, May 21, 1816; resided in 
Charlestown, where all his children were born. She 
died March 9, 1888, at Roslindale, Massachusetts, and 
he at Haverhill, Massachusetts, March 31, 1890. 


1. Mary Elizabeth' Taylor, born January 15, 1843; 

married, August 16, 1867, R. L. Spear, of 
Boston, who died June 12, 1892. 

2. Charles Henry', born July 14, 1846; married, 

February 7, 1S66, Georgianna Olivia Davis, 
born in Charlestown, April 12, 1847, daughter 
of George W. and Lorilla Davis. He was edu- 
cated in the public grammar and high schools 
of that city. At fifteen years of age he found 
his first employment in a Boston general print- 
ing office. In this office the Massachusetts 
Ploughmafi and the Christian Register \iQvt set 
up, so that he learned the trade of a compositor 
on those papers. The year 1861 found him in 
the Boston Traveler Office, where he worked at 
different times in the mail room, the press room, 
and the composing room. He was but sixteen 
years of age when he left the Traveler office 
and shouldered a musket in the war as a private 


soldier in the Thirty-eighth Regiment of Massa- 
chusetts Volunteers, one of the youngest re- 
cruits to enlist in defence of the Union. He 
served in the field about a year and a half with 
General N. P. Banks' command. In the mem- 
orable assault upon Port Hudson, June 14, 1863, 
Private Taylor was badly wounded, and in con- 
sequence was honorably discharged from the 
service and sent home. He still carries the 
bullet with which he was wounded. Returning 
to civil life, he re-entered the Traveler office, 
and after working for some time in the com- 
posing room of that paper became one of its 
reporters, and soon made his mark as an intelli- 
gent and ready writer, with a sharp nose for 
news. He grappled with the mysteries of 
shorthand writing, and, having mastered that 
difficult art, did a great deal of notable work 
as a stenographer. While connected with the 
Traveler he also earned considerable reputation 
as a correspondent for papers in other cities, 
his letters to the New York Tribune and Cin- 
cinnati Times attracting much attention at the 
time. On January i, 1869, a new phase of his 
career opened. On that date he became private 
secretary to Governor William Clafiin, and for 
several years thereafter his face was a familiar 
one around the State House. Governor Claflin 
made him a member of his military staff, with 
the rank of colonel. It was twenty-five years 
afterward, when Governor Russell anxious to 
bring within his official family this sagacious 
adviser, loyal friend, and rare companion, made 
him a brigadier-general on his staff. While 
acting as Governor Claflin's private secretary, 
Colonel Taylor continued a large part of his 
former work as a newspaper correspondent, 
and never once disassociated himself from his 
chosen profession as a journalist. He remained 
at his secretarial post in the governor's office for 
three years. In 1872 he was elected a member 
of the House of Representatives from Somer- 
ville, and was re-elected the following year, 


receiving the unusual honor on both occasions 
of being the unanimous choice of his fellow- 
citizens, regardless of party lines. In the year 
1873 he was nominated by the many friends 
whom he had made in the Legislature for the 
clerkship of the House, a position that had 
been long held at that time by the well-remem- 
bered newspaper correspondent, William S. 
: Robinson, whose letters over the signature of 
" Warrington," were then among the most 
salient features of the Springfield Republican. 
Mr. Robinson's friends made a stout fight for 
his re-election, but Colonel Taylor defeated him 
overwhelmingly. He filled the office of clerk of 
the House until the month of August, 1873, 
when another chapter in his remarkable career 
was to open. It was in that month and year 
that Colonel Taylor took charge of The Boston 
Globe, then a new paper, which had been started 
a little over a year before, and which was strug- 
gling hard to obtain a foothold among the old 
Boston dailies. For nearly five years Colonel 
Taylor, as manager of The Globe, seemed to be 
fighting a losing battle ; but on March 7, 1878, he 
took a bold, new departure, and, reorganizing it 
as a democratic two-cent daily paper, conducted 
on popular lines and appealing to the many 
instead of the few, he gave it a new birth. This 
somewhat audacious step proved to be the turn- 
ing-point in the history of The Globe. Colonel 
Taylor had found for his paper and himself that 
tide, "which taken at its flood leads on to fort- 
une." The history of The Boston Globe, from 
that date on to the present time, is one of the 
romances of modern journalism, and records a 
newspaper success of such splendid proportions 
as to place Charles H. Taylor's name among 
those of the great captains of the newspaper 
host — the Bennetts, the* Greeleys, the Danas, 
and the Pultizers. 

George William^, born February 24, 1850; died 
March 10, 1868. 


4. Nathaniel Hapgood'', born March 4, 1854; married, 

April 12, 1 88 1, Anna Brooks, of Augusta, Maine. 

5. Addie Frances'', born September 4, 1855; married, 

May I, 1878, J. B. Wright, of Charlestown. 

6. Abbie Maria^ born September 4, 1855, twin with 

Addie Frances; died December 4, 1855. 

7. John Ingalls^ born September 3, 1859; died 

December 18, 1867. 

68 IX. George*, born May 7, 1821 ; married, March 26, 1844, 

Harriet Angeline Warren. 
X. Luther^ born June 25, 1824; married, September 28, 1848, 
Harriet, daughter of James and Esther Deane, born 
March 4, 1825, in Oakham, Massachusetts, Enlisted 
July 13, 1862, in Company F, Thirty-eighth Regiment, 
Massachusetts Volunteers ; served three years. Parti- 
cipated in battles. Port Hudson, June 14, 1864; Fisher's 
Hill, September 19, 1864; Cedar Creek, October 19, 
1864; and later served with wagon train; discharged 
July 13, 1865; returned home; appointed on police 
force at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1870 to 1873; 
resides in Belmont, Massachusetts. No children. 
XI. Eliza^ born August 5, 1826, in Marlboro'; married April i, 
1847, Asa Appleton Deane, a farmer in Oakham, where 
she died August 13, 1877, a most excellent house- 
keeper, nurse, and mother. He died December 8, 

Children, all born in Oakham. 

1. Harriet Maria' Deane, born September 17, 1849; 

married, December 24, 1874, George Washing- 
ton Sibley, of Spencer, Massachusetts, where 
he died April 26, 1888. 

2. Abbie Jane', born September 15, 1851 ; married, 

May 15, 1873, William Wallace Smith, of North 
Brookfield ; she died July 26, 1878. 

3. Amanda Amelia', born December 4, 1853 ; mar- 

ried, December 13, 1876, Freeland Converse 
Sibley, of Spencer. 

4. Addie Elizabeth', born May 4, 1861 ; married, 

March 24, 1883, Charles Horace Baldwin, of 



Nathaniel* {Jonathan^, John^, Thomas'^ Shadrach^), born 
September 14, 1787; married, May 22, 1808, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Ephraim Barber, of Marlboro', born February 
19, 1789. He removed to Boston, where he resided a 
merchant, and where he was instantly killed by the acci- 
dental discharge of a gun, in the hand of a friend, November 

22, 1816. 


I. Henry Nathaniel*, born, in Boxboro', 1809; died in New 
York City, December 19, 1837; unmarried. He was 
at one time on the editorial staff of the Worcester Spy. 
II. Louise H.*, born January 11, 181 1, in Boxboro'; married, 
October, 1834, Jedadiah Sabin, of Putney, Vermont, 
born September 21, 1802; died January 11, 1881 ; 
she died August 17, 1842. 


1. Henry NathanieF Sabin, born June 28, 1834, in 

Putney; died February 10, 1857; unmarried. 

2. Ellen Elizabeth^ born April 11, 1839, in Putney; 

married S. Wilson Wilder, son of John and 
Polly (Wilson) Wilder, of Brattleboro', Ver- 
mont, who was born March i, 1806. He was 
born March 6, 1838. No children. 

III. Elizabeth Crosby*, born April 15, 1813; married, Captain 
Edward Denison, of Leyden, Massachusetts, son of 
Edward and Rucy (Babcock) Denison; he died Feb- 
ruary II, 1879, age 79 years. She resides with her 
daughter, Mrs. Sawyer, in Leyden. 

Children, all born in Leyden. 

1. Frances Elizabeth' Denison ; born September 8, 

1839; married January 11, i860, John Hamilton 
Newcomb, of Leyden. 

2. Maria Rucy^ born August 15, 1841 ; married, 

November 25, 1877, Henry Clayton Howe, of 
Gill, Massachusetts, son of Asa and Almira 


1. Mary Denison^ Howe, born January i, 1877 ; 
resides in Monona, Iowa. 

3. Edward Hapgood^, born June 9, 1843; married, 

February 16, 1871, Lestina Dorrell, born 
October 20, 1851, daughter of Harris and 
Caroline (Darling) Dorrell. He is a farmer 
in Leyden ; four children. 

4. Ellen Louise', born August 3, 1844; married, 

February 19, 1876, Charles Frederick Sawyer, 
of Fitchburg, Massachusetts; resides in Leyden; 
is a painter. 

5. Marion Harriet', born June 17, 1848; married, 

October 21, 1885, David Ashcroft, a farmer 
of Whateley, Massachusetts. No children. 

6. Eva Juline', born October 12, 1851 ; married, 

Clinton Addison Ware, December 3, 1873; 
resides in Northfield, Massachusetts; a farmer, 
with two children. 

7. George Henry', born August 4, 1854; married, 

April 17, 1890, Jacobina Koch; a farmer ; resides 
on the old homestead. No children. 

8. Carrie Jeanette', born April 26, 1857; married, 

December 11, 1878, Albert Brown Warren, 
a farmer of Bernardston, Massachusetts ; two 

IV. Mary*, born in Boxboro' ; died in Boston, September 16, 
1826, in the eleventh year of her age. 


Francis' {Jonathan^, Jo/m^, Thomas,^ ShadracW), born 
August 2, 1792, at Marlboro'; died at Holden, December 
31, 1872; married, December, 1814, Dorcas Willis, born 
February 12, 1793, at Sudbury, daughter of Jesse and Sarah 
Willis; died May 11, 1839, ^^ Medway ; he married, second, 
March 30, 1841, Jemima, daughter of Ephraim Whitney, 
of Upton, born January 6, 1795 ; died August 14, 1848, at 


Holden. No children. He married, third, January ii, 1859, 
Laura (Howard) Chamberlain, born January 3, 1804; died 
October 17, 1866, and he married, fourth, December 24, 1867, 
Lavinia Ann Davis, born May 7, 1812; died about 1894, at 
New Ipswich, New Hampshire. 

CHILDREN, all by first wife. 

69 I. Gilbert*, born April 21, 1816, at Marlboro'; married 

Hannah Scripture, of Dubuque, Iowa. 
II. Salome*, born March 30, 1818; married July 19, 1840, 
Daniel White, at Thompson, Connecticut, son of John 
White, of Leicester, Massachusetts. 

1. Son^ born 1842; died in infancy, at West Medway. 
III. Hannah*, born at Marlboro', March 14, 1820; married at 
Mendon, February i, 1842, George Capron, born 
1819, at Cumberland Hill, Rhode Island ; resided in 
Holden. He died at Worcester, April, 1879, and she 
married, second, James Elder, of Worcester, who 
died aged 74, and she married, third, Horace L. Fisk, 
of Athol, who died at Paxton, aged 79, and she 
married, fourth, October 4, 1893, Martin F. Peeler, 
born at Holden, August 21, 1820. 

Children, both by first husband. 

1. Alfretta^ Capron, born May 16, 1843, at Uxbridge, 

where she died September, 1844. 

2. Almira^ born December 26, 1852, at Mendon ; 

married, March 25, 1875, at Charlotte, North 
Carolina, Artemas Ward Johnson, born January 
6, 1814, at Holliston, Massachusetts; died 
November 6, 1886, at Gainesville, Florida; no 
children; she married, second, July 23, 1895, 
at Worcester, George Henry Boyd, born May 
' 25, 1847, at Worcester, where they reside. 

70 IV. Jonathan*, born January 7, 1823, at Holden; married, 

September 12, 1843, Mary Ann Condy Warren, 
born July 30, 1825, at Paxton. 
V. Sarah*, born May i, 1825; married, November 20, 1844, at 
Mendon, Deacon Isaac Thomas Johnson, born July 
II, 18 1 9, son of Rufus and Hannah Johnson, of 
Upton, Massachusetts, where he resides. 



1. Hannah Newton^ Johnson, born September 17, 

1850, at Upton ; unmarried. 

2. Harrison Willis^ born May 8, 1854; married, 

November 18, 1880, Ida Emogene Searles ; 
resides in Worcester. No children. 

3. Olive Mason^, born December 26, 1857 ; unmarried. 

71 VI. Samuel', born December 21, 1827; married Maria Eliza- 
beth Woodward. 
VII. Martha^ born February i, 1831 ; died July 5, 1836. 
VIII. Robert*, born June 19, 1833, at Medway ; married, April 
18, 1857, Sarah S., daughter of James and Catharine 
C. (Keen) Cutting, of Templeton, Massachusetts; 
resides in Chelsea, Massachusetts; a watch repairer 
in Boston. No children. 
IX. Oliver Mason*, born April 3, 1836, at Medway; died April 

9, 1853, at Holden. 
X. Francis*, born December 14, 1838, at Medway; married, 
Lucia Hooker, of Rutland ; resided in West Boylston, 
Massachusetts. He married, second, 1892, Helen 
Bowen, and removed to Maine. No children recorded 
by second marriage. 

I. Robert', born in Worcester, and died young. 
II. Charles^ born in Worcester, and died young. 


Aaron^ {Thomas^, Joseph^, Thomas^, ShadracJi^), born Sep- 
tember 18, 1774, at Marlboro'; died about 1844, at Stowe; 
married, Sarah Carr, of Sudbury, born 1788; died 1872, at 


I. Eliza*, born June 27, 1806 (?); married, May 13, 1828, at 
Concord, Andrew C. Dole, of Framingham; died 
at Newton. 
II. Sarah Carr*, born March 8, 1808; died September 18, 1820. 
III. Ann*, born December i, 1809; died, South Sudbury. 


IV. Aaron Hamilton*, born May i6, 1812; removed to New 
York City ; married, and had twelve children. En- 
listed in the army with his oldest son (?), Henry Otis, 
1861, and not further reported. 
V. Abigail^ born April 9, 1813, at Waltham ; married (pub- 
lished April 16, 1836), Jonas C. Munroe, of Concord. 
VI. William Harrison^ born July 22, 1815, at Marlboro'; 
married at Framingham. No other record obtained. 
VII. Henry Otis*, born April i, 1818; married, 1844, Margaret 
Kenney, of Ireland; she died March 23, 1890. 

I. John H.', born 1851 ; died August 24, 1873. 
II. George William^, born June 10, 1854, at Marlboro' ; 
married, May 12, 1874, Nellie M. Rice, and 
second, January, 1884, Annie Branning, who 
died September, 1891, and he married third, 
June 10, 1892, Mrs. Victoria Perry Morry. 

I. Estella MabeP, born April 22, 1885 (by 
second wife), at Worcester; died May a, 
II. Eva Viola', born March 12, 1891 ; died 
March 19, 1895. 
III. MabeP, born October 26, 1892 (by third 
wife); died January i, 1893; resides in 
Marlboro' ; a farmer. 

III. Edward Francis^ born July i, 1858; married, 
June 10, 1892, Victory Morry, daughter of his 
brother's third wife by her first husband ; resides 
at Marlboro'; a shoemaker. 

VIII. Asa^ born 1821, at Marlboro'; died at Hartford, Vermont. 
IX. Sarah*, born 1825, at Northboro'; died 1837. 


Thomas', {Thomas^, Joseph^, Thomas^, Shadrack^), born 
August 24, 1776; married, June 27, 1803, at Marlboro', 
Mary Witt, born July 17, 1781. He died December 6, 
1846 ; his widow died January 17, 1874. 


I. Elviras born November 9, 1803; died September 2, 1805. 

72 II. Ira^ born January 17, 1805 ; married Persis Bigelow. 

III. Elvira*, born September 15, 1806; married May 13, 1827, 
Aaron Bigelow, of Marlboro', born April 29, 1796; 
died February 11, 1861 ; she died February 9, 1892. 


1. George Hapgood' Bigelow, born September 28, 

1838; died August 31, i860. 

2. Francis D.^ born October 22, 1842; died August 

31, 1853- 

73 IV. GilmanS born February i, 1809; married, Susan Wright 

V. William^ born March 11, 181 1; died May 13, 1813. 
VI. Mary Ann^ born July 20, 1813; married at Marlboro', May 
I, 1832, George Brigham, born at Hudson, October 12, 
1808 ; resided in New Hampshire. She died November 
23, 1878, and he April 6, 18S8, at Hudson. 


1. Frances Augusta^ Brigham, born March 27, 1833 ; 

married, July i, 1849, John A. Goddard, of 
Berlin; a farmer. 

2. Mary Eliza^ born December 9, 1835; married, 

1853, Thomas L. Barnard, of Marlboro'. 

3. Caleb Benjamin^, born September 14, 1837; mar- 

ried, September, 1879, Augusta Frye, of Bolton. 

4. Willard Ebenezer^, born April 9, 1839; married, 

April 25, 1861, Abby Randall, born February 
3, 1842; resides in Marlboro'; Railroad 

5. George W.', born April 9, 1841 ; died June 23, 


6. Ella Sophia^, born November 24, 1843; resides in 

Marlboro' ; unmarried. 

7. Harriet NewelF, born August 17, 1844; married, 

June 2, 1864, Hiram W. Chase, of Boylston; 
resides in Hudson ; a provision dealer. 

VII. Harriet*, born January 4, 1817, at Marlboro'; married, 
Edward Ball, of Northboro', born June 12, 1807; 
removed to Poplar Grove, Illinois, where he died 
June 27, 1889. 



1. George Dana' Ball, born May 29, 1835, at North- 

boro'; died February 20, 1845. 

2. Harriet', born December 20, 1836; married, at 

Chemung, Illinois, November 25, 1857, G. T. 
Wheeler, born August 14, 1828, at East Ham- 
burg, New York. 

3. John Baker', born October 14, 1838; died October 

2, 1894. 

4. Edward Baker', born March 17, 1840; married, 

June 12, 1868, Mary E. Cowan, of Fall River. 

5. Helen Maria', born January 3, 1842; married, 

February 7, 1872, John C. Shackell, of New 
York City. She died at Poplar Grove, Novem- 
ber 22, 1873. 

6. Oliver Puffer', born April 12, 1844; married, 

December i, 1885, Hattie B. Wheeler, of 
Brighton, New York. 

7. Willie', born February 20, 1846; died March 21, 


8. Mary Sophia', born March 7, 1847; married, 

December 13, 1866, George Ray, of Fall River, 

9. Abbie Emerson', born March 27, 1853 ; married, 

November 21, 1877, 'Joseph H. Emmons, of 
Chicago; he died November 30, 1893. 

10. Annie Caroline', born August 14, 1856; twin with 

Alice; married, September 17, 1879, George G. 
Moore, of Poplar Grove. 

11. Alice Augusta', born August 14, 1856; married, 

September 4, 1878, Thomas G. Merritt, born 
April 8, 1855, at Hinsdale, Pennsylvania. 

12. Charlotte', born July 20, 1859; married, April 3, 

1879, at Poplar Grove, Edward H. Burnside, 
born June 27, 1853. 

13. Nahum', born February 6, 1862; died March 3, 


74 VIII. William George*, born December 2, 1819; married, May 
16, 1842, Caroline Brunswick Howe. 
IX. Caroline Augusta^ born October i, 1821 ; married, Sep- 
tember I, 1840, Ai Roe, born December 30, 1815, at 
Bolton; died February 3, 1892; she died August 30, 



1. Frances Emma'' Roe, born August lo, 1841 ; mar- 

ried, August 21, 1862, Edwin D. Wood, born 
at Marlboro' ; resides in Hudson. 

2. Abbe Jane'', born at Bolton, August 24, 1843; 

married, April 6, 1862, George Morse, of Berlin; 
resides in Sudbury ; a farmer. 

3. Charles EJ, born April 28, 1846, at Bolton; mar- 

ried, November 21, 1870, at Lancaster, Massa- 
chusetts, Jennie C. Brown, of Sudbury. 

75 X. Thomas Emerson^ born May 11, 1824; married, June 25, 

1850, Nancy Sophia, daughter of Hastings and Nancy 
(Spear) Brigham, born in Boston April 12, 1825; taken 
to Vermont in childhood to be educated ; removed to 
Marlboro' to teach school, where she met and married 
Thomas Emerson. 


AsA'^ {T/iomas\ JosepJi^, Thomas'-, Shadrach^), born April 
13, 1785 ; married, first, 18 12, Phebe, daughter of Jonah 
Rice, born February 3, 1789, at Marlboro; died June 18, 
1826, and he married, second, October 21, 1830, at Boston, 
Mary, daughter of William and Sophia (Brown) Manning, 
Esquire, formerly editor of the Worcester Spy ; born May 22, 
1799; died January 6, 1876. He died December 29, 1864. 

L Rebecca^, born 1812; died March 9, 1823. 
IL Laura Ann*, born March 4, 1814, at Marlboro'; married. 
Thanksgiving Day, 1837, Rufus Coolidge, of Bolton, 
who died August 26, 1889; she died August 18, 1895; 
resided at Marlboro ; a farmer. 


1. William^, Coolidge, born . 

2. Charles^ born . 

3. Silas^ born . 

4. Laura', born ■ 


Rufus^ born 
Lucy'', born - 

7. Joseph^, born — 

8. Tileston'', born 

And three others who died in infancy, 

III. Lucy Woods^ born January 8, 1820; died January 12, 1857; 

married September 2, 1840, John Howe Peters, mer- 
chant; born February 28, 1820; died May 10, 1887. 


1. Lucy Woods'" Peters, born June 28, 1841 ; married, 

January 25, 1866, Charles W. Gleason, of the 
woolen manufacturing firm C. W. and A. D. 
Gleason, at Rock Bottom, Massachusetts. 

2. John Melville'', born September 22, 1843; died 

January 13, 1847. 

3. John Melville'', born February 10, 1849; married, 

December 25, 1879, Mary P. Campbell, from 
Machias, Maine. 

IV. Abbie E. Manning^ born November 3, 1836 (by second 

wife); married, December 10, 1856, John Gibson 
Busfield, born September 8, 1829, at Leeds, England; 
a machinist. 


1. Theodore Elmer'', Busfield, born September 27, 

1858, at Maynard; married, March 23, 1886, at 
New Haven, Connecticut, Hattie Amelia Smith, 
born May, 1862. 

2. Mary Gertrude^, born October 6, 1862, at Hudson, 

where she resides ; unmarried. 

V. Theodore Brown^ born August 25, 1838; married, Octo- 
ber 9, 1867, at Boston, Sarah Frances, daughter of 
Perez and Nancy Ayer Mason, born July 19, 1843, at 
Tunbridge, Vermont ; resides in Allston, Massachu- 
setts ; cashier Bradstreet's mercantile agency, Boston. 

I. Theodore' Brown, Jr., born August 28, 1871, at 
Boston, was graduated from Latin School, 1891, 
studied two years at Museum of Fine Arts, now 
established in Boston as decorative artist and 


II. Marietta Stewart^ born June 26, 1873; died May 
10, 1875. 
III. Allan Mason^ born May 12, 1877; died January, 
1878, in Boston. 


James Woods^ {Thomas,^ Joseph^, Thomas^, Shadrach^), 
born April 21, 1787, at Marlboro' ; married October 26, 
1 8 14, Lucy^ daughter of Francis and Mary* (Hapgood) 
Howe, born October 21, 1788, at Marlboro'; died April 18, 
1845, at Northboro'. He died May 8, 1854, at Boylston ; 
a wheelwright. 

I. Eliphalet*, born February 26, i8i5,.at Marlboro', where he 
died July 20, 1821. 
II. Lucy Howe*, born March 14, 1817; married, 1838, 
at Bolton, Massachusetts, Calvin Perry; she died at 
Shrewsbury, January 29, 1848. 

III. Harriet S.S born September 12, 1819; married, 1843, at 

Northboro', Nahum Brigham; she died August 10, 
1848, at Boylston, he at Worcester, 1850. 

IV. Sarah^ born November 10, 1821 ; died October 11, 1824, 

at Marlboro'. 
V. Augusta Rebecca^ born August 15, 1824 ; married, October 
7, 1845, at Northboro', Fred Burdett, of Clinton. 
VI. Phebe Ann*, born December 7, 1827: married, October 20, 
1847, at Boylston, John Hervey Moore, who died March 
7, 1889. 


1. Edward Hervey' Moore, born October 21, 1850. 

2. Fred A.^ born July 11, 1853. 

3. Emma Ann', born November 30, 1857. 

VII. Sarah Louisa*, born Aprils, 1830; married April 17, 1847, 

at Boylston, Henry White, of Boylston Centre. 

VIII. Eliphalet G.*, born November 2, 1832 ; died November 8, 


IX. Frederick A.*, born November 5, 1833, ^t Northboro'; 

died October 25, 1841 (all the others born in Marlboro'). 



JosiAH^ {Joseph^, Jo sepJi^, Thomas'', Shadrach^), born March 
7, 1779; married May 29, 1806, Elizabeth, daughter of Joseph 
and Lovina (Barnes) Maynard, of Marlboro', born February 
7, 1783. He removed to Peru, Vermont, in 1800, grappled 
with the forest single handed in summer, returning to Marl- 
boro' to spend the winter. In 1805 he built a barn which is 
now standing. In 1806 he took his young bride into the 
wilderness and lived in the barn till he could build a house. 
He was a plain man, but everything he had was good ; always 
satisfied with his lot, and therefore always happy. He died 
at Peru, February 17, 1857, and his wife October i, 1853. 

76 I. Joseph Jackson^ born January 29, 1805, at Marlboro'; 

married, November 28, 1832, Hepsibah Barnard. 
II. Elizabeth^ born December 6, 1806, at Peru, Vermont; 
married, February 27, 1834, Jesse, son of Jesse and 
Lydia (Brooks) Brown, born December 6, 1805; died 
February 16, 1889, at Peru, a farmer; she died Sep- 
tember 23, 1837. No children. 

III. Lovina^ born May 8, 1809; married, January 12, 1836, 

Alvah Brooks, of Halifax, Vermont ; removed to 
Illinois, where he died, a farmer; she died at Elgin, 
Illinois, September 2, 1869. 

IV. Persis^, born July 24, 181 1; married, January 12, 1836, 

W. W. Whitney, born March n, 1810, at Peru, son 
of Nathan and Fina (Wheeler) Whitney, who died 
September 6, 1887. She died February 16, 1887. 


1. Charles William ' Whitney, born June 15, 1837; 

married, November 6, 1865, Matilda M. Baker, 
of Danby, Vermont ; farmer. 

2. Louise Lavina^ born March 20, 1839; died at 

Peru, December 21, 1893; a telegraph opera- 
tor; unmarried. 

3. Josiah Hapgood^ born January 20, 1843 ; married, 

November 22, 1866, Mai^y J. Walker; a farmer. 


V. Mary'', born September 28, 1813 ; married, April 25, 1844, 
John Q. Adams, of Croydon, New Hampshire, son of 
Moses and Sally Adams, born April 6, 1818; resides 
in Peru; a farmer. She died, 1880. 


1. Alma^ Adams, born . 

2. Carrie', born . 

3. Almond^ born 

VI. Josiah*, born October 15, 1815 ; died in childhood, 
VII. Almira*, born November 23, 1817; married February 10, 

1848, Barton, son of Allen and Mary (Butterfield) 
Aldrich, of Westmoreland, New Hampshire, born Jan- 
uary 15, 1821 ; a farmer. 


1. George Slade' Aldrich, born February 14, 1850, 

at Westmoreland, married, Georgiana Emogene 
Lawrence, of Grafton, Vermont. 

2. Mary Elizabeth^ born September 25, 1851 ; mar- 

ried, November 28, 1871, George Bacon; resides 
in Bellows Falls ; a carpenter. 

3. Lord Loenza^, born August 20, 1853, ^^ West- 

moreland; died August 3, 1874. 

4. Sarah Louisa'', born June 6, 1855; died December 

23, 1857. 

5. Nellie Lovina^, born March 31, i860; died October 

25, 1876. 

VIII. Jonathan^ born February 29, 1820; married, September 6, 

1849, Aurelia E. (Davis) Marsh, born at Reading, Ver- 
mont, February 8, 1821. Settled with his father on 
his extensive farm in Peru, tenderly cared for the wants 
of his venerable parents, built a new house, made great 
improvements on the farm, held important official posi- 
tions, represented the town two years in the Legisla- 
ture; died in Manchester, Vermont, March 15, 1883; 
his wife died December 22, 1881, No children. 

IX. Ruth*, born December 10, 1823; married, November i, 1843, 
Lucius Carlos Davis, born in Reading, Vermont, March 
24, 1819, where he resided, and died December 11, 
1 891 ; a farmer. 



1. Myron A.' Davis, born August 17, 1848; married 

Belle Byron; resided in Felchville (Reading), 
a machine manufacturer, and died October 
16, 1893. 

2. Cornelia E/, born , and died at the age of 

eighteen months. 

3. Frank H.^, born November 29, 1854; married 

Rosie Chamberlain, of Plymouth, Vermont; 
resides on the old homestead farm in Reading, 
taking the best of care of his venerable mother, 

4. Nellie C.^, born March 8, 1856; married, Frank 

S. Griffin; resides in Masonville, Iowa. 

5. Fred Carlos', born May 29, 1862; married, Nellie 

Mitchell, of Weathersfield, Vermont. 

Joseph*, born August 11, 1827, in Peru, Vermont; mar- 
ried, January 15, 1852, Mary Esther Gates, of Stow, 
born August 13, 1831 ; died May 23, 1885. He was 
born and educated in Peru ; carried on a farm there 
for several years, adjoining his father's, but became 
impatient of farming, and in 1874 he removed to 
Maynard, Massachusetts, where he died July 13, 
1887; a shoemaker. 


I. Mary Ella', born June 8, 1855, at Peru; died June 
2, 1869, in Marlboro'. 
II. Eunice Elizabeth', born January 2, 1858, at West- 
moreland; died October 19, 1879, at Maynard. 

III. Joseph Rufus', born November 7, 1859, at Stow, 

Massachusetts ; resided in Maynard ; a carpen- 
ter; died February 22, 1897. 

IV. James Henry Augustus', born December 29, 1862, 

at Bolton; a carpenter; resides in Nashua, 
New Hampshire. 
V. Myron Edward', born October 25, 1864, at Bolton; 
resided in Maynard; a travelling agent: died 
February i, 1896, in Portland, Maine; interred 
in Marlboro, Massachusetts ; unmarried. 
VI. Ella May', born May 2, 1873, at Marlboro'. 



Joseph^ {Joseph^, Joseph^, T/iomas^, Shadrach^), born 
November 17, 1784; married, November 26, 1807, Susanna 
Maynard, widow of Luther Maynard, and daughter of John 
Maynard, of Sudbury, where she was born, May i, 1785. 
Joseph was a wheelwright by trade, and first settled in 
Marlboro', where most of his children were born. Subse- 
quently he lived in Stow, Sterling, West Boylston, Sutton 
and Grafton. These changes were advisable in order to 
procure employment for his large and growing family. 
There were cotton factories at these places, and it was 
customary for young people to work in them nine months of 
the year, the remaining three being spent in school. 

The closing years of Joseph's life were passed in West 
Boylston, where he died November 19, 1861. His wife died 
April I, i860. 


I. Susan^ born September 2, 1809, in Marlboro'; married, 
November 5, 1829, Thomas Lewis, of Sterling, born 
June 26, 1804; died January 4, 1890, of pneumonia; 
she died September r, 1883, at Clinton, Massachusetts, 
of typhoid dysentery. 


1. Charles Henry' Lewis, born December 9, 1830; 

married, first, August 11, 1855, Sarah Lucinda 
Carlton, and second, he married, June 15, 1867, 
Caroline Augusta Trowbridge, born May 12, 
1827, at South Framingham, Massachusetts; 
she died August 15, 1892. 

2. George Thomas', born April 14, 1832; married, 

August 30, i860, Caroline C. Divoll, of North- 

3. Serena Maria', born October 28, 1833; married, 

November 25, 1863, Charles E. Crowl; died 
July 31, 1872. 


4. John Burdett^, born March 15, 1835; rnarried, Feb- 

ruary 24, 1864, Mary E. Welsh; died April 22, 


5. Susan Sophia^ born June 30, 1837; married, June 

I, 1856, Robert P. Lanchester, of Bliss, Idaho; 
she died September i, 1883. 

6. Abbie Burdett^ born July 15, 1839; rnarried, April 

I, 1858, Albert W. Lowe, of Clinton. 

7. Ellen Charlotte^ born March 28, 1841 ; married, 

April I, 1864, Obed Ware; she died December 
18, 1873. 

8. Eliza Ann^, born April 11, 1843; died April 29, 

9 Marshall James^ born June 27, 1S44; enlisted 
August 22, 1864, in Company C, Fourth Massa- 
chusetts Heavy Artillery, discharged June 17, 
1865 ; married. May 28, 1876, Helen M. Simons, 
at Detroit Lake, Minnesota. 

10. Albert Jerome', born March i, 1846; married, 

August, 1864, Addie Harriman; enlisted with 
his brother Marshall, in same company, and 
discharged at same time ; died June 29, 1883. 

11. Sarah Lucinda', born January 18, 1848; married, 

November 27, 1867, Phylander H. Ware, of 

12. Waldo Joseph'', born December 11, 1849; '"^.r- 

ried, June 18, 1874, Nellie Neil, of Mango, 

13. Walter Smithy born December 8, 1851 ; married, 

January i, 1873, Mary C. Parks, of Stow, 
IL Persis*, born March 22, 181 1; married, May 29, 1833, 
Jonathan Whitcomb, born January 17, 1806, at Little- 
ton, Massachusetts; he died Septembers, 1887; s. p. 
77 in. Luther Maynard^ born June 6, 18 13, at Marlboro'; mar- 
ried Olive W. Houghton. 

IV. Harriet^ born ; married, first, May 3, 1834, at West 

Boylston, James E. Gould, and, second. May 10, 1853, 
Daniel Warner, at Woodville, Massachusetts. 

Children, by first husband. 
1. Unnamed^ son, born April 19, 1836, at Clinton; 
died April 21, same year. 


2. Edward E7 Gould, born March ii, 1838; died 

February 5, 1839. 

3. Marshall E'., born November i, 1839; died August 

24, 1845. 

4. Francis A^, born July 28, 1841. Killed July i, 

1863, at Battle of Gettysburg. 

5. Hattie E.^ born September 6, 1843; married, 

April 25, 1866, Leander Morse; resides in 

6. Adelaide L.'', born November 18, 1846; married, 

May II, 1867, Edward H. Thurston, of Grafton, 
Massachusetts; resides in Montreal, Canada. 
Children, by second husband. 

7. Ella^ Warner, born April 11, 1854, at Southboro'; 

married Marcus D, Jackson; resides in Natick, 

8. Amelia P.'', born November 24, 1857 ; died De- 

cember 23, 1865. 

V. Abigail Green^ born (named after her aunt in 

Ashby by whom she was brought up); married, first, 
in Northboro', 1836, Leonard Chase; resided in Hol- 
den; and, second, she married, August 19, 1845, Luther 
Whitaker, a farmer of West Boylston. She died 
June 22, 1890, at Hudson. 

Children, by first husband. 

1. William Henry^ Chase, born July 6, 1837; died 

November 22, 1842. 

2. Hiram Wesley^ born July 21, 1840, at Hudson. 
Children, by second husband. 

3. Jason David' Whitaker, born August 13, 1846, at 

West Boylston; married, April 17, 1872, Addie 
L. Rowe, born June 2, 1846, at Salem, New 
Hampshire. He enlisted July 12, 1864, in Com- 
pany E, Forty-second Regiment, Massachusetts' 
Volunteer Infantry ; discharged for disability, at 
Camp Burrill, Alexandria, September 20, 1864. 

4. George Emerson', born November 27, 1850; mar- 

ried, November 18, 1875, Mary Ellen Randall, 
born February 28, 1856, at Marlboro'. 

5. Nelson LJ, born July 5, 1854, at West Boylston; 

died May 4, 1859. 

6. Herbert Pliny', born March 25, 1857. 


VI. Joseph Henrys born November ii, 1817; died October 

7, 1832. 
VII. Charlotte^ born October 9, 1818; died January 4, 1819. 
VIII. Charles^ born (twin with Charlotte) October 9, 1818; mar- 
ried, 1845, in New York, Mrs. Elizabeth Bennett 
Bigelow, of England ; resided in Harvard, Massachu- 
setts; a farmer. She died March 24, 1897, and he 
March 31, 1898. 


I. Charles Wesley^, born November 11, 1845; lear- 
ned Annie Marston, of Cambridge. 


I. Ella Adelaide^ born February 7, 1871, at 
Arlington; resided with her grandfather 
in Harvard. 

II. Sarah Elizabeth^ born March 9, 1849; married, 
January i, 1878, Edwin A. Gleason; resides in 
Worcester, Massachusetts. 

III. Ardella^ born December 11, 1852. 

IV. Mary Josephine', born December 4, 1856; died 

September 19, 1872. 
V. Susan Whitney'', born March 26, i860. 

IX. Charlotte^ born July 6, 1820; married, October 2, 1844, 
John S. Cutting, of West Boylston; he died Decem- 
ber 24, 1871. 


1. Charles M.' Cutting, born July 22, 1845; died 

April 23, 1878. 

2. Lewis', born November 4, 1849. 

3. Frank', born September 29, 1852. 

78 X. John Oilman^ born July 6, 1822, at Stow; married, Cynthia 

XI. Ruth Elizabeth^ born July 11, 1824; married, January 26, 
1845, at West Boylston, Russell Lawrence. After the 
death of her husband Mrs. Lawrence married January 
I, 1873, John S. Cutting (formerly husband of her 
deceased sister Charlotte); resided in Oakdale. No 
children. He died, and she resides with her son 
George B., in Hudson. 



1. George B.^ Lawrence, born December 12, 1846, at 


2. Ella E.^ born July 17, 1848, at Winchendon; mar- 

ried, Frank S. Pingry; resides in Littleton, 

XI L Ann*, born December 15, 1825, at Sterling; married, Sep- 
tember 5, 1853, Isaac Mosher, of West Boylston; died 
March 8, 1857. 

1. Mary'' Mosher, born January 19, 1857, at. New 
Haven, Connecticut; died March 8, 1857. 


Jonathan^ {Joseph^, JosepJi^, Thomas'', Shadrach^), born 
December 26, 1786; married, 1813, Betsey Elizabeth, 
daughter of Benjamin (born February 18, 1764, married, 
June 15, 1786), and Phebe (Bruce) Priest, of Marlboro', born 
May 26, 1789; died at Maynard, August 13, 1879. He set- 
tled in Princeton, Massachusetts, near Wachusett Mountain, 
where all his children were born, and where he died February 
13, 1830, a farmer. After his death, his widow and children 
(1830), moved back to Marlboro, and lived in her father's old 
house till her children were old enough to take care of 

79 I. Lewis', born May 11, 1815; married Almira Elizabeth 

Stow, of Southboro', Massachusetts. 
II. Elmira^born, 181 7; married Nathan Bruce, from Vermont, 
born 1812; died December 17, 1893, at Brockton, 
Massachusetts. She died February 24, 1851, at 


1. George Walter^ Bruce, born February 28, 1841, at 
Marlboro'; died March 20, 1842. 


80 III. Silas^, born March 2, 1819; married, November 25, 1841, 
Susan Lawrence, of Boxboro'. 
IV. Phoebe^ born 1823 ; died September 28, 1853, at Marlboro'. 


Isaac' {Joseph^, Joseph^, Thomas^, Shadrach^), born March 
8, 1791 ; married, September 2, 181 7, at Ashby, Massachu- 
setts, Abigail, daughter of Captain William Green. He set- 
tled in Ashby ; a farmer. Willed March 26, 1852, to his son 
William Green, all his estate except ^50.00 given to his 
grandson, Isaac Henry Hodgman, son of Cyrus Hodgman, 
and the improvement of one-third of his real estate and the 
use of all his household furniture by his wife Abigail. \^See 
Middlesex Probate. '\ He died November 24, 1852. 

81 I. William Green^ born January 18, 1818; married, April 2, 

1837, Harriet Newell Manning. 
II, Abigail Buckley^ born December 4, 1825; married, 
November 15, 1848, Cyrus H. Hodgman, of Ashby. 
She died March 19, 1866. 

1. Isaac Henry^ Hodgman, born July 19, 1850; re- 
moved to Temple, New Hampshire, where he 
resides: a farmer: unmarried. 



JoHN^ {David^, Asa\ TJiomas^, Thomas^, Skadrach^), born 
December 11, 1782, at Princeton, Massachusetts. Settled 
on the south part of his father's original purchase, at Read- 
ing, Vermont, whichhe sold in 1847, ^^d removed to Como, 


Illinois, but returned and resided with his son Addison, and 
later on made his home with his elder son Elbridge, at Como, 
where he died January 23, 1854. He married, March 2, 
1808, Sally Amsden, of Reading, born April 19, 1782; died 
at Denison, Iowa, April 16, 1881. 

I. Constantine^ born December 26, 1808; died September 19, 
1832, at New York. 

82 II. Elb^idge^ born June 8, 181 2; married, August 24, 1842, 

Sarah Elizabeth Gilbert. 

83 III. Addison^ born June 23, 1816; married, April 4, 1838, 

Lorette Louisa Dunlap. 
84: IV. Lorenzo', born December 7, 1819; married, November 19, 
1850, Eliza Frances Breed, of Como. 


David" {David^, Asa^, Thovias^, Thomas"', Shadrach^), born 
February 20, 1786. Settled on the south part of his 
father's original purchase at Reading, Vermont, was a prac- 
tical scientific farmer, and highly respected citizen, declined 
many civil offices to which he was invited, except that of 
town treasurer to which he was first chosen in 18 19, and 
held it for twelve years. He married, January i, 18 18, 
Sally Kimball, born August 23, 1793, at Reading; died 
February 15, 1875. He died November 30, 1859, of heart 

I. David Engalls^ born June 3, 1819; married, January 12, 
1847, Cordelia Alexander, of Hartland, Vermont. He 
was a merchant in Nashua, New Hampshire, and died 
October 4, 1852. 

I. Walter David^ born December 18, 1847, resided 
with his mother at Windsor, Vermont, removed 


to Stowe, Vermont ; a merchant of the firm of 
Moore & Hapgood, 1877; died about 1885. 

II. Sarah Allena', born September 10, 1824; died June 9, 1825. 
III. Mary Louisa'', born July 30, 1827; married, November 10, 
1851, Samuel A. Hammond, an extensive farmer at 
Forreston, Illinois. She died April 28, 1857. 

1. David Hapgood* Hammond, born March 21, 1855. 

86 IV. Salmon KimbalF, born October 19, 1833; married, Novem- 

ber II, 1858, Minerva Jane Robinson. 
V. Cleora Isadore^ born November 28, 1836; married, Febru- 
ary 3, 1863, Marcus A. Spaulding, a man of energy 
and fidelity; resided with his father upon his extensive 
homestead at Reading, Vermont. 

1. Child^ died young; not named. 


Captain Artemas^ {David^, Asa*, Thomas^, Thomas^, 
Shadrach^), born July 16, 1795 ; married, February 27, 1823, 
Rebecca Fay. Settled on the homestead in Reading ; a 
practical and industrious farmer ; died June 21, 1837. His 
widow married, second, June 5, 1839, Solomon S. Yuran ; 
resided in Tunbridge, Vermont. 

I. Lyman^, born January 2, 1825; died March 2, 1826. 
IL Salome Fay'', born December 9, 1826, was graduated from 
the Female Seminary at Troy, New York; distin- 
guished for genius and scholarship ; became an eminent 
teacher in the South, from whence, with steadfast 
loyalty, she retired at the beginning of the rebellion; 
married Samuel A. Hammond, of Forreston, Illinois, 
the husband of her deceased cousin, Mary Louisa''. 
She died December 27, 1876. 


III. Sarah Myrick^, born June 26, 1828, graduated from Troy 
Female Seminary; married, October 4, 1859, Dennis 
C. Hawthorne ; resides in Leavenworth, Kansas. 


1. Artemas Hapgood^ Hawthorne, born February 3, 

1861 ; died December 8, 1881. 

2. Rosamond Fay^ born January 4, 1865; resides in 

Dakin, Kansas. 
.IV. Jane', born September 18, 1831, on the ancestral farm, at 
Reading, Vermont; graduated from Troy Female 
Seminary, 1850; taught in South Carolina four years ; 
in Illinois four years; Vice-Principal of Cleveland 
Female Seminary two years ; was in charge of St. 
Agnes Hall, Bellows Falls, Vermont, and in 1869 
took a lease of it for twenty years, surrendering the 
work at the expiration of the lease, as the founding of 
a Diocesan School for Girls rendered it obsolete. 
By nature altruistic, she has devoted her life to works 
of benevolence. 
V. Lucinda Bigelow'', born November 27, 1834; died June 12, 


Bridgman,^ Esq. {David^, Asa\ TJiomas^, Thomas'^, SJiad- 
rach}), born August 13, 1799. Was early apprenticed to his 
brother-in-law, Edmund Durrin, Esq., a woolen manufacturer 
at Weathersfield, Vermont. From 1820 to 1824 he was an 
invalid. On regaining his health, he embarked in mercantile 
business at Reading, and pursued it with energy and success. 
In 1832 established in the conterminous town of Bridge- 
water a branch store, erected a mill in Plymouth, near by, 
for the manufacture of potato starch, and, having in the 
meantime purchased of the heirs of his brother Artemas 
the ancient homestead of his father, he also became exten- 
sively engaged in farming. In 1830 he was appointed post- 
master, and in 1836 a justice of the peace, which ofifice he held 


seventeen years, solemnizing marriages enough to indicate 
a dearth of clergymen. In 1837 and 1838 he was elected 
representative, served ten years as town clerk, nine in suc- 
cession as chairman of the board of selectmen, five years 
as trustee of a surplus revenue, and often as a county 
road commissioner, He was also a director of the County 
Mutual Fire Insurance Company, and repeatedly appointed 
executor of wills and administrator of estates. In his 
pursuits, with all his irons in the fire, he was successful 
until the great crisis in money affairs in 1841-42, and the 
consequent derangement of business and the passage of the 
General Bankrupt Law, when he sustained heavy losses. 
In 1844 he disposed of his mercantile and farming interests 
at a sacrifice, and in 1853 removed to Claremont, New 
Hampshire, where in 1855 he established a general store of 
hardware, including agricultural implements, mechanical 
tools, etc. He married, April 19, 1829, Elizabeth Morrison, 
of Reading, Vermont, born June 24, 1807 ; died February 9, 
1830, and he married, second, June 29, 1835, Laura M. 
Weston, born April 17, 1808; died October 24, i860. He 
died January 8, 1877, and was buried by the Masonic 
Fraternity, of which he was a member, with marked 
expressions of sorrow and respect. 

CHILDREN, all bom in Reading. 

I. Harriet Elizabeth^, born January 22, 1830 (b)' first wife); 
died August 25, same year. 
II. Sarah', born May 25, 1836 (by second wife); died Sep- 
tember I, 1836. 
III. Mary Ella', born February 5, 1838; married, October 14, 
1863, at Claremont, New Hampshire, Henry A., son 
of Aurelius and Frances M. Dickinson, born May 12, 
1831. His father was a prominent and wealthy citizen, 
and large real estate owner in Hartford, Connecticut, 


where Henry was born. About 1838, the father re- 
moved with his family, to Claremont, purchased the 
Tremont House in that town, and for many years 
carried on the hotel, taking his son Henry in with 
him later. They subsequently leased the hotel, and 
went into the shoe business for a few years ; but, in 
1879, the hotel and store were destroyed by fire, and 
as his father died the next year, that business was 
not resumed. He then turned his attention to real 
estate, and in 1885 was elected a member of the 
Legislature, and as a member of the House, was 
especially active in procuring the passage of a most 
stringent insurance policy law. For several years he 
had been in failing health, but his condition did not 
create alarm until within four or five days of his 
death, which occurred on the 4th of November, 1888. 

1. Henry Grant^ Dickinson, born June 19, 1868, at 
Claremont ; graduated from the high school, 
and was intended for college ; but the early 
death of his father rendered it advisable for 
him to abandon this course, and take up and 
carry forward the large real estate and insurance 
business he had established. Faithful to every 
duty, and especially devoted to the welfare and 
happiness of his mother, he has met that suc- 
cess in business his merits deserve. 
Three other children were born to this union, all 
of whom died in infancy. 
IV. Edgar Lyman^, born April 22, 1841 ; died January 28, 1875, 
at Claremont; unmarried. 
The following obituary appeared in a local paper : — 
"The death of Postmaster Edgar L. Hapgood has caused 
a pang of sorrow in the breast of many of our citizens. 
He was born in Reading, Vermont, 1841. When 
fourteen years of his life were spent, his father, Bridg- 
man Hapgood, removed to Claremont, New Hamp- 
shire. In 1863, Edgar became a clerk in the store of 
George H. Stowell, where, by faithfulness and atten- 
tion to the interests of his employer, he won the 
respect and esteem of all who knev/ him. In the early 
part of 1870 he was admitted a partner in the livery 


business with Mr. Stowell, which relation was severed 
only by his death. His fellow-citizens, appreciating 
his worth, secured for him the appointment of post- 
master. So ably and satisfactorily was the position 
filled, that a unanimous petition of citizens procured for 
him a reappointment by President Grant, in 1874. In 
his death the town has lost a most worthy citizen, the 
post-office department a reliable official, and the family 
a loving friend and brother." 
V. Laura Elizabeth^, born January 25, 1843; died July 8, 1861. 


Elmore^ {Asa^, Asa*, Tliomas^, Thomas'^, Shadrach^), born 
October 29, 1787; married, at Jericho, Vermont, March 14, 
1813, Rheuanna, daughter of William and Ruth (Wood) 
Smith, born at Jericho, October 7, 1790. She died at Essex, 
Vermont, September 13, 1833, and he at Bolton, Vermont, 
October 16, 1854; resided at Jericho ; a farmer. 

L Hannah^, born February 14, 1815; died at Jericho, May 
27, 1821. 
IL Martin E.^, born October 3, 1816; married, Mary Hani- 
ford; resided in Underbill, Vermont, a carpenter, 
where he died October 14, 1890. No children. 

III. Chloe^, born July 20, 1818, at Jericho, Vermont; married, 

Hoyet Cooper; resided in Twin Bluffs, Wisconsin, 
He died December 11, 1893. 

IV. Emily^, born February 2, 1820; died August 17, 1828, at 

V, John S.^ born May 9, 1822; married, November 29, 1854, 
at Huntington, Vermont, Deborah Blair, born August 
8, 1822, at Ascott, Canada, daughter of James and 
Betsey (Cox) Blair; resides in Bolton, Vermont, an 
intelligent and prosperous farmer. 

I. George F.S born August 26, 1856, at Richmond, 
Vermont; married, April 26, 1883, at Jericho, 


Effie, daughter of Azro and Martha (Pinneo) 
Davis, born September i, 1864; resides in 
Jericho ; a farmer. No children. 
11. Ettie^ born May 16, 1858; died March 9, 1866, at 

III. Melissa^ born August 31, 1863; resides in Bolton. 

IV. John E.^ born February 15, 1869, at Bolton; a 

farmer; unmarried. 

VI. Emilys born July 19, 1824; married, Chellis Wellman, of 
VII. Hannah^, born July 10, 1826; married, Edwin Pratt, 
resides in Richland Center, Wisconsin. 
VIII. Adaline^ born October 25, 1828; married, Clark Ford; 
resides in Waitsfield, Vermont; a farmer. 
IX. Franks born May 11, 1830; married, and resides in Twin 

Bluffs, Wisconsin; a farmer. 
X. Edwin^ born September 15, 1832, at Essex, Vermont; 

resides in Wilmot, Wisconsin. 
XI. Edgar^, born September 15, 1832, at Essex, Vermont, twin 
with Edwin; died March 20, 1849, in Jericho, Vermont. 


Charles^ (Asa^, Asa\ Thomas^, Thomas^, Shadrach^), born 
November 18, 1790, at Reading, Vermont; married at Rush- 
ford, New York, November 5, 1820, Lucy, daughter of 
James Kendall, of Windsor, Vermont ; resided in Rushford, 
a large farmer; died November 4, 1847. 

CHILDREN, all bom in Rushford, Alleghany County, New York. 

I. Harriet^ born February 11, 1822; married, in Rushford, 
March 28, 1847, Perry Corse, of Norway, Herkimer 
County, New York, a brother to the wife of Dexter 
M.7 Hapgood, born January 7, 1822. She died in 
Rushford, March 19, 1855. 

1. Ellen* Corse, born April 7, 1848, at Rushford; 
married, January 10, 1879, Richard Van Name, 


born April 17, 1845, in Centerville, New York. 
No children. 

2. Elbert^ born February 12, 1850; unmarried. 

3. Emma', born July 4, 1852; unmarried. 

86 II. Harrison^ born November 5, 1823 ; married, October, 

1849, Helen Adaline, daughter of Nathan C. Kimball, 
born August 21, 1830. 
III. Emily^ born March 26, 1825; died at Cedar Falls, Sep- 
tember 7, 1897; married, September 13, 1847, at 
Rushford, William Allen Emerson (son of Allen 
Emerson, born April 19, 1783, in Dunstable, Massa- 
chusetts; died May 5, 1852, at Amity, Pennsylvania), 
born June 7, 1818, at Manlius, New York; resides in 
Cedar Falls, Iowa. 


1. Eugene Hapgood^ Emerson, born July 3, 1848, at 

Amity, Pennsylvania; married, March 20, 1875, 
at Sioux City, Iowa, Harriet E. Raymond, 
born at Newcastle, Wisconsin, July 12, 1849; 
resides in Siloam Springs ; a lumber merchant. 
Guy L. V. Emerson, Assistant Attorney for the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway Company, 
residing in Muskogee, Indian Territory, is a 
son of the above. 

2. Augusta Emily^, born November 17, 1850, at 

Amity, Pennsylvania; married, November 17, 
1875, at South Creek, Nebraska, Luther T. 
Reed, born in Tiffin, Ohio, 1846; resides in 
Lamar, Missouri ; a land agent. 

3. Clara Gustina^ born August 19, 1853, at Amity, 

Pennsylvania; married, January 11, 1888, at 
Cedar Falls, Iowa, Charles Johnson, born in 
Sullivan County, New York, July 8, 1843; re- 
sides in Lakeside, Washington ; a fruit grower. 

4. Evangeline Alzina^ born April 30, 1855, at Amity, 

Pennsylvania ; married, September 13, 1876, 
Moses F. Batcheller, born January 3, 1853, at 
Burrillville, R. I.; resides in Cedar Falls, Iowa; 
a farmer. 

5. William Almon^ born March 9, 1857, at Clymer, 

New York; killed by lightning May 17, 1877. 

6. Emma^ born February 21, 1859; died young. 


7. Ella^, born February 21, 1859; twin with Emma; 

died young. 

8. Charles Edward^born February 27, 1861 ; married, 

October 28, 1885, at Cedar Falls, Elsie Smith, 
born in Rockford, Illinois, August 19, 1862; 
resides in Lamar, Missouri; a farmer. 

IV. Nelson^, born November 10, 1826; died at Rushford, July 
13, 1837. 
87 V. Dexter Milton^, born July 16, 1828; married, July 15, 1848, 

Julia Corse, of Norway, New York. 

VI. Charles G.^ born March 18, 1831 ; resided in Rochester, 
New York; a lawyer and dealer in real estate; died 
August 6, 1896, of diabetes; unmarried. 
VI I. Lucy^ born February 2, 1834; died at Rushford, Septem- 
ber 19, 1838. 
VIII. Jane^, born June 12, 1836; married, December 24, 1855, 
George Lemuel Williams, born at Franklin, New York, 
about 1832, died, February i, i860; she married, 
second, November 2, 1863, Peter Diamond, born in 
Vermont ; removed to Battle Creek, Jackson County,' 
Michigan. In November, 1882, he fell from a brick 
building and was instantly killed. 

Children, by first husband. 

1. Ida^ Williams, born March 13, 1856, in Cattaraugus 

County, New York; married, July 4, 1872, at 
Napoleon, Jackson County, Michigan, William 
Henry Hudson, born May 8, 1851, at Michigan 
Centre, Michigan. 

2. William F.^ born March 4, i860, at Eaton Rapids, 

Michigan; married, November 3, 1880, at 
Battle Creek, Leah Reshon, born in Bigo, 
Lower Canada, July 28, 1857. 

Children, by second husband. 

3. Lottie^ Diamond, born July 18, 1864, in Augusta, 

Michigan; married, September 3, 1889, Nelson 
Brown, born in Battle Creek, July il, 1864. 

4. Nellie^ born May 9, 1866, at Eaton Rapids; 

died October 18, 1867. 

5. Nora^ born June 9, 1869, at Hickory Corners, 

Michigan; married, July 19, 1884, Albert 


Brown, in Battle Creek, born September 3, 
i860, in Ontario Province, Canada. 
6. De Witt Clinton^ born July 13, 1874, at Battle 
Creek; married, September 25, 1896, Minnie 
Cretson, born April 19, 1871, at Gallon, Ohio. 

IX. George Washington^ born January 13, 1840, at Rushford, 
New York. Served in the War of the Rebellion, 
enlisted September 13, 1861, in Company D, Sixty- 
fourth Regiment New York Volunteers, wounded at 
the Battle of Fair Oaks, Virginia, and discharged 
from the service on the 30th of September, 1862, at 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as corporal ; re-enlisted 
as sergeant in Company B, Second Regiment Mounted 
Rifles New York Volunteers, December 23, 1863, for 
three years or during the war, and was discharged at 
Petersburg, Virginia, August 10, 1865; wounded in 
front of Petersburg, July 30, 1864. He married, 
November 5, 1866, at Rushford, New York, Mary Ann 
Bishop, born May 12, 1844, at Almond, Alleghany 
County, New York; resides in Raymond, Clark 
County, South Dakota; a farmer. 


I. Frank Ashabel^ born June 5, 1870, at Yates, 
Orleans County, New York. 

TiLLisoN^ (Asa^, Asa\ TJiovias^, Thomas"-, ShadracB), born 
April 13, 1792, at Jericho, Chittenden County, Vermont ; 
married, February 13, 1823, Cynthia Bliss, born in Jericho, 
1795 ; died January 22, 1878. He died September, 1850; 
a tanner. 


I. Julian^, born April 8, 1824; married, March 16, 1851, 
Harriet Davies, born November 25, 1831, at Jericho; 
died January 22, 1886. He died May 4, 1866; resided 
in Jericho ; a farmer. 



George Burt^ born December 22, 1856; married, 
April 17, 1889, at Milford, Lassin County, Cali- 
fornia, Annie Genevieve True, born October 2, 
1865, at Gold Hill, Story County, Nevada. 
Resides in Cedarville, Modoc County, Cali- 
fornia ; a dealer in horses. 

I. Elma Genevieve^, born March 8, 1890. 
II. Jesse Almerine', born July 25, 1891. 

II. Ida BelP, born March i, i860; died December 
15, 1865. 
III. Clark Bliss^ born September 18, 1865, at Jericho ; 
married. May 13, 1885, at Cambridge, Vermont, 
Florence Beulah Wilcox, born August 31, 1865, 
at Cambridge. 


I. Ella Harriet', born June 18, 1887. 

II. Harold Clark', born May 6, 1891. 

III. Beulah Francis', born June 8, 1894. 

II. Henry Martin^ born February 6, 1830; married, June 12, 
1858, at Fairfax, Vermont, Olive Abbott, born May 
8, 1845. He died April 9, 1872; a farmer. 


I. ZephS born February 8, i860, at Westford, Ver- 
mont; married, September 12, 1885, Minnie A. 
Hughes, born September 10, 1867, in Dublin, 
Ireland; resides in Essex Junction, Vermont; 
a hotel keeper. 


I. Henry Julius', born July 10, 1886. 

II. Olive Beatrice', born September 10, 1888. 
III. John Hughes', born April 22, 1894. 

II. Cynthia^ born September 17, 1867; died April 

II, 1885. 



Bates Turner** {Asa\ Asa*, Thomas^, Thomas'^, Shad- 
rack^) born November 6, i8oo, in Fairfax, Vermont, re- 
moved to Jericho, Vermont, with his parents, in i8o6. 
On his marriage in 1826, he went to Lake Chautauqua, 
where he remained two years. In 1828 he made purchases 
of land and engaged in mercantile business, in Rushford, 
New York, from which he retired, 1855, twelve years pre- 
vious to his death. Few men have left a stronger impress 
upon those with whom they have been connected, either in 
business or other pursuits, than he. Of large stature and 
commanding presence, he was equally forcible in character 
and influence. He was one of the founders of the Rushford 
Academy, being the first president of the board of trustees. 
He also held the offices of assessor, justice of the peace, and 
supervisor. He served thirty-six years as trustee of the 
Baptist Church, and was deacon twenty-two years. He was 
a life member of the New York State Baptist Education 
Society, the American Baptist Publication, the American 
Baptist Missionary Union, and the Bible Union Society. 
He contributed articles to the Examiner and Chronicle, and 
other religious papers, and was a man of large reading, 
cultivated tastes and acquirements. He married, January 
25, 1826, Alzina, daughter of Silas Taylor, formerly of 
Granby, Massachusetts, and died July 6, 1867. 
I. Lucia Cornelia'', born March 27, 1831, at Rushford; edu- 
cated at Phipp's Union Seminary, Albion, New York, 
and graduated 1849; had many opportunities for 
travel, and was a woman of unusual culture and 
attainments. She married, September 25, 1851, Orrin 
Thrall, son of Timothy and Elmira (Thrall) Higgins, 
born August 14, 1826, in Centerville, New York. His 
father was born at East Haddam, Connecticut, 


November 24, 1801 ; studied medicine and became an 
eminent M. D. His mother, Elmira, was born August 
18, 1807. Orrin removed to Rushford, went into 
mercantile business, which he prosecuted with energy, 
and became a distinguished and highly esteemed 
citizen. His wife died at Rushford, September 15, 
1868, and he at Olean, March 3, 1890. 

1. Clara Alzina Hapgood^ Higgins, born September 

6, 1854, at Rushford; educated at Mrs. Bryan's 
celebrated school, at Batavia, New York, 
together with a three years' course at Berlin, 
Germany, married, October 17, 1877, Frank 
Sullivan, son of William M. Smith, M. D., of 
Patterson, New Jersey, born October 14, 1851, 
at Angelica, N. Y., residing there and in New 
York City. The Higgins' and the Hopkins', 
from whom she descended, were among the first 
settlers in the Plymouth Colony. Constanta 
Hopkins, daughter of Stephen Hopkins, came 
with her father in the " Mayflower," and married 
Nicholas Snow, who came over in 1623, in the 
" Ann." Mary Snow married Thomas Paine, 
1650. Mary Paine married, first, James Rogers, 
and, second, Israel Cole, 1669; Hannah Cole 
married Samuel Higgins, 1703 ; Daniel Higgins 
married Ruth Snow Browne, 1727; Israel Hig- 
gins, Jr., married Elizabeth Wood Aiken, 1753 ; 
Timothy Higgins married Lucy Whitmore, 
1787; Timothy Higgins, Jr., married Elmira 
Thrall, 1825; Orrin Thrall Higgins married 
Lucia Cornelia' Hapgood, the mother of Clara 
Alzina. Richard Higgins married Lydia Chan- 
dler, and was one of the seven who had permis- 
sion to establish a colony at Eastham. His son 
Benjamin, married Lydia Bangs, whose father, 
Edward, came over in the "Ann." 

2. Frank Wayland^ born August 18, 1856; married, 

June 5, 1878, at Sparta, Wisconsin, Catharine C. 
Noble, born July 16, 1856, at Rushford; resides 
in Olean, an extensive dealer in pine land, and 
is also a member of the New York State Senate. 

3. Edwin Hapgood^ born September 18, 1858; died 

January 13, 1859. 



Joel Wilson*^ {Asa^, Asa*, T/iomas^, Thomas'-, Shadrach^), 
born April 21, 1802, at Fairfield, Vermont; married, Sep- 
tember I, 1830, at Carrol, New York, Susan Harrington, 
born in Whitehall, New York, August 18, 1808. Settled 
in Ellery, Chautauqua County, New York, and became an 
extensive and wealthy farmer and fruit grower. He died 
October 21, 1883, and his widow at Buffalo, New York, 
October 8, 1889. 

88 I. Daniel Smiley^, born December 15, 1832 ; married, January 

I, 1856, Clarissa Laura Johnson. 
II. Mary Ann^, born November 19, 1834; married, December 
19, 1851, at Ellery, Ephraim Cowden, born November 
18, 1824, at Kitone. They resided in Ellery where he 
died January 30, 1888. 


1. Emogene^ Cowden, born January 22, 1853; mar- 

ried, October 10, 1868, at Ellery, Romatur 
Brown ; a farmer. 

2. Louise Mary^ born June 12, 1855; married, 

December 25, 1870, at Ellery, Eugene Scofield ; 
a farmer. 

3. Ernest JoeP, born August 13, 1858; married, 

October 29, 1890, at North Warren, Pennsyl- 
vania, Mary Lott ; resides in North Warren ; 
a doctor. 

4. Morris Wells^, born June 28, 1861 ; married, March 

8, 1895, Blanche Olmstead; resides in Gerry, 
Chautauqua County, New York; a doctor. 

5. Grants born November 14, 1864; resides in 

Ellery ; a cheese maker. 

6. Charles George^ born March 15, 1867; married, 

March 10, 1895, Effie Newville; resides in 
Ellery; a teamster. 

7. De Forest^ born October 29, 1870; resides in 

Ellery; a cheese maker. 

8. Mark Finley^ born November 10, 1874; resides 

in Jamestown; a book-keeper. 


89 III. Charles Elmore/ born February 15, 1840 ; married, October 

20, 1867, Mrs. Loranda Simmons Klock. 

90 IV. Albert^ born April 23, 1847; married, June 21, 1869, 

Ella H. Baldwin. 


Horace^ {Artemas^, Asa*, Thomas^, Thomas'', Shadrach})^ 
born May 25, 1800; married, March 22, 1823, Lucy Parsons, 
at Elizabethtown, New York, born February 9, 1798 ; resided 
in Athol, Massachusetts; a carpenter; died June 6, 1877; 
his widow died July 28, 1881. 

I. Charles N.^ born January 25, 1825 ; died May 3, 1825. 
II. Henry'', born February 26, 1826 ; was twice married; actor 
and agent for a dramatic troupe ; now presumably an 
inmate of the Actors' Home, Long Island. 
III. Edgar'', born April 27, 1828; died December 4, 1852, at 

IV. Abigail, born August 22, 1830; died January 10, 1831. 
V. Abby', born January 31, 1836; married, January 21, 1858, 
Otis B. Boutwell, of Montague, Massachusetts, born 
December 2, 1828; was in mechanical business in 
Athol up to December, 1882, when he went into the 
grocery business at Orange Park, Florida. 


1. William Otis^ Boutwell, born October 7, 1865. 

2. Lucy Bernice^ born November 10, 1868. 

VI. Sarah Ella^, born March 5, 1839; married, 1857, Charles 
Holt, of Reading, Massachusetts; he died and she 
married, second, August 16, 1864, Aaron Stone, of 
Brooklyn, New York. 


1. Charles Edgar^ Holt (by first husband), born April 

10, 1858, at Reading. 

2. Nellie Sophia^ Stone (by second husband), born 

June 4, 1867, at Brooklyn, New York. 


3. Lucy Hapgood^ born October 20, 1869. 

4. Charles Everest^ born January 10, 1871. 

5. William Horace^ born October 27, 1877. 

6. Kate May^, born July 17, 1881. 


Chauncey^ {Artema^, Asa*, Thomas^, Thomas^, Shadrack^), 
born October 17, 1803 ; learned the trade of wheelwright and 
carriage maker of Earl Rice, of Barre, Massachusetts ; mar- 
ried there May 2, 1833, Lucy F. Rice; returned to Peters- 
ham, Massachusetts, May 3, 1837, continued the business of 
carriage making, finding a market in northern Vermont for 
his carriages, where he exchanged them for cattle, which 
were driven back and sold. The early settlers of Vermont 
had little money, and most business was carried on by 
barter. His wife, Lucy, was born June 15, 1808, and died 
March 15, 1897, at Petersham ; he died April 3, 1887. 

L Mary', born November 6, 1835; married June 23, 1858, at 
Lowell, Massachusetts, Frederick Bryant, born Jan- 
uary 30, 1 83 1, of Petersham, where he resides; chair- 
man of board of assessors, 1884; a farmer. 

Children, all born in Petersham. 

1. Walter Artemas*, Bryant, born June 29, 1858; 

married, November 23, 1881, at Shutesbury, 
Massachusetts, Carrie A. Felton. 

2. Nellie Willson^ born September 11, i860; married, 

January 21, 1885, Herbert W. Gale, of Gardner. 

3. Winifred^ born February 9, 1863; married, Jan- 

uary 3, 1883, Frank L. Gates, of Gardner. 

4. Charles Hapgood^ born February 10, 1867; mar- 

ried, September 17, 1890, Ada E. Bailey, of 
Boston ; a merchant. 
6. John Mudge^ born January i, 1870; resides in 
Boston; a merchant. 


II. Charles F.^, born February 20, 1838; enlisted in Company 
F, Twenty-third Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, 
nine months' men ; returning home with his regiment 
from New Orleans, when three days out, August 8, 
1863, he died on board ship and was buried at sea. 

III. George A.^, born December 29, 1839; learned the trade of 

carriage trimmer of Parsons & Shumway, of Belcher- 
town, Massachusetts; taken sick of consumption and 
died March 13, i860. 

IV. Harriet^ born May 17, 1842; died July 5, 1873. 

V. Lyman Wilder^, born June 26, 1845. In common with 
many of the Hapgoods, he was endowed with good 
mechanical faculties. At first he tried his hand at 
carpentry, in Worcester, then removed to Boston, 
where he has for many years worked for Geo. S. 
Hutchings, the eminent church organ builder; un- 
VI. Stella', born July 2, 1847 ; resides in Petersham ; unmarried. 
VII. Ellen Eliza', born May 25, 1850; married November 26, 
1872, at Petersham, Edward E. Kelton, of Athol, born 
July 23, 1845. 

1. Arthur^ Kelton, born January 4, 1880. 

VIII. Henry Edgar', born December 7, 1855; married January 
18, 1890, Carrie E. Ames, of Barre, born November 27, 
1859; resides in Barre ; a carpenter. No children. 


Hon. Lyman Wilder® {Artemas^, Asa,^ Thomas^, Thomas^, 
ShadracJi}), born November 27, 181 1, at Barre, Massachu- 
setts ; educated in the public schools ; learned the trade of 
a wheelwright; removed to Athol, 1838, carried on that 
business in company with his brother, Asa, in the building 
now occupied by Fay & Fay, as a grocery store, in the 
Centre Village. Match woods had hitherto been made by a 
hand plane that could turn out only a few thousand per day. 
He started a little factory, in what is now known as Morse's 


shop, to do this business, but soon invented a machine that 
would produce 5,000,000 daily, and the business was removed 
to the factory now occupied by Hapgood & Smith, his son 
and son-in-law, he remaining with the new firm till the time 
of his death, October 18, 1874. In 1853 he was chosen dele- 
gate to the State Convention for Revising the Constitution 
of Massachusetts ; elected chief engineer of the fire depart- 
ment ; served on the board of school committee ; was promi- 
nent in establishing both local banks, and serving as director, 
besides holding several other positions of trust and responsi- 
bility. He married, April 18, 1839, Eliza Jane, daughter of 
Levi Phinney, of Shrewsbury, Vermont, born August 11, 
1812 ; died April 20, 1892. 

I. Josephine Eliza', born October 17, 1841 ; died February 
8, 1847. 
II. Sarah Louisa', born October 23, 1845; married, December 
29, 1870, Almond Smith, born October 23, 1845, at 
Petersham; resides in Athol Centre; a member of the 
firm of Hapgood & Smith, extensive match wood 

1. Arline Hapgood^ Smith, born April 20, 1872; was 
graduated from Wellesley College, B. A., June 
25, 1895. 

91 III. Herbert Lyman', born February 5, 1850; married, February 
25, 1875, Mary Josephine Proctor. 


AsA^ {Arteniasr', Asa*, Thomas'^, Thomasr, Skadrack^), born 
at Barre, Massachusetts, on July i, 1813. Was a man of 
marked ability and inventive genius. On leaving Barre as 


a young man, he was clerk at the Quincy House, Boston, 
then the leading hotel ; he next became shipping clerk at 
the Boston Custom House ; later on he had a lar^e manufac- 
tory of mattresses and pillows on Fulton street, opposite 
Saint Paul's churchyard, New York. He invented a venti- 
lator for railway cars which was very extensively used all 
over the United States. He next invented some sleeping- 
cars for a railway in Canada, and personally superintended 
their introduction on the road. He afterwards invented a 
different model of sleeping-car which he put on the through 
line between Boston and New York (Boston & Albany and 
New York & New Haven Railroads). He built, owned, and 
ran that entire system of sleeping-cars until his death, after 
which they were sold to the railways above mentioned. 
The Wagner and Pullman sleeping-cars were copied directly 
from these cars, and the original model was taken by the 
Wagner Company and is in their possession in New York. 

He married, in New York, March 14, 1850, Lydia, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Crossley, born in Mason County, Kentucky, 
May I, 1832. Her father was an EngHshman, born in 
London, and owned a large plantation in Mason County. 
Her mother, Phebe Crossley, was the daughter of James 
George St. Clair, who came from Scotland, and settled on a 
great estate on the James River, in Virginia. He released 
his slaves long before abolition was publicly discussed, sent 
them north to the free States, and himself founded St. Clairs- 
ville, Ohio, near which town he passed the remainder of 
his life. 

They resided in Boston, Jersey City, and finally removed 
to Worcester, Massachusetts, where Asa Hapgood died, 
June 10, 1868. After his death, his widow remained at the 



homestead in Worcester until 1881, after which she spent 
her time in Boston and abroad ; she now lives in New York. 
I. Isabel Florence^, born in Boston, November 21, 1851. 
She early showed a strong liking for study. At Miss 
Porter's famous school in Farmington, Connecticut, 
she studied French, Latin, mathematics, and the usual 
English branches. After leaving school, she discov- 
ered in herself an unusual aptitude for acquiring 
languages. After taking lessons in German, she 
explored alone the Germanic tongues, and after lessons 
in Italian, the Latin tongues. Eventually she con- 
quered all the languages of Continental Europe, and 
Russian with its dialects. Old Church Slavonic, and 
the various branches of Slavonic of Eastern Europe. 
Thus equipped, she made numerous translations of 
foreign books, all of which have been pronounced to 
be standards by the critics. Among them are works 
by Tolstoi, Gogol, and other Russian authors. With 
much labor and painstaking research she collated 
different versions of the ancient popular songs of 
Russia, of the heroic type, edited them, and published 
" The Epic Songs of Russia." The book is regarded 
as a standard work and an authority in England and 
America, and is also duly appreciated in Russia; 
Professor Francis James Child, of Harvard University, 
whom she helped on his famous Book of Ballads, 
furnished the Preface to this volume. Among her 
translations are the standard version of Victor Huo-o's 
" Les Misdrables," " Notre Dame de Paris," " L'Homme 
qui Rit," and "Les Travailleurs de la Mer;" "The 
Meditations of a Parish Priest " (Pens^es), by Canon 
Joseph Roux; " Cuore," from the Italian of Edmonde 
de Amicis; novels from the Spanish of Armando 
Palacio-Valde's ; " Sonya Kovalevsky," from the Rus- 
sian, and others. In the year 1887, Miss Hapgood 
gratified a long-cherished desire to visit Russia. She 
was most cordially received there, and spent two years 
in studying that country and its people. In 1895, she 
published a volume of reminiscences of her visit 
entitled " Russian Rambles." She resides in New 
York, and is still engaged in literary pursuits, as a 


reviewer on the Post {Nation), translator from divers 
languages, contributor of original articles to the lead- 
ing magazines and journals, and the like ; unmarried. 
II. Asa Gustavus^, born in Boston, November 21, 1851 ; twin 
with Isabel; was graduated from Harvard University, 
class of 1872. He afterwards took a course in chem- 
istry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
in Boston, to complete his practical preparation for the 
paper manufacturing business, which he had chosen. 
He is still engaged in the paper trade. Residence, 
New York; unmarried. 
III. William Frank^, born in Jersey City, New Jersey, February 
II, 1854; earlier years spent in Worcester, Massachu- 
setts. Entered Phillips Exeter Academy in fall of 
1870, and graduated in 1873. Entered Harvard Col- 
lege same year, graduating in 1877, with degree of 
A.B.; he then entered the Harvard Law School, 
and graduated in 1880 with degree of LL.B. Went 
to New York, and entered law office of Geo. Gifford ; 
also attended Columbia College Law School, from 
which he received degree of LL.B., in 1881, and was 
admitted to the bar as attorney and counsellor. 
Since 1881 has been engaged in the practice of law, 
making a specialty of patent matters ; and, latterly, 
engaged in the newspaper business; unmarried. 


Thomas^ {Hiitchins^, Seth*, Thovias^, Thomas^, Shadrach}), 
born June 20, 1790; married, February 3, 1818, Betsey, 
daughter of Samuel Hopkins, of Petersham, born July 22, 
1790, who was the fifth generation in line from Stephen 
Hopkins, who came over in the "Mayflower," in 1620, and 
settled in Barnstable County, Cape Cod. Samuel's wife was 
Elizabeth Hastings, who was fourth in the line of descent 
from John Hastings, who came to Boston in 1640. Thomas 


died October lo, 1820, and she married, second, February 
19, 1829, William Gates, of Lunenburg, Vermont. 

I. Ann Hutchins', born January 18, 1819, in Petersham; 
married, in Boston, by Rev. Dr. Cyrus A. Bartol, 
March 9, 1S48, to General Roswell M. Richardson, 
born April 7, 1814, at Wells River, Vermont; went to 
Portland, Maine, 1856, where he resided, a successful 
wholesale grocer and lumber manufacturer; son of 
Samuel and Mehitable (Shurtleff) Richardson, of 
Compton, Canada East, and grandson of David Rich- 
ardson, who married Polly Dearborn, of Plymouth, 
New Hampshire, who was the sixth descendant, 
through Benjamin, from Godfrey Dearborn, who came 
from county of Devon, England, 1630, settling in 
Exeter, New Hampshire, 1639, with R^v. John Wheel- 
wright and others. 


1. James Page^ Richardson, born November 23, 1851, 

at Wells River, Vermont ; graduated from Har- 
vard, June, 1872. 

2. George Minard^ born May 19, 1855, at Wells 

River, Vermont; died at Portland, Maine, 
October 25, 1856. 

3. William Minard^ born December 10, 1858, at 



Seth^ {Hutchins^, Seth*, Thomas^, Thoiuas", Shadrach^), 
born June 10, 1805 ; died March 26, 1864, very suddenly, of 
heart disease, at Petersham; married, July 24, 1831, Lydia 
Seaver Wilson, of Petersham, born March 20, 1806. He 
was town clerk, 1843, a-^d for five years a representative to 
the General Court ; in 1853 a member of the Convention for 
amending the State Constitution ; for many years president 


of the Millers River Bank, of Athol, and a man of wealth 
and influence in the community. 

I. Sarah E.^ born April 13, 1832; died March 5, 1833. 
92 II. Charles Hutchins^, born March 6, 1836; married Fannie 

L. C. Powers. 
III. Emma Frances^ born August 5, 1840; resides with her 
mother : unmarried. 


Lyman^ {Solomoiv', SetJi", TJwmas^, Thomas', ShadracB), 
born October 29, 1799; married, November 10, 1822, Emma, 
daughter of Charles Church, of Westminster, Vermont, 
born June 4, 1801 ; resided at Bellow^s Falls, Vermont, a 
large, prosperous, and much respected farmer. He died 
March 4, 1881. 

I. Charles Church^, born July 11, 1824; married, November 
I, 1848, Jane, daughter of Charles Burt, of Rutland, 
Vermont, born July 11, 1822; she died October 3, 
1850, and he married, second, December 16, 1857, 
Jerusha L., daughter of Ira Wiley, of Saxton's River, 
Vermont, born May 3, 1828. He died November 16, 
1867, at Bellows Falls, an extensive and well-to-do 
farmer. His widow and daughter find a pleasant 
home with the step-daughter, Emma K. Hapgood, in 
Bellows Falls, Vermont. 

I. Jane Burt^ born August 29, 1850 (by first wife); 
married, September 5, 1871, Charles Burt 
Hilliard, of Rutland. 


1. Minor Hapgood' Hilliard, born February 26, 


2. Emma Jane?, born June 4, 1885. 


II. Emma King^ (twin with Jane Burt), born August 
29, 1850. 
III. Fanny May^ born May 9, 1867 (by second wife). 


Seth^ {Solomon^, Seth*, Thomas^, Thomas'", Shadrach^), born 
October 21, 1803; married, February 18, 1829, Clarinda 
Harvey, of Chesterfield, New Hampshire, born January 15, 
1802; died August 27, 1878. He died July 26, 1881, at 
Bellows Falls, a prosperous farmer. 


I. Mary Priscilla^ born December 7, 1831, at Bellows Falls; 
died March 29, 1875; married, November 8, 1855, 
Solomon Guild, son of Solomon and Charlotte (Guild) 
Phipps, Jr., born July 22, 1813; died May 2, 1881, at 
Charlestown, Massachusetts. 


1. Charlotte Guild^ Phipps, born May 9, 1858, at 

Charlestown; married, October 26, 1882, at 
Boston, Alexander Davidson, of Albany, New 
York, born March 11, 1854. 

2. Mary EUa^ born December 12, 1859 ! married, June 

6, 1888, at Bellows Falls, Charles W. Shaw, of 
Bath, Me. ; resides in Newton, Massachusetts. 

II. Lucretia Ann^, born September 21, 1835; resides in Bel- 
lows Falls ; unmarried. 


Captain Charles^ {Solotnoji^, Seth^, Thomas^, Thomas'^ 
Shadrach^), born September 17, 1805 ; married, October 6, 
1834, Harriet, daughter of Isaac and Anna Langley Silsby, of 


Mendon, Massachusetts, where she was born December 8, 
1814; died February 25, 1880; her parents removed to 
Charlestown, New Hampshire, when she was an infant, and 
where she was married. He was educated in the public 
schools of Bellows Falls, and was a remarkably strong, 
healthy man, so much so as to draw from him the remark 
that " two dollars would cover the entire amount of doctors' 
bills for his life time ; " apprenticed to a paper maker at 
Bennington, Vermont, but his taste led him to abandon it for 
farming. His father, Solomon, came into possession of a 
large tract of land through his wife, Azubah Burt, which was 
at his death divided among his heirs. Charles cultivated and 
improved his share with great skill and good judgment. He 
was commissioned by Governor Ezra Butler, August 16, 1828, 
Lieutenant of Company Six, First Regiment, Vermont Militia, 
and on June 17, 1831, raised, by Governor Crafts, to a cap- 
taincy of the same company. In consideration of faithful 
service and good conduct, on the loth of September, 1833, he 
was honorably discharged. Advancing age induced him to 
dispose of his real estate, and after the death of his wife, he 
divided his time among his four daughters, dying at the 
residence of Mrs. E. M. Hawkins, Fall River, Massachusetts, 
August 23, 1895, his son Charles being with him to minister 
to his last wants, and his worn-out body reposes beside that 
of his beloved wife, at Bellows Falls, Vt. 


I. Anna Maria^ born November 13, 1835, at Charlestown, 
New Hampshire ; married, May 20, 1857, Benjamin H. 
Burt, of Rutland, Vermont, born December 29, 1830. 
He is a brother of Jane Burt, who married Charles 
Church Hapgood. Mr. Burt is a very active, intelli- 
gent, and successful dry-goods' merchant, in Rutland. 



1. Mary Gray^ Burt, born November 23, 1858; mar- 

ried, October 23, 1884, Edmund Royce Morse, 
of Rutland. Had one son, George^. 

2. Louis^ born November 6, 1861 ; resides in Rut- 

land; unmarried; a graduate from military 
school. Rocky Point, Vermont. 

3. Anna Langley^ born January 25, 1863; died 

January 12, 1866. 

4. John Henry Hopkins^ born June 6, 1868; gradu- 

ate from Rutland High School ; southern agent 
for Goodyear Rubber Company; unmarried. 

5. Benjamin Hapgood^ born June 27, 1875 ; gradu- 

ated from Rutland High School, highly gifted 
in musical talent; book-keeper in Merchants 
National Bank, Rutland. 
Charles Burt^ born July 2, 1837, at Charlestown, New 
Hampshire; married. May 9, 1889, at Durango, Colo- 
rado, Martha Bolton, daughter of William and Mary 
Ashton, of Portsmouth, Ohio, born November 6, 1866. 
Though feeble in health, a most estimable and lovely 
woman; died December 24, 1894, at Cleveland, Ohio. 
No children. Charles was educated in the schools of 
Bellows Falls, and his father wished him to remain on 
the homestead farm; but for this he had no ambition, 
preferring mercantile business. At the age of eighteen, 
he entered a grocery store in Roxbury, Massachusetts, 
and later removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he was 
employed in a large wholesale store. In 1862 he 
joined the regiment of " Queen City Defenders," a 
corps organized to check Kirby Smith's raid in 
Kentucky; he afterwards entered the naval service, as 
mate, in the Mississippi squadron, where he continued 
to the close of the war, and received an honorable 
discharge. After the war, he was for a time employed 
in New York City, and then went west, receiving the 
appointment of deputy treasurer of the rich county of 
La Plata, in southwestern Colorado. He then removed 
to Cleveland. After the death of his wife, Cleveland 
no longer seemed his home, and he again went West. 
After various fortunes he returned and found employ- 
ment with his brother-in-law, Oren Westcott, in the 
Blackstone Canal Bank, in Providence, Rhode Island. 


III. Margaref, born January 3, 1844, at Bellows Falls ; married, 

October 6, 1864, Edwin Montgomery Hawkins, of 
Fall River, Massachusetts, born December 23, 1840; 
for many years in company with his father, large and 
prosperous coal merchants. Retiring with a compe- 
tancy, but disliking idleness, he opened an insurance 
office, to which he gives his attention. 


1. Harriet Thurber^ Hawkins, born October 11, 1865 ; 

school teacher, Fall River; unmarried. 

2. Margaret Hapgood^ born July 28, 1867; married, 

February 3, 1891, Frederick Archer Gee, of 
Fall River, a gentleman of refined tastes and 
education ; a large real estate owner. 

1. John Archer? Gee, born October 25, 1894. 

3. Richard Mott^, born February 18, 1870, at Fall 

River; a cotton broker, with a fine baritone 
voice, much admired in church and public 
halls, as well as social circles. 

IV. Elizabeth Silsby', born August 12, 1846, at Bellows Falls; 

married, April 22, 1869, Henry Clay Hawkins, a 
brother to Edwin M. Hawkins ; he is doing an exten- 
sive grocery business in Fall River. 


1. Cornelius Silsby* Hawkins, born May 21, 1870; a 

graduate from Lehigh University, Pennsyl- 
vania; at present a book-keeper in Fall River 
Savings Bank; a young man of great promise 
and high moral worth. Both himself and sister 
Elizabeth have fine musical tastes, and with 
violoncello and piano, give great pleasure. 

2. Elizabeth Hapgood^ born October 15, 1871 ; was 

graduated from Vassar College, class 1894. 

3. Caroline^ born May 5, 1874. 

4. Henry Clay^ Jr., born April 16, 1878, with twin 

sister who died at birth. He is a student in 
the Fall River High School. 


c^- - y ■ /w7c//^^^^"^ 


V. Caroline Porter^, born July 17, 1851; married, December 
9, 1880, Oren Westcott, cashier Blackstone Canal 
National Bank, Providence, Rhode Island, born 
November 22, 1836, at Scituate, Rhode Island. 


1. Adah Dexter^ Westcott, born October 4, 1883. 

2. Charles Hapgood^ born August 4, 1885. 

3. Margaret^ born October 17, 1887. 

4. NathanieP, born March 21, 1889. 

5. Dexter Silsby^ born May 31, 1892; died April 8, 


VI. Harry^ born October 28, 1854, at Bellows Falls; married, 
December 4, 1883, Anne Frances Leonard, born July 
4, 1859, ^t Fall River. He graduated from the 
Bellows Falls high school; went into the wholesale 
grocery store of his brother-in-law, H. C. Hawkins, 
at Fall River; for several years traveling agent for 
the firm of Henry Callender & Company, wholesale 
grocers, Boston, then went into the same business 
at Bellows Falls, Vermont, under firm name of Hap- 
good & Aldrich, from which he retired and accepted 
a position as commercial agent for a house in Fall 
River. A sterling man, of genial disposition, and a 
good salesman. 

I. Harry^ born January 22, 1887, and the next day 
slept in the Lord. 
II. Leonard Silsby^ born March 26, 1888; died 
November 13, 1894. 
III. Constance^ born December 13, 1890. 


Reverend George Grout^ {Eber^, Seth*, TJiovias^, 
TJi07nas^, Shadrach^), born at Petersham, Massachusetts, 
February 17, 1804. 

"At the age of eighteen he was supposed to be in con- 
sumption ; at twenty-one he resolved to obtain a classical 
education, and became a member of Hadley and Amherst 


academies, teaching winters as he had done since he was 
eighteen years old. At the age of twenty-three he removed 
to the State of New York, that he might teach more 
months in a year, in order to meet his educational expenses. 
He taught in Cazenovia, where he united with the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, and in the autumn entered the Oneida 
Conference Seminary. In the winter of 1827-28, he taught 
at McGrawville, afterwards entered Union College, at 
Schenectady, then under the presidency of the distin- 
guished and venerable Doctor Nott. In the autumn of 
that year he engaged as a classical teacher in the Rensselaer 
High School, established at Cortland Village as a branch 
of the Rensselaer Institute, at Troy, New York. He con- 
tinued in the Rensselaer High School until the next spring, 
when he re-entered Union College, where he was graduated 
from, July, 1830; having met all his academic and collegiate 
expenses, save, perhaps, $50.00 for college tuition which he 
would not accept as a gift, but afterwards paid. 

"After graduation he studied law at Cortland Village in the 
ofifice of judges Stevens and Wood, until he was called to 
take charge of a high school at Truxton, where he continued 
three years ; meanwhile studying both law and medicine. 
In 1833 he entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church as a junior preacher on Bainbridge Circuit. After 
this he led a very active life as principal of Mexico Academy, 
and that of the Oneida Conference Seminary ; agent for the 
Wesleyan University ; preacher in charge of Rose Circuit, 
Jordan, Oswego, and Belleville. He was presiding elder 
of Syracuse District four years, during which, in 1852, he 
received from his Alma Mater the degree of D. D. In 
1855-56 he was presiding elder of Oswego District, when 
long-continued sickness in his family, resulting in the deaths 
of his eldest son and child and that of his wife, induced him 
to take a station at Fairfield, where the next year he was 
superannuated. After this he was stationed at Marcy, Delta, 
and Booneville." 


Many newspaper articles, sermons, lectures, and books, 
upon various subjects resulted from his able, learned, and 
accomplished pen, which the limited scope of this brief 
sketch forbids us to mention. From Booneville Doctor 
Hapgood removed to Martinsburg. The next year he was 
stationed at Madrid, and the next at Waddington, St. 
Lawrence County. From there he went to Jordan, where 
he installed his daughter as principal of the academy. He 
then accepted a call to Albert University, in Belleville, Canada, 
as Professor of Ancient Literature, which position he filled 
until 1874, when he joined his family in Syracuse, New York, 
and became Professor of Hebrew, in Syracuse University. 
January i, 1876, after finishing a critical reading of the Old 
Testament, in six different languages, he was taken ill, and, 
although tenderly cared for by his three daughters and one 
son, his life-work was finished. 

During his last illness, reclining in an easy-chair, and, 
with his attendant physician's hand upon his pulse, assisted 
by another minister, married the first one of his children, 
that had ever been given in marriage, April 27, 1876. 

May 4, at his earnest request, he was taken to the home 
of his son in Apulia, New York, where he died. He was 
taken to Mexico, New York, for interment, and, with his old 
board of academy trustees as bearers, he was laid to rest by 
the side of his much-loved wife. 

In 1868, while Professor of Ancient Literature in Albert 
University, he published a work on the " Origin of Lan- 
guage." He was an Honorary member of the Boston 
Historic-Genealogical Society, and ranked as one of New 
York State's best scholars. He married, October 28, 1830, 
Marcia, daughter of Samuel McGraw, Esq., of McGrawville, 


New York, born January 3, 181 1, every way a superior 
woman; died April 2, 1855, at Oswego, Madison County, 
New York. Rev. Dr. Hapgood died at Apulia, New York, 
May 17, 1876. 


I. George Washington^, born May 15, 1832, at Truxton ; 
died of consumption November 29, 1852, at the house 
of the Honorable P. H. McGraw, in McGrawville, 
from which place he was removed to the home of his 
parents, in Oswego, for interment. 
II. Charles^ born June 17, 1834, at McGrawville ; died August 
6, 1834, at Guilford, New York, where he was interred. 

III. Marcia Elizabeth^ born June 16, 1835, at Mexico, New 

York; died March i, 1857, at Fairfield, New York, 
and buried there. 

IV. Mary Frances'', born April 24, 1837, at Mexico; graduated 

from Oneida Conference Seminary the last of June, 
1861 ; died April 4, 1862, at Booneville. 
V. Charles^ born October 18, 1838, at Mexico; died October 

I7> 1839, at Cazenovia. 
VI. Harriet Ellen,^ born July 14, 1840, at Cazenovia; gradu- 
ated at the seminary there. Studied with her father; 
taught either as preceptress or principal in high 
schools or academies up to 1876. She married at 
Syracuse, New York, April 27, 1876, Madison Paul, 
son of James and Jane (Todd) Sawyer, born August 
6, 1846, at South Newbury, New Hampshire; resides 
in Brooklyn, New York; holding office under the 
United States government in customs department. 


1. George Hapgood^ Sawyer, born November 20, 

1879, at Nashua, New Hampshire. 

2. James Madison^ born February 13, 1883, at 


3. Kittie Clark^ born September 2, 1884, at Grafton, 

New Hampshire; died August 31, 1885. 

VII. Catherine Emma'', born June 10, 1843, ^t Apulia, New 
York ; taught eight years in Syracuse, and at the 
time of her marriage was an earnest, faithful teacher 
in Brooklyn, New York; married, August 29, 1895, at 




Brooklyn, Howell Negus Webster, a widower, with 
six children, born January 7, 1839; resides, a farmer, 
at Fabins, New York. No children. 
VIII. Emeline Angela^ born September 2, 1845, at Mexico; died 
September 26, same year, at Syracuse. 
IX. Charles Henry^ born February 8, 1847, at Butler, New 
York, and received his education in the different 
places in which his father resided, where he was 
always found at or near the head of his class. He 
also studied Greek with his father. At the age of 
seventeen, thinking his father financially unable to 
send him to college, he entered the dry-goods' store 
of Mr. Chapman, in Norwich, New York, receiving a 
promotion each year. In 1873, much to the regret of 
his employers, he resigned his position in Norwich, 
and opened a dry-goods' store in Syracuse, devoting 
his spare time to the study of law. In 1876, he pur- 
chased a store and removed to Apulia, where he car- 
ried on a successful business. His health failing, 
he sold out, but resumed the business in about a year. 
He died of apoplexy, January 8, 1895, lamented by all 
who knew him; a man of sterling worth and unques- 
tioned integrity ; a noble specimen of an upright, 
high-minded merchant; unmarried. 
X. Rosalette'', born September 25, 1850, at Belleville, New 
York; married, July 28, 1878, at Apulia, Frank 
Wheelock, engineer, born February 17, 1851, at 
Fabins. She died at Apulia, December i, 1878; a 
good scholar, teacher, and musician, with a sweet 
disposition and lovely character. 


Charles^ {Eber^, Seth^, TJionias^, Thomas^, ShadracJi"), 
born October 11, 1807. A merchant in Calais, Maine. Mar- 
ried, May 9, 1839, at Waterford, Vermont, Rebecca, daughter 
of Lyman and Rebecca (Charlton) Hibbard, born September 
22, 1816, at Littleton, New Hampshire; died November 4, 
1859, at Boston. His business increased and he became a 


large ship owner and lumber dealer ; later on he removed to 
Bath, Maine, New York City, Morrisania, New York, and 
about 1857, to Leavenworth, Kansas, where he remained for 
several years, then went to Hot Springs and Sterling, and 
finally to Red Bluff, where he died August 25, 1886. He 
took none of his family with him (except George), when he 
went to Kansas, and after the death of his wife, he married, 
second, September 19, 1863, at Leavenworth, Mrs. Streeter, 
from Massachusetts, who survives him without issue. 

CHILDREN, by first wife. 
I. George Grout', born May 20, 1S40, at Calais, Maine ; went 
to Boston and worked for Ballou & Hibbard, prod- 
uce dealers ; was taken down with small-pox which 
had broken out in the city, and his mother and others 
died of the disease. George recovered and in 1861 he 
removed to Oil City, Pennsylvania. Later on he went 
to Colorado and was for a while with his father at Red 
Bluff. His roving disposition took him to Butte City, 
Montana, 1861, and we have been unable to trace him 

IL William Charlton', born December 14, 1841 ; died August 
29, 1844, at Calais. 

in. Charles Francis', born November 27, 1845 ; died April 21, 
1852, at Morrisania. 

IV. Mary Elizabeth', born November 3, 1848, at Calais. 
After the death of her mother, she resided mostly 
with her maternal relatives in Boston and elsewhere ; 
went to Nova Scotia; married, December 29, 1874, 
Charles Wentworth Upham Hewson, M. D., born 
February 28, 1844, at Jolicum, Westmoreland County, 
New Brunswick, who was graduated from the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, with degree of M. D., 1872, 
settled at River Hebert, Nova Scotia, had a successful 
practice for eleven years, then entered the University 
of Edinborough, Scotland, obtained the degree of 
L. R. C. P., went to London, visited hospitals, attended 
a course of lectures, and returned in 1884, settled in 
Amherst, Nova Scotia, where he now resides, emi- 
nent in his profession. 


Bertha Eliza^ Hewson, born November 5, 1875, ^.t 

River Hebert; died April 29, 1876. 
Florence Rebecca^ born February 21, 1879. 
Elizabeth Chandler^ born October 7, 1880; died 

Octobers, 1881. 
Charles Ellery^ born April 3, 1887, at Amherst; 

died April 12, 1888. And this terminates the 

male line of descent from Eber^ 


John Weeks^ {Oliver^, SetJi^, Thomas^, Thomas"', ShadracJt}), 
born June 3, 181 1, at Sheldon, Vermont; married, at Shore- 
ham, Vermont, February 11, 1832, Rebecca Hemingway, born 
February 25, 181 1; died at Burlington, Illinois, June 18, 

1848. He married, second, at Chicago, Illinois, May 14, 

1849, Almira S. Baird, born in Sheldon, Vermont ; died 
at Burlington, December 3, 1853, and he married, third, 
at Chicago, November 21, 1854, Mary Ann Wells, of Shel- 
don, Vermont, who died at Burlington, April 12, 1862, 
and he married, fourth, at Humansville, Missouri, June i, 
1869, Mary E. Zeigler, born at Indianapolis, Indiana, May i, 
1845. She died at Humansville, February 22, 1882, and he 
October 31, 1893; a farmer. 

I. Sarah Sophia'', born May 23, 1833 (by first wife), at 
Sheldon ; married, February 16, i860, at Hicks Mills, 
Illinois, Jesse Ewing, of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania; re- 
sided at Burlington, Illinois; a farmer. He died at 
Hicks Mills, January 6, i860, and she August 9, 1861. 

1. Clara Ann^ Ewing, born November 12, i860, at 
Burlington; married, July 3, 1879, at Humans- 
ville, Webster Graham, born at Madison, 


Indiana, January 8, 1859; resides in Vista, St. 
Clair County, Missouri ; a farmer. 

2. Mortimer Levi^ born February 18, 1862, in Bur- 

lington ; resides in Big Sandy, Oregon ; a 
farmer; unmarried. 

3. Flora Eugenie^ born October 6, 1865; resides in 

Denver, Colorado; a milliner; unmarried. 

4. Jessie Alice^ born April 9, 1867; married, at 

Denver, February 22, 1890, Charles Watkins, 
from North Carolina ; a book-keeper. 

II. Levi Mortimer'', born October 31, 1835, at Sheldon; resides 
in Burlington, Illinois; a farmer; unmarried. 

93 III. Eugene Delarimore^ born December 5, 1838; married, 

September 4, 1869, Elizabeth Broad. 
IV. Josephine Alwilda'', born January 4, 1S42 ; married, Decem- 
ber 20, 1868, at Humansville, William Allen George, 
born at Moxville, Tennessee; resides in Humans- 
ville ; a farmer. 


1. Hannah Viola^ George, born May 15, 1870; mar- 

ried, December 6, 1888, at Sprague, Washing- 
ton, William Stacy, born January 11, 1866. 

2. Eugene Charles^ born March 20, 1872; resides in 

Vista, Missouri; a farmer; unmarried. 

3. Alona Weeks^ born February 21, 1874; married, 

February 12, 18S9, at Wheatland, Missouri, 
Luke Fitzhue, from Tennessee ; a farmer. 

4. Mary Idella^ born June 7, 1878; married, June 10, 

1892, at Wheatland, James Larose, from Ten- 
nessee ; resides in Areola, Kansas ; a farmer. 

5. Nellie Adelaide^ born March 25, 1882; resides in 


94 V. Julien Weeks'', born at Burlington, December 26, 1844; 

married, December 20, 1868, Mary Catharine Kirk- 
VI. Samuel Clifton'', born June 6, 1848, at Burlington; married. 
May 20, 1872, at Springfield, Missouri, Ellen Jane 
Zeigler, of Indianapolis, Indiana; resided in Spring- 
field; a farmer; died August 3, 1879. 


I. Orville Weeks^ born July i8, 1874, at Vinita, 
Indian Territory ; resides in Springfield, Mis- 
soui ; a blacksmith. 

VII. Ella Vilmina^ born February 22, 1871 (by fourth wife), 
at Humansville ; married, March 25, 1887, Calvin W. 
Jennings, of Illinois ; resides in Springfield, Missouri ;. 

Children, all born in Springfield. 

1. Archie Eugene* Jennings, born March 5, 1889. 

2. Orville Elmore^ born November 26, 1892. 

3. Elijah Warren^ born September 12, 1894. 

4. George Alvis^ born March 17, 1896. 


Captain Joab* {Elijah^, Joab^, Thomas'^, Thomas^, Shad- 
rac/i^), born September 6, 1804; was early apprenticed to 
Captain Silas Allen, of Shrewsbury, gunsmith. In 1834 he 
commenced business for himself, erected his shop and 
house one-fourth of a mile southwest from the meeting- 
house, on the street leading out of Shrewsbury to Worcester, 
and there carried on extensively the manufacture of fire-arms, 
of a superior quality. In 1847 he commenced business in 
Boston as an importer, manufacturer, and general dealer in 
guns, ammunition, and sporting apparatus, in which business 
at numbers 15 and 30 Washington street, he continued, till 
1864, when he retired from a busy life to his quiet home in 
Shrewsbury. While engaged in active business, he found 
time to devote to arboriculture, and to the improvement and 
beautifying of his acres in Shrewsbury, and to his taste will 
the village and traveling public be long indebted for the 


extended row of rock maples reaching past his neat home- 
stead. He long held a prominent position among his 
fellow-citizens ; captain of a rifle company, whose discipline 
he advanced to a high state ; was early a true and marked 
friend to temperance, and when the political excitement 
raged against the fifteen-gallon liquor law, and its supporters, 
he was twice elected town clerk as a temperance man, and 
subsequently served as assessor and chairman of the board 
of selectmen. He married, June i, 1828, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Ephron and Zepach (Maynard) Eager, born 
March 20, 1802, in Northboro', and died January 10, 1875. 
He died June 14, 1890. 

I. Abigail Marion^ born August 27, 1829 ; married, May 26, 
1853, Samuel Denny, son of Thomas Walter and 
Harriet Plimpton (Grosvenor) Ward, of revolutionary 
fame, born in Pomfret, Connecticut, April 3, 1826; 
resides in Shrewsbury. 


1. Ella Hapgood^ Ward, born March 9, 1854. 

2. Florence Grosvenor^ born March 6, 1856. 

3. Clara Denny®, born December 3, 1857, in Shrews- 

bury, where she was for some years librarian in 
the public library ; now holding a good position 
in the Public Library, in New York City. 

95 II. Charles Edward^ born in Shrewsbury, December II, 1830 ; 

married, October 18, 1854, Mary Elizabeth Miles. 

III. Susan Maria', born October 24, 1833; died April 30, 1836. 

IV. Lucy Elizabeth^ born July 22, 1835 ; resides on the home- 

stead in Shrewsbury ; unmarried. 
V. Walter Joab^ born June 25, 1839, received his education in 
the public schools of Shrewsbury, entered the Central 
• Bank of Worcester 1854, as a boy, served through all 
the grades up to assistant cashier; died February 9, 
1884, beloved and respected for strict integrity, cour- 
tesy and constant attention to business. He married, 
December 4, 1867, at Brookline, Massachusetts, Sarah, 


daughter of Joseph Tilden, and Mary (Baker) Turner, 
born in Worcester, May 7, 1844. 


I. Walter Eager^ born February 18, 1874; resides in 
Worcester; journalist. 
II. Roswell Turner^, born September 28, 1877. 

VI. Mary Susan^ born July 15, 1841 ; married. May 16, 1865, 
Charles Otis, born May 18, 1841, son of Charles Otis 
and Caroline (Knowlton) Green, of Shrewsbury. 


1. Mary Elizabeth' Green, born July 8, 1870 ; married, 

November 10, 1896, Henry Carlton, son of Fred- 
eric E. and H. A. (Munroe) Abbott; resides in 
Somerville, Massachusetts. 

2. Charles Otis^ born May 22, 1873; died August 15, 


3. George^ born May 22, 1876; died August 11, 1876. 

4. Nettie Lucie', born June 5, 1880. 


Captain Lemuel Bemis^ {Elijah,^ Joab^, Thotnas^, 
Thomas^, Shadrach^), born October 12, 1805 ; settled upon 
the homestead farm about two miles nearly southwest from 
the old meeting-house, in Shrewsbury, where he resided up 
to the time of his death, February 22, 1882, an extensive, 
enterprising, and prosperous farmer, and prominent member 
of the Worcester County Agricultural Society. He repeat- 
edly received stock and dairy premiums from the county and 
state agricultural societies, served many years as chairman 
of the board of selectmen and overseers of the poor, and 
was a highly-esteemed citizen. He married, April 29, 1835, 
Amazonia, daughter of George and Lucy (Blake) Flagg, of 


Holden, Massachusetts, born August 22, 1810; died January 
23, 1897. 

I. Martha Amanda^ born May 22, 1836, in Shrewsbury; 
married, January 30, 1861, Joseph Edmund, son of 
Jonathan and Betsey (Temple) Reed, born at Shrews- 
bury, August II, 1832; where he died, December 8, 
1874, and she November 20, 1887. He went to Cali- 
fornia in 1850, returned, 1853, and became a partner 
in the dry-goods' house of J. H. Clark & Co., in Worces- 
ter, Massachusetts. 


1. George^ Reed, born January 24, 1862, in Shrews- 

bury ; resides a clerk in Worcester ; unmarried. 

2. William^ born in Worcester, October 7, 1863 ; 

married, June 18, 1890, Susan Maria, daughter 
of Austin and Elizabeth (Norcross) Maynard, 
born in Shrewsbury, September 3, 1866; resides 
in Worcester ; commercial agent. 

3. Joseph Edmund^ born September 5, 1868 ; resides 

in Worcester; in express business; unmarried. 

4. Hapgood^ born May 5, 1874; resides in Worces- 

ter ; a salesman ; unmarried. 

II. George Elijah^, born January 27, 1838 ; resides in Shrews- 
bury, on the homestead of his father; is a shrewd, 
intelligent man ; speculates in land and stocks ; 
III. Lemuel Bemis^, born October 3, 1845 ; married, November 
6, 1888, at Pawtucket, Rhode Island, Elsie Anna, 
daughter of Levi Prentice and Jane (Taylor) Martin, 
born October 25, 1852 ; resides in Shrewsbury ; carries 
on the homestead farm, and is a quiet, industrious, 
practical farmer. No children. 


Nahum Roland® {ElijaJt', Joab\ Thomas^, Thomas'^, Shad- 
rach)), born March 6, 1809; apprenticed to Artemas D. 
Blake, a contractor, carpenter, and builder in Shrewsbury ; 


married, in Sutton, Massachusetts, April 30, 1833, Emily, 
daughter of Caleb Chase and widow of Nathan Garfield, of 
Sutton, in which town he commenced business ; then re- 
moved to Norwich, Connecticut, and afterwards to Worces- 
ter, where he carried on an extensive business, and many 
of the first-class houses there attest to his eminent skill as 
architect and builder. His wife died in Worcester, October 
I, 1871, and he April 12, 1895. 

I. Charlotte Jeanette^ born February 5, 1834, at Sutton; 
married, at Lodi, Wisconsin, September 25, 1865, 
Samuel Virgil Stone, born May 27, 1818, at Eden, 
Vermont, son of Samuel and Hannah (Davenport) 
Stone ; no settled residence or occupation. He died 
in Worcester, February 25, 1875. 

1. Walter SamueP Stone, born October i, 1866, in 
Worcester, and died there December i, 1866. 

96 II. Henry Roland', born August 23, 1836, at Sutton; married, 

April 2, 1857, Martha Maria Collester. 

III. Ellen Augusta'', born January 17, 1838; died September 

10, 1839. 

IV. Frances Marion^ born September 18, 1839; married, in 

Worcester, December 22, 1859, John Edwin, son of 
Buzalda and Catharine (Dow) Butler, born at Sutton, 
October 26, 1837. She died July 26, 1869, in 


1. Frederick Edwin^ Butler, born at Dracut, Massa- 

chusetts, June 13, 1862; married, at Lynn, 
October 22, 18S1, Mary Ann Dolan, born in 
Acton, Ontario, Canada, March 8, 1862; a 
machinist, in Worcester. 

2. Harry Everett^ born March 6, 1864, at Waltham ; 

resides in Boston; a shipper. 

3. Harriet Angeline^ born December 26, 1865, at 

Worcester; resides in Watertown; a dress- 
maker; unmarried. 


4. Albert HenryS born September 28, 1867; died at 

Worcester, August 3, 1868. 

5. Alice Marion^ born September 28, 1867; twin 

with Albert Henry; died August 10, 1868. 

V. Ellen Malinda^, born November 19, 1840, at Sutton; mar- 
ried, June 2, 1870, at Worcester, Thomas Merrill, son 
of Leonard and Jane (McNeal) Flagg, born in Shrews- 
bury, May 19, 1843. He died at Worcester, Novem- 
ber 19, 1875, and she May i, 1891. No children. 
VI. Vashtic Eunice', born June 29, 1844, at Norwich, Connec- 
ticut ; highly educated ; taught school in Worcester, 
Newton, and Somerville. Was employed in the Super- 
intendent of Schools office in the latter city up to the 
time of her marriage to John F. Ayer, October 14, 
1897; resides in Somerville. 
VII. Emma Lavina^ born January i, 1849, at Worcester; mar- 
ried there, March 31, 1873, Horace William, son of 
Theodore and Eliza (Knowlton) Barton, born October 
22, 1844, in Millbury, Mass; resides in Somerville. 


1. Florence Eliza^ Barton, born June 17, 1874; re- 
sides in Somerville; a clerk. 

VIII. Alice Louise', born May 20, 1855, in Worcester; died 
there August 18, 1855. 


Lorenzo Elijah^ {Elijah^, Joab\ Thomas^, Thomas^, 
Shadrach)), born November 9, 1815 ; apprenticed to his 
brother Nahum, to learn a carpenter's trade ; settled in 
Williston, Vermont, where he married Sarah Hodges. He was 
a dealer in horses; removed about 1850 to Columbus, Ohio, 
and next to Cincinnati ; purchased extensive stables and car- 
ried on a large traffic in equines. He went to New Orleans to 
superintend the sale of a cargo of horses, where he was taken 


sick and died, March 13, 1867. His widow died February 

10, 1885. 


I. Charlotte Abbotf, born May 22, 1841, at Williston; 
removed to Champaign, Illinois. 
II. George Hodges^born May 26, 1845, at Williston; married, 
November 13, 1873, Eliza Mary Campbell, of Cham- 
paign ; resides in Topeka, Kansas; a veterinary 


I. Helen Meda^ born August 8, 1874. 
II. Minnie Elsie^ born February 4, 1876. 


Reuben Leander** {Elijah^, Joab^, Thomas^, Thomas'^, 
Skadrach^), born July 10, 1817 ; learned the tanning and 
currying business ; married, September 19, 1841, Lucy, 
daughter of Lot and Eliza (Baker) Forbush, born at West- 
boro' March 11, 1817. Settled in Worcester, and later left 
his trade and joined Lucius Knowles in the manufacture of 
spool cotton and cotton fabrics, in Worcester, and Ballston, 
New York. Later on he went into contracting and building 
with his brother Nahum R., in Worcester. When the War 
of Rebellion broke out and endangered the perpetuity of 
our government, this interest rose above all others in his 
mind, and he laid down his carpenter's tools and took up 
those of war; enlisted September 25, 1862, in Company A, 
Fifty-first Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, 
nine-months' men, served his term, mustered out July 2y, 
1863 ; returned to Worcester, took up his tools, and resumed 
the business of contractor and builder. About 1883 he went 
to Florida and established a factory for making orange and 


other fruit boxes. He died in Florida, November ii, 1894, 
and his wife died in Shrewsbury, July 20, 1879. ^^ "^^s 
admitted a charter member of the Worcester Lodge, No. 56, 
I. O. O. F., September 28, 1870, and passed the chair of 
Noble Grand and became Past Grand, January i, 1879. 


I. Frank Leander^, born in Worcester, August 4, 1846; 
enlisted with his father, September 25, 1862, in same 
company and regiment, nine-months' call, and died in 
Baltimore, on his way home, July 13, 1863. 


Ephraim Augustin^ {Elijah^, Joab*, Thomas^, Thomas^, 
Shadrach}), born November 3, 1823, at Shrewsbury, Massa- 
chusetts ; married, November 5, 1845, Nancy Durgen, 
daughter of George and Mary (Garland) Holmes, of Shrews- 
bury, born May 20, 1822. Purchased the Nelson place in 
the southeast part of Shrewsbury, where he resided a quiet, 
intelligent farmer up to about 1869, when he sold his farm 
and removed to Worcester, where he died March 16, 1874. 
His widow died in Charlton, Massachusetts, November 
25, 1885. 


97 L Horace Abbott^ born August 9, 1846, at Shrewsbury; 

married, January i, 1868, Alice Amelia Williams. 
II. Ephraim Augustin^ Jr., born April 30, 1838; married, 
January 24, 1873, Viola, daughter of Alexander Hamil- 
ton and Lydia (Wheelock) Steele, born January 7, 
1849, in North Brookfield, Massachusetts ; resides in 
Worcester; a salesman in the store of Learnard & 

I. Ernest Augustin Tillison^born February 21, 1885. 


III. Alvin Almond born October 4, 1850, in Spencer, Massa- 
chusetts; married, March 7, 1872, Mary Ann, daughter 
of Joseph and Emeline Buxton, born in Worcester, 
March 11, 1846; resides in Spencer; a superintendent 
in a boot and shoe factory. 


I. Arthur William*, born in Worcester, March 26, 
1875; resides in Spencer; a machine operator 
in a shoe factory. 

IV. Charles Albert^ born February 10, 1852, in Shrewsbury; 
married, first, May, 1875, Harriet Twist, of Worces- 
ter, who died September, 1879, ^^'^ ^e married, 
second, in Worcester, July 10, 1881, Josephine, 
daughter of Moses and Sally (Hanson) Woodsum, 
born September 6, 1843, in Saco, Maine. He went to 
Worcester in 1867; learned the boot and shoe trade 
with the Bay State Shoe & Leather Company; 1879, 
became superintendent of one of the largest boot and 
shoe factories in Worcester; at present employed as a 
leather chemist of high repute. He is a prominent 
member of the Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, 
Ladies of Honor, and other kindred orders. Lives in 
his own fine house corner Hudson and Blossom 
streets, Worcester. No children. 
V. William Lorenzo^ born August 29, 1854; resides in 
Worcester ; a teamster. 

VI. Caroline', born March 12, 1858; married, April 22, 1874, at 
Worcester, Henry Lorenzo Wheelock, born in Brook- 
field, July 14, 1850, son of Lorenzo and Mary (King) 
Wheelock ; resides in East Brookfield. No children. 


George Dana^ (/o/m^, /o/m\ /o/iu^, Thomas"-, ShadracW), 
born December 3, 181 1, at Winchendon. Learned the tan- 
ner's trade; removed, 1840, to Rindge, New Hampshire. 
Married, September 9, 1841, Catharine Wight, daughter of 


Charles and Mehitable Mixer, of Dedham, Massachusetts, 
born September ii, 1819. Carried on the tanning business 
extensively till 1857, when he was burned out; was a lead- 
ing man in Rindge, and held office of selectman 1850-51-52 
and 1857, and other positions of honor and trust. April, 
1859, ^^ removed to Chester, Massachusetts, and continued 
the tanning business up to the time of his death April 13, 


I, George Henry^, born April 20, 1842, at Rindge; married, 
November 2, 1864, Marietta, daughter of Elbridge 
and Lucy Wilcox, of Chester, born September 12, 
1843; resides in Chester; a tanner and insurance 


L Edwin Otis^ born at Chester, June 16, 1867 ; gradu- 
ated from Springfield High School, Class of 
1886, and from Albany, New York College of 
Pharmacy, Class of 1890 ; married, at Springfield, 
Massachusetts, June 10, 1896, Cornelia Frances, 
daughter of Dallas M. and Elizabeth Pease, 
born at Longmeadow, Massachusetts, Septem- 
ber 9, 1873 ; resides in Springfield ; a pharmacist. 
IL Ernest Wilcox*, born October i, 1877; died 
February 11, 1878. 

II. Anna Elizabeth', born June 24, 1844; married, November 
7, 1866, at Chester, William P., son of Daniel and 
Eleata Alderman, born January 3, 1836, at Middlefield ; 
resides in West Springfield. 

III. Emma Jane', born February 21, 1846, at Rindge; died 

February 17, 1890, at Chester. 

IV. Charles Mixer', born September i, 1849; died October 23, 

1849, at Rindge. 
V. Charles Dana', born March 23, 1852; died February 28, 

VI. Charles Nelson', born January 22, i860; died February 26, 



Charles Whitman*' {Benjamin^, John*, JoJm^, Thomas'', 
ShadrachS), born December 30, 1806; married, first, 1837, 
Mrs. Mary Hunter, born August 12, 1803, at Stow, 
daughter of Judah and Catharine (Whitman) Wetherbee ; 
and second, he married, November 6, 1855, at Boston, 
Elizabeth Haley, born 1817, in Ireland. After his first 
marriage he removed to Brattleboro', Vermont, where he 
became a large farmer ; returning to Boston, he was for 
some years engaged in the stable business, but subse- 
quently removed to Hingham, Massachusetts, and worked 
for E. T. Bouve. After this he was employed by N. Ripley, 
of the Rockland House, Nantasket, and placed in charge of 
the barges and boat passengers, and was a quiet, obliging, 
reliable man, much respected ; died at Nantasket, February 
13, 1879- 

I. John', born February 6, 1840 (by first wife), in Boston; 
married, 1864, Mary E. Howe, of Westboro', and 
died in New York, 1893. No children. 


Moses® {David^, Jonathan^, John^, Thomas^, Shadrach^), 
born December 12, 1807; married, April 9, 1831, at Harvard, 
Massachusetts, Sally Wetherbee, born in Fitchburg, June 2, 
1807. Moses was a farmer, of considerable force of character, 
in Marlboro', where he settled, and where all his children 
were born ; and by the aid of his most excellent and prudent 
wife, who died August 18, 1896, at the advanced age of 
eighty-nine, he was quite successful and prominent in his 
vocation. He died May 26, 1877. 


I. William^, born December 3, 1832; married, October 30, 
1855, Mary Ann, daughter of William Barclay, born 
1831, at Danbury, New Hampshire; resides in 
Hopkinton, Massachusetts ; a farmer. 

I. Everett Emerson^ born September 16, 1856; mar- 
ried, September 16, 1895, Fannie Clark Mowry, 
of HoUiston, Massachusetts, a teacher. He is 
a bright, intelligent man, with consumptive 
tendencies, and this condition of health has 
compelled him to seek employment in various 
places. North and South. He is an architect, 
contractor, and builder. He was graduated 
from the Boston Institute of Technology ; spent 
three years in New Orleans, Louisiana, as 
teacher in a school of architecture ; resides in 
Allston, Massachusetts. 
II. Henry Nelson*, born August 19, 1858 ; died August, 

III. Henrietta Melissa^ born April 28, i860; died Jan- 
uary 3, 1862. 

II. David^ born December 19, 1834; died January 22, 1835. 
III. Wilbur'', born October 29, 1838; married, April 21, 1869, 
at Rock Bottom, Maria Elizabeth, relict of his brother 
Cephas, who was lost in the War of the Rebellion ; 
resides in Milton Mills, New Hampshire ; a farmer. 

I. Elmer Irving^ born June 24, 1871, at Hudson; 
married, August 15, 1891, at South Royalton, 
Vermont, Mary Louisa, daughter of John and 
Adaline Woodward. 
II. Carrie May*, born October 10, 1881, at Milton 
Mills, New Hampshire. 

IV. Cephas Jonathan^ born February 10, 1840; married, 
March 26, 1862, at Rock Bottom (Stow), Maria Eliza- 
beth, daughter of George Parker and E. W. (Stickney) 
Mills, born September 27, 1840. He enlisted in the 
navy, in 1863, for one year, and again, in 1864, in the 
Fifth Pennsylvania Cavalry, and presumably gave his 


life to his country, as no tidings further of him were 

ever received. 


I. Wilbur Goulds born March 28, 1864, at Hudson; 
married, February 9, 1889, at Sebec, Maine, 
Annie May Brown, of Dedham, Massachusetts. 

I. Eugene Percival', born April 6, 1890; died 
June 5, 1890. 
II. Eva Lillian', born September 7, 1893 ; died 
October 11, 1893. 

V. Abigail Jemima^, born May 14, 1842; married. May 10, 
1883, James Henry Foss, of Haverhill, born March 5, 
1831, died November 12, 1885, in Hudson; and she 
married, second, February 5, 1887, Philip Eastman 
Millay, born October 12, 1825, in Whitefield, Maine; 
resides in Hudson, Massachusetts. 
VI. Susan Wetherbee', born September 23, 1844; married, 
June 17, 1863, Levi L. Felton, born at Marlboro', 
March i, 1841 ; was a soldier in the Civil War, mem- 
ber of unattached company Heavy Artillery, Massa- 
chusetts Volunteers; died January 30, 1875 5 she died 
October 21, 1875. 


1. Leon Leslie* Felton, born June 19, 1866, at 

Harvard ; died November 9, 1885, at Milton, of 

2. Freddie Elmer^ born November 2, 1868, at 

Hudson; died July 13, 1877. 

3. BertieS born January 11, 1871 ; died August, 1871. 

VII. Caroline Minerva', born October 2, 1848; died December 
7, 1878, at Hudson. 


RuFUS^ {David^, Jonathan*, John^, Thomas^, ShadracB)^ 
born May 31, 1813; married, 1842, in England, Maria 
Barnes, born July 9, 1828, at Liverpool; died February 


i6, 1868, at Somerville, Massachusetts, of consumption. 
Rufus was a sailor, and followed the sea for many years ; 
returned to Hudson; died October 11, 1885, at Middlefield, 
Massachusetts, from injuries received by a railroad accident. 


I. Reuben Henry^, born November 30, 1845; enlisted, 
February 27, 1864, in the Massachusetts Fourth 
Battery; died November 11, 1864, of chronic diarrhoea, 
at New Orleans, Louisiana. 
IL Rufus^ born , 1847; died in infancy. 

in. Mary', born , 1849; died in infancy. 

IV. William Wesley', born April 24, 1852; resides in Kansas 
City, Missouri; a carpenter; married, February 10, 
1878, at St. Louis, Missouri, Dora Meyer, born July 
13, 1848, at Hanover, Massachusetts. 


I. Winnifred^ born November 15, 1878, at Kansas 

V. Lydia Elizabeth', born October 8, 1854; died April 26, 

1890, at New York City; a teacher. 
VI. Alfred Fletcher' and a twin daughter, both died in infancy. 


Reuben® {David^, Jonathan'^, John^, Thomas^, Shadrach^), 
born May 31, 1813 ; married, September 10, 1835, Ruth 
Carter Moore, born October 26, 1818, in Bolton; died May 
16, 1873. He was for many years a shoe manufacturer, but 
later in life he turned his attention to farming. His gener- 
ous disposition brought him in touch with the poor, and 
he served several years on the board of overseers of the 
poor; died August 7, 1890. 



I. Mary Jane^, born June 17, 1836, at Bolton; married, May 
26, 1867, Jonas Taylor, son of Moses and Anna 
(Taylor) Houghton, born October 3, 1833, at Stow; 
now of Houghton & Company, Hudson and Boston 
Express. After graduating from the Westfield Normal 
School, taught for several years in the public schools, 
and as assistant in the high school at Marlboro' ; has 
served fifteen years on school committee, from 1880 to 
1896. They have a fine summer residence at Brant 
Rock, Massachusetts. No children. 
II. Rufus Henry', born August 17, 1838, at Marlboro'. In 
early life he worked in a cutting room in one of the 
large shoe shops in Hudson; appointed superintendent 
of cutting rooms of Bradley & Sayward's extensive 
factory; now engaged in farming. Public spirited, he 
served the town as assessor, and filled other offices of 
trust and responsibility; married, October 4, i860, at 
Rock Bottom, Armine Augusta, daughter of Eleazer O. 
and Abigail A. Howe, born March 7, 1842, at Acton, 

I. Eva Stella^ born May 30, 1862 (librarian of 
Hudson Public Library); married, January 5, 
1888, Sumner B. Robinson, of Hudson ; book- 
keeper in Boston. He built a house in Bel- 
mont, in 1896, where he resides. 

1. Guy Hapgood' Robinson, born February 2, 

11. Leon Reuben^ born September 29, 1867 ; resides in 
Westboro'; a jeweler; married, April 14, 1897, 
at Foxboro', Massachusetts, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of John and Mary Ann (Caton) Tarment, 
of Luton Beds, England, born June 3, 1876. 

III. Edmund Augustus', born October 17, 1854; died April 7, 


IV. Elvira Alice', born July 2, 1856 ; book-keeper and librarian 

at Hudson Public Library; died May 10, 1883. The 
Rev. Mr. Gibbs delivered a fitting eulogy upon the 


occasion, an extract from which, is copied from a local 
paper : " Her life was one of unselfish thought for 
others, of purity and goodness. Her gentle, lovable 
nature had no higher ambition than that of doing good. 
In the duties she was engaged in, she drew all classes 
towards her by a sweet disposition, invariable patience, 
and deep sympathy for all. In her duties she was 
indefatigable. Embodied in her character were the 
qualities of simplicity, integrity, patience, persever- 
ance, and a noble womanliness. Her influence for 
good was felt wherever she moved. Her brain, her 
pen, and her word have been felt in the industries 
of the town." 


George^ {David^, Joiiathan'^, John^, Thomas^, Skadrach^), 
born May 7, 1821 ; married, March 26, 1844, Harriet Ange- 
line, daughter of Nahum and Mary Warren, of Marlboro', 
born July 13, 18 18, at Hudson; died Februafy 17, 1888. 
He married, second, September 19, 1888, Mary Warfield, of 
Westboro', Massachusetts ; resided in Hudson, a shoe- 
maker, but died at Westboro', a farmer, February 11, 1890. 

I. Mary A.^, born August 13, 1845, at Westboro'; died 
August 14, 1845. 
II. Ella Autencia'', born May 4, 1847, at Westboro'; married, 
at Bolton, Arthur Wood. 

1. Clifford Leander^ Wood, born January 23, 1866. 
III. Lucy Emma^ born May 10, 1849, ^.t Bolton; died at 

Hudson, September 26, 1887; unmarried. 
IV. Myron Leander^, born April 26, 1851 ; died August 30, 

V. Mary Ednah^, born May 25, 1852, at Bolton; married, 
September 17, 1892, at Hudson. Charles Pope; she 
died, leaving no children. 


VI. Hattie Frances', born December 22, 1854, at Hudson; 
married, November 2, 1891, Elhanan Winchester 
Whitney, born at Lancaster, October 21, 1819, son of 
Simeon Howard and Nancy Whitney. No children- 
She was a teacher, and died April 3, 1896, at Harvard. 
VII. George M.^ born May 2, 1857, at Bolton; married, June 
22, 1878, Lizzie Greenleaf, of Hudson. 


I. Ernest Herbert^ born February 4, 1880, at 
Hudson; died in 1881. 
II. George Irving^ born September 18, 1881. 

VIII. Alfred Edmund', born October 11, i860; married, first 
January 21, 1882, Cora Mabel, daughter of John 
Marshall and Annie Whitcomb, of Stow, born De 
cember 10, i860. She died May 9, 1884, and he mar- 
ried, second, December 31, 1890, Mabel Hattie, 
daughter of Leonard and Hattie (Ward) Brewer, of 
Berlin, Massachusetts, born December 18, 1869 
resides in Hudson ; a shoemaker. 

I. Arthur Edmund^ born October 26, 1883. 


Gilbert^ {Francis^, Jonathan^, Jo/m^, Thomas"-, Shadrach^)^ 
born April 21, 1816; married, December 12, 1850, Hannah, 
daughter of Calvin and Roxana (Baily) Scripture, born 
Decembers, 1828, in Lewis County, New York; resided in 
Tivoli, Dubuque County, Iowa, where he died May 29, 1858 ; 
a farmer. She died January 10, 1895, at Farley, Iowa. 


98 I. Francis Calvin', born January 17, 1852, at Lamotte, Iowa; 

married, June 6, 1878, Annie Isabel Squiers. 



Jonathan^, {Francis^ , Jonathati^ , JoJui^ , Thomas^, Skadrach^), 
born January 7, 1823; married, first, September 12, 1843, 
Mary Ann Condy Warren, of Paxton, Massachusetts, born 
July 30, 1825 ; died May 3, 1863, and he married, second, 
May 4, 1865, Clarissa Merriam, born at Oxford, Massachu- 
setts, November 4, 1827 ; she died June 18, 1897, in Worces- 
ter, and he married, third, in Worcester, January 6, 1898, 
Mrs. Julia M. Rice, born in Manhasset, Long Island, 
August II, i860; her first husband died in Seattle about a 
year after their marriage. He is the proprietor of a hack- 
stand in Worcester. 

CHILDREN, by first marriage. 

99 I. Gilbert Warren^, born August 17, 1845, at Paxton, Massa- 

chusetts; married, March 7, 1871, Emily Tamzin 
II. Oilman Perry'', born September 5, 1847, at Paxton; mar- 
ried, January 10, 1871, Viola Naomi Putnam, of 
Worcester; resides in Kansas City, Missouri; s. p. 

III. Sewell Mirick'', born September 20, 1849; died November 

10, 1849. 

IV. Harriet Maria', born October 3, 1850, at Paxton; married, 

February 2, 1871, at Worcester, Albert Lemuel 
Houghton, of the same city; removed November, 1885, 
to Kansas City, where he now is engaged in an 
extensive lumber business. 


1. Alice Luella^ Houghton, born October 30, 1875, at 

Tama City, Iowa ; resides with her parents. 

2. Sadie Louise^ born March 16, 1878. 

3. Clarence Lemuel^ born November 30, 1881. 

4. Ina May^ born October 30, 1883. 

5. Harrison Albert^ born March 20, 1889. 

V. Mary Olive'', born April 22, 1854; married, October 3, 
187S, at Worcester, Doctor Clarence Howes, born 
March 24, 1848; resides in Hanover, Massachusetts. 



1. Frederick Hapgood^ Howes, born August 29, 

1879; died July, 1895. 

2. Caroline Bradford^ , born July 8, 1883. 

VI. Hattie Miranda^, born April 30, 1871, at Oakham; the 
twelfth child of SamueP, adopted by her uncle 
Jonathan, January, 1874, when less than three years 
old, and she became a member of his family as child 
number six. She married, October 30, 1894, at Worces- 
ter, Charles Goddard Borman, born June 22, 1864, 
at Phillipston, Massachusetts; resides in Worcester ; 
in the paper hanging business. 


Samuel^ {Francis^, JonatJian^, JoJm^, TJiomas^, Shadrach^), 
born December 21, 1827; married, August 29, 1853, Maria 
Elizabeth, daughter of Harvey and Marandy (Ware) Wood- 
ward, born September 19, 1833, at Paxton ; died June 3, 
1873, at Oakham ; resides in West Rutland, Massachusetts. 

I. Ellen Dorcas'', born May 4, 1854 ; died at Paxton, February 
27, 1855. 
II. Edson Harvey', born November 22, 1855; tormented by 
that insidious foe, the asthma; resides in Oakham; 
a farmer; unmarried. He adopted a little son of his 
sister Olive Sarah, as Herbert Henry^ Hapgood, born 
August 23, 1882, at Springfield, Massachusetts. 

III. Albert Francis', born March 6, 1857; resides in Oakham; 

a farmer; unmarried. 

IV. Lelia Ellen', born September 9, 1858; died September 11, 

V. Leon Morton', born May 2, 1861 ; resides in West Rutland ; 

VI. Fannie Woodward', born July 12, 1862, at Paxton ; married, 
January i, 1890, at Worcester, George Alvy Morton, 
born February 29, 1864; resides in New Germany, 
Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia. 



1. Ernest Lyle^ Morton, born May 20, 1893, at 

Spencer, Massachusetts. 

2. Raymond Ford^, born February 16, 1897, in New 


VII. Nellie Abbie^ born February 13, 1864, at Holden; died 
May 19, 1866. 
VIII. Olive Sarah7, born April 29, 1865, at Holden; married, 
April 23, 1884, at Worcester, William C. Crawford, 
born at Oakdale, June 16, 1849; divorced about 1887, 
and she married, second, February 5, 1896, at Hudson, 
Edwin Washburn Lawrence, born at Albany, Maine, 
June 26, i860; resides in Westbrook, Maine. 


1. Herbert^ Crawford, born August 23, 1882; adopted 

by her brother, Edson, taking the name of 
Herbert Henry Hapgood. 

2. Ida Lizzie^ born June 13, 1885. 

IX. Freddie Herberf, born June 20, 1868, at Oakham ; a farmer ; 

X. Alice Effie', born February 23, 1870; married, July 8, 
1889, at West Newton, Massachusetts, Conrad Karle, 
born on the ocean; resided in Worcester. Karle left 
his wife; and she married, second, 1897, Lyman Cobb, 
a widower, with five children ; resides in Holden. 

1. Effie^ Karle, born about 1891. 
XI. Agnes Estella'', born February 23, 1870; married, October 
21, 1891, Harry Edgar Dunn, at Chicago; resides in 
Pasadena, California. 


1. Marguerite Isis^ Dunn, born August 6, 1892. 

2. Mignonette Irene^, born January 16, 1895. 

XII. Hattie Miranda^ born April 30, 1871, at Oakham, adopted 
by her Uncle Jonathan, January, 1874. 
XIII. Ida Lizzie^, born April i, 1873, at Oakham; adopted April, 
1874, by Alfred Holden of Barre Plains, Massachu- 
setts ; and her name changed to Mabel Hapgood 
Holden. She married, January i, 1892, at Worcester, 
Roy Fessenden, of Barre Plains ; resides in Marlboro. 




1. Mary Irene^ Fessenden, born September 2, 1892, 

in Framingham. 

2. Bertha Louise^ born March 4, 1894, in Barre. 

3. A daughter^ born October 16, 1897. 


l-RK^ {Thomas^, Thomas*, Joseph^, Thomas', Shadrach^), horn 
January 17, 1805 ; married, March, 1829, Persis, daughter 
of Christopher B. Bigelow, of Berlin, born March 22, 1802; 
died February 27, 1892. He resided at Marlboro', a wheel- 
wright of some notoriety, and died January 28, 1868. 


100 I. Christopher Banister^, born January 31, 1830; married 

Persis Bigelow. 
II. Ira Dana'', born February 23, 1832; died Sept. 12, 1834. 

101 III. Levi^, born August 16, 1834; married Rebecca Haddock. 
IV. Amanda E.', born November 17, 1836; resides in Hudson; 

a dressmaker ; unmarried. 

102 V. Thomas Dana'', born April 7, 1839; married, September 

28, 1 861, Martha Candace Asletine. 
VI. Mary Witt', born May 28, 1841 ; married, April 25, 1862, 
John Cummings, born August 15, 1840, at Stow; 
educated in the public schools; worked in shoe shops 
till 1874, when he was called to a position in the West- 
boro' Reform School, where he now resides. 


1. Albert H.® Cummings, born April 6, 1862, in 

Marlboro'; died October 25, 1862. 

2. Arthur E.^ born December 24, 1863 ; died October 

15, 1864, in Marlboro'. 

3. Walter H.^ born October 20, 1870, at Westboro'; 

died July 11, 1872, at Hudson. 

4. Lena M.^ born May 17, 1880, at Hudson. 

103 VII. Lewis Ira^ born October 19, 1844; married, August 22, 

1865, Mary Green Wheeler. 
VIII. Sylvia^ born April 16, 1847; died February 26, 1865. 



GiLMAN^ {Thomas^, Thomas*, Joseph^, Thomas^, Shadrach^), 
born February i, 1809; married, January i, 1837, Susan 
Wright Ross, born January 10, 1809; died July 31, 1888. 
He was a man of business enterprise and energy. Early in 
life he purchased heavy teams and freighted to Boston 
market, farm products, which he bought and sold on his 
own account or on commission for the farmer. He also did 
the freighting for the Rock Bottom mills and merchants of 
the town. Prompt and faithful to every duty, liberal to the 
poor, full of fun and good humor, and so punctual on the 
road, that it became proverbial among the residents that 
when " Uncle Gilman " arrived, no clock was needed to 
determine the hour. He resided in Bolton, — now Hudson, 
— quite near the place of his nativity, all of his married life, 
and it was probably owing to his cheerful disposition that 
it was prolonged to eighty-two, and then only ended by that 
relentless foe, " La Grippe." He had prosecuted his business 
successfully, even after railroads were established, but finally 
he concluded that steam was too powerful a competitor, and 
the big teams were abandoned. He died at Hudson, 
December 25, 1891, honored and respected. 

I. Lucy Lavinia', born March 1 7, 1 838, at N orthboro' ; married, 
April I, i860, Henry L. Barnard, of Hudson, born 
October 7, 1838; tavern-keeper: died Augusts, 1895. 

1. John Henry^ Barnard, born September 26,1864; 
died February 5, 1865. 
IL Susan Rebecca^ born February 13, 1841, at Bolton; mar- 
ried, August 9, i860, Nestor Sanborn Fairbanks, born 
August 31, 1837; died September 11, 1890. Kept a 
grocery and provision store in Hudson. 



1. Charles Gilman^ Fairbanks, born January 20, 1861 ; 

married, first. May 10, 1883, Edith Isabella 
Billings, who died September 23, 1886; and he 
married, second, September 27, 1893, IdaEdwina 
Lampson ; resides in Hudson. No children. 

2. Alice Luette^ born November 12, 1865; died 

August 28, 1867. 

3. Annie Luette*, born November 25, 1870; married, 

September 20, 1893, Edward Franklin Worces- 
ter; resides in Hudson. 

4. Silas Bailey^ born January 4, 1875. 

5. Mary Sanborn^ born June 24, 1878 ; died June 20, 


6. Nestor Sawyer^ born September 22, 1881; died 

September 11, 1890. 

III. John Henry^, born January 12, 1846; lived with and worked 
for his father till the War of Rebellion broke out; and 
he enlisted in the Naval service on board the " Poto- 
mac," under Admiral Farragut. On his return from 
the service, he married, December 31, 1869, Mary 
Ann Long, of Boston, born July 31, 1849; ^^'^ settled 
on the homestead of his father, a prosperous farmer. 
No children. 

IV. Henrietta Sawyer'', born September 28, 1849; married, May 
27, 1869, Charles H. Hill, of Troy, New York, born 
November 4, 1844; resides in Hudson. Enlisted in 
the Eleventh New York Battery, attached to the Second 
Corps Army of the Potomac, is now an active member 
of the Grand Army of the Republic, a trial justice, 
Secretary of the Co-operative Bank, a large dealer in 
real estate in Hudson, and highly esteemed as an 
upright, intelligent citizen. 


1. Susan Martha^ Hill, born November 30, 1869. 

2. Alice Lee^ born August 13, 1871 ; died October 

24, 1874. 

3. Ruth Lee^, born February 12, 1890. 


V. Zipporah Emily 7, born January 23, 1852; married, December 
6, 1875, Luke Smith Brooks, of Maynard, born August 
12, 1850, where he is a successful fruit grower, but he 
is more interested in a large orange plantation, in Citra, 
Florida, where he resides the larger part of his time. 
Had one daughter, died at birth. 


William George^ {Thomas^, Thomas^, JosepJ^, Thomas^, 
Shadrach^), born December 2; 18 19; married, May 16, 1842, 
Caroline Brunswick Howe, born at Marlboro', April 30, 1825 ; 
died March 24, 1889; resides in Berlin ; a carpenter. 


I. Caroline Eldora'', born November 15, 1845; married, 
September 12, 1865, fohn Quincy Maynard; resides in 
Berlin ; a shoe manufacturer. 


1. Cora Gertrude^ Maynard, born August 9, 1867 ; 

died October 25, 1868. 

2. Willie^, born August 5, 1869; died young. 

3. Ernest AUston^ born April 21, 1872. 

IL Abbie Augusta^, born January 3, 1848; married, March i, 
1865, Nathaniel H. Cartwright, of Berlin; shoemaker. 


1. Cora Belle.^ Cartwright, born April 25, 1866; died 

September 6, 1866. 

2. Fred HartwelP, born March 13, 1867. 

3. Georgre Herbert^ born October 26, 1874. , _ . 

' Twins. 

4. Harry Elroy^ born October 26, 1874. 


III. Mary Rebecca^ born June 11, 1850; died August 11, 1858. 
IV. John Winslow^, born November 29, 1852; resides in 
Berlin ; a carpenter. 
V. Erving Ellsworth^, born March 21, 1865; married, Sep- 
tember 2, 1888, Lillian Viola Wilkins, of Marlboro'. 

t/^-^(^ ^Y^^J 




I. Caroline Irene^, born June 30, 1889; died Novem- 
ber 7, 1889. 
II. Bernice Adaline^ born February 22, 1892. 


Thomas Emerson*' {Thomas^, Thomas'^, Joseph^, Thomas"', 
Shadrach}), horn May 11, 1824, in Marlboro', Massachusetts; 
spent his early years there on a farm, and at the age of 
sixteen was apprenticed to learn the trade of shoe making. 
Poor boys of that period had very meagre opportunities for 
obtaining an education, the district school being the only 
means, and the winter months the only season the boys 
could find time to attend ; thus his chances for school in- 
struction were slight. A natural love of books and reading, 
therefore, was his only means of acquiring an education, and 
has resulted in the possession of a considerable and well- 
selected library. On June 25, 1850, he was married to 
Nancy Sophia Brigham, of Marlboro', where he made his 
home, being among the first to engage in the factory system 
of manufacturing boots and shoes by machinery. He 
established the firm of Hapgood & Phelps, and continued 
the same, doing quite an extensive business until 1862. In 
that year he moved to Providence, Rhode Island, being 
interested in employment of convicts, in the state prison 
in the manufacture of shoes. After remaining there 
four years, he removed to Sing Sing, New York, where he 
continued the business of manufacturing by the employment 
of convicts. He early became identified with the best 
movements looking to the public welfare of his adopted 


city, in the perfecting of a system of water works, also of 
gas and electric lighting ; he served as a member of the 
board of aldermen for six years, declining a further re-elec- 
tion ; has also been, for many years, a member of the board 
of education, and most of the time its chairman. Died 

February 6, 1897. 


I. Alice Sophia^ born April 29, 1851 ; married, October 8, 
1873, George Washington Kiff ; resides in Sing Sing. 


1. Howard Hapgood^ Kiff, born February 16, 1877; a 

student in Wesleyan University, Middletown, 

2. Dorothy Grace^ born June 19, 1892. 

II. Frank Emerson^, born April 29, 1856; died July 8, 1858. 
III. Fred Hastings'', born March 12, 1859 ; died March 30, 1859. 
104 IV. Ben Andrew', born June 12, i860; married, August 21, 
1888, Emma Elizabeth Layley, of New York. 
V. Annie Yerington'^, born July 22, 1863; married, February 
14, 1888, Hiram R. Reynolds; resides in Williams- 
port, Pennsylvania. 

1. Katharine Alice^ Reynolds, born August 10, 1894. 

106 VI. Edward Thomas^ born Decembers, 1866; married, Octo- 
ber 5, 1892, Elizabeth M. Smith. 
VII. William Henry'', born at Sing Sing, December 29, 1870; 
attended Holbrook's Military Academy, at Sing Sing, 
from 1 88 1 to 1890, and then entered Cornell Univer- 
sity at Ithaca, New York, with class of '94; now 
living at Sing Sing; unmarried. 


Joseph Jackson" {JosiaJv', Joseph^, Joseph^, Thomas^, Shad- 
rach}), born January 29, 1805. Removed from Marlboro' to 
Peru, Vermont, 1806, purchased lands, built a house using 


the lower part for a store. Married, November 28, 1832, 
Hepsibah, daughter of Benjamin and Hepsibah (Philbrick) 
Barnard, born December 21, 181 1. The wife tended the 
store, and he the farm, carrying on also an extensive lumber 
business. He prospered, built more houses, and for many 
years was the only merchant in the town, became a man of 
wealth and standing; he died in Peru, October 22, 1875. 
(History of Peru, 1877). His widow removed to Somerville, 
Massachusetts, where she still survives him. 


I. Charlotte Hepsibah'', born September 19, 1833, at Peru; 
resides in Somerville, with her mother; a music 
teacher; unmarried. 
II. Charles Jackson^ born November 2, 1836 ; died August 18, 

III. Marshall Manning^, born May 30, 1839 ; died April 25, 1842. 

106 IV. Luke Barnard^ born June 21, 1841 ; married, September 6, 

1864, Ellen Sarah Davis, of Peru. 

107 V. Charles Manning^, born March 3, 1845 ; married, January i, 

1 868, Olive Caroline Emery. 

108 VI. Marshall Jay'', born January 13, 1850; married. May 25, 

1874, Flora Edith Huggins. 

Luther Maynard^ {Joseph^, Joseph'^, Joseph^, Thomas^, 
Shadrach^), born June 6, 1813 ; married, October 29, 1835, 
Olive Wetherbee, daughter of Abner Houghton, of Hub- 
bardston, Massachusetts ; settled in Leominster, 1840, where 
he became a respected citizen and prosperous farmer. On 
the breaking out of the War of the Rebellion, 1861, at the 
age of forty-eight, he enlisted in the same regiment with his 
sons, was in the renowned Peninsular Campaign, broke 


down in health, and discharged for disability. His wife died 
June 20, 1883, and he married, second, February 25, 1884, 
Mrs. Mary Spaulding, of Sterling, where he died, August 
31, 1890. All the children were by first wife. 


109 I. Luther Sawyer', born July 26, 1836, at Sterling ; married, 

Anna M. Colvin. 
n. Joseph Henry', born July 15, 1839; married, February, 
1868, Mary Allen. He received a common school 
education, worked on a farm up to the commencement 
of the War of the Rebellion; enlisted July 12, 1861, 
in Company A, Fifteenth Regiment, Massachusetts 
Volunteers, for three years ; badly wounded in the hip 
at Balls Bluff, October 21, 1861, removed to hospital, 
and later returned home on furlough ; joined his regi- 
ment, March, 1862, taken sick and sent to Chesapeake 
Hospital, performed hospital duty till expiration of his 
term of service. He then enlisted in Company G, 
Fifth Regiment, Maryland Volunteers, November 22, 
1864, for one year; served to the end of the war and 
was honorably discharged September i, 1865. After 
the war he learned a carpenter's trade, and did such 
work as he was able to do with a troublesome wound. 
In 1871, he removed to Byron, Ogle County, Illinois, 
where he still pursued his trade. Again, in 1880, he 
removed to Bridgewater, McCook County, South 
Dakota, where he became a somewhat noted contractor 
and builder, and also an extensive furniture dealer ; s. p. 
III. Ann Maria', born November 21, 1841, at Leominster; 
married, February 12, 1869, Henry Lett. She died 
August 5, 1886, in New York City. 


1, Lillian J.^ Lett, born August 3, 1871, at Sterling; 

married Fred J. Hawkins, of Leominster. 
_ 2, Hattie 0.^ born April 15, 1874, at Stanhope, 

New Jersey; married Fred Whitney; resides 

in Leominster. 
3. Stephen H.*, born August 6, 1877, at Stanhope; 

resides in Leominster. 


4. Charlotte M.^born September lo, 1879, ^t Stan- 

hope; died August 6, 1881, at Hoboken. 

5. Mary P.^ born March 29, 1882, at Hoboken, New 

York; died June 6, 1886. 

IV. Charlotte Harrief, born August 18, 1843; married, Feb- 
ruary 28, 1872, in Leominster, Benjamin B. Hess. 


1. Ida S.^ Hess, born September 23, 1872; died 

January 19, 1875. 

2. Albert R.^ born March 25, 1877. 

3. Edith Fannie^ born October 21, 1882. 

V. Abner Cooledge^ born July 20, 1845; married, December 
25, 1874, Mary Cordelia Rounds, of Foster, Rhode 
Island, born July 11, 1836; resides in Leominster. 


I. John Herbert^ born in Lunenburg, September 20, 
1871 (adopted); occupies the old homestead; 
now works in Kingman's comb shop. 

VI. Sarah Jane^, born April 20, 1847; resides in Leominster; 

VII. Olive Ouinnum'', born August 7, 1849; unmarried. 
VIII. John Gilman'', born December 9, 1851 ; resided in Tehama, 
California; probably dead. 
IX. Eloise Herman^, born August 14, 1855; died October 14, 
X. Urania Arethusa^ born September 30, 1857 ; married, No- 
vember 27, 1895, at Red Bluff, California, Colonel 
Henry L. Stratton ; resides in Tehama. 
XI. Abbie Green^, born July 21, i860, at Oakdale ; married, 
May 4, 1881, at Leominster, William H. Boyden. 


1, Ada E.^ Boyden, born September 15, 1882. 

2, Grace O.*, born July 6, 1885. 

3. Waldo M.^ born January 7, 1887. 

4. Clara L.^ born November 8, 1893. 



John Oilman^ {Josep/r', Joseph'^, Joseph^, Thomas^, Shad- 
rach^), born July 6, 1822; married, April 5, 1850, at New 
Haven, Connecticut, Cynthia, daughter of Captain Isaac 
Hathaway, of Wilton, Maine, and shortly afterwards bought 
up a "claim" in Minnesota, in what is now East Minne- 
apolis, comprising a tract of forty acres. In the log-cabin 
on this farm the two elder children were born, but as soon 
as the profits from unremitting toil made it possible, a new 
house was built, and in it Everett, the youngest child, first 
saw the light. Indians frequented the locality, and many 
times alarmed the family. It was not, however, until the 
Sioux massacre of August, 1862, that Mr. and Mrs. Hapgood 
thought it best to leave Minnesota and return to the East. 
They departed in November, 1862, for Massachusetts, 
residing in West Boylston, Worcester, and Natick. Mr. 
Hapgood was an excellent machinist, and secured permanent 
employment in Boston, to which city the family removed in 
1866, where he pursued his vocation of machinist. The 
children were well educated, the family residence being at 



I. Abby Susannah^, born May 25, 1856, at Minneapolis, 
Minnesota. She early became a member of Trinity 
Methodist Episcopal Church in Charlestown, Massa- 
chusetts, and actively identified herself with progres- 
sive church work. She was a teacher in the Sunday 
School from the time she was eighteen years old until 
her marriage in 1894. She'was a class-leader of boys 
in the evening meetings, a member of the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union, also of the King's 
Daughters, and a life member of the Women's Home 
Missionary Society. After graduating from the 
Charlestown High and the Girl's Normal Schools, 
she taught in the public schools of Boston, meeting 


with unusual success in special classes of rough and 
unruly boys ; she had charge of that department in the 
Dudley School, and took pains to inquire into the 
home life of the boys, helping them there as well as in 
the schoolroom. In many cases she followed up the 
boys after they left school, and her wise counsel and 
substantial aid has kept them on the right road, when 
otherwise they must have stumbled. Married, Decem- 
ber 31, 1894, at Charlestown, Samuel Benjamin 
Nichols, of Boston, where he resides. She died 
February 18, 1898. 

1. Evelyn Cynthia Hapgood^ Nichols, born February 
II, 1898. 

110 II. Melvin Hathaway', born February 11, 1859, ^^ Minne- 
apolis; married, December 31, 1890, Mary Morgan 
III. Everett Ellsworth', born September 20, 1861, at Minne- 
apolis; died June 13, 1864, at Natick, Massachusetts. 


Lewis^ {Jonathaii'^ Joseph^, Joseph^, Thomas'^, ShadracJi}), 
born May 11, 1815 ; married, March 7, 1839, Almira Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Dana and Martha (Temple) Stow, of 
Southboro', born March 22, 1823. He removed from Prince- 
ton to Marlboro' about 1840, purchased a large tract of land 
in the northerly part of the town, now known as Fort 
Meadow Road, and, presumably, built the large house now 
occupied by his son and successor. He was killed by a mad 
bull, December 18, 1889. His wife died at Marlboro', Janu- 
ary 29, 1893. 

I. Lyman', born September 11, 1840, at the Fort Meadow 
Mansion, where he has ever resided, and carries on 
the farm in a quiet way ; unmarried. 


Ill II. Charles Warren'', born September 23, 1841 ; married, July 
28, 1868, Malvina A. Gleason. 

III. Henry Stow'', born October 6, 1842, at Marlboro'; married, 

September 23, 1869, Mrs. Harriet Matilda (Bowker) 
Webster, born January 11, 1839, at Sudbury. He 
lived on the farm with his father, a smart, enterpris- 
ing boy with limited education, till he was twenty-five 
years old; went to Marlboro', October, 1867, to learn 
the butcher's trade. He removed, 1870, to Concord, 
and was employed in the same business for eight years. 
Then he worked two years in the meat department of 
the great store of Tuttle, Jones & Wetherbee, at South 
Acton. Desiring a more quiet life, he bought a farm 
near the original settlement of Nathaniel Hapgood, 
in Stow, where he now resides, not only cultivating 
his acres with success, but is also an auctioneer of 
some notoriety. 

I. Charles Henry^, born August 6, 1S70, and resides 
with his parents on the farm ; unmarried. 
II. Frank Webster^ born June 6, 1874, at Concord, 
Massachusetts; received a public school edu- 
cation; clerk in a grocery store at Maynard, 
two years, about the same length of time with 
the C. Brigham Company, in milk business, 
Boston, and now for about two years in employ 
of the Providence Division, Old Colony Rail- 
road, as brakeman. 

IV. Caroline Marcella', born December 11, 1843; married, 

April II, 1865, James McAuslan, born at Glasgow, 
Scotland, April 24, 1839; came to this country when 
eight years old; educated at Lowell; resides in 


1. James Lewis^ McAuslan, born June 25, 1874; 

a student in the Harvard Medical School, in 

2. Margaret Almira^ born November 22, 1886. 

V. Lorenzo^ born June 26, 1847; died September 20, 1850. 
VI. Emeline Louisa'', born March 13, 1850; married, March 15, 
1874, Alvin Wheeler; resides in Marlboro'. 


1. Lyman Alvin^ Wheeler, born November i, 1878, 
Vir. Georgiana^ born August 28, 1852; died November 3, 1872. 
VIII. Omar^ born June 27, 1854; died November 3, 1872. 

IX. Fannie^ born October 31, 1857; married, June 8, 1892, 
Charles W. Smith. 

1. Caroline Louisa^ Smith, born May 21, 1S94. 

X. Byron Webber^ born July 21, i860; died November 27, 
XI. Sumner^, born April 4, 1864; died November 17, 1872. 


SiLAS^ {Jouathaif, Joseph^, Joseph^, Thomas^, Shadrach''), 
born March 2, 1819; married, November 25, 1841, Susan 
Lawrence, born at Boxboro', May, 1820, and died there, 
August 28, 1853. He died at Hudson, September 18, 1861. 

I. Harriet Elmira'', born December 15, 1842; died December 
2, 1861. 
II. Angenette Priest^, born December 21, 1844; died January 
18, 1862. 

III. Susan Adelaide^ born July 21, 1846; died July 4, 1897; 

resided in Hudson, unmarried. 

IV. William Henry'', born May i, 1853, at Marlboro'; died 

August 8, 1853. 


William Green^ {Isaac', Joseph^, Joseph^, Thomas'"", Shad- 
rack^), born January 18, 18 18, at Ashby ; married, April 2, 
1837, Harriet Newell, daughter of John Manning; a farmer. 
Removed, 1882, to West Townsend, where he now resides. 
I. Charles Julian'', born June 5, 1838, at Ashby; died Janu- 
ary 3, 1869; unmarried. 


II. George Albert^ born September 17, 1843 (twin with John 
E.); married, July 4, 1863, Hattie, daughter of True 
Robbins, of Mason, New Hampshire. 

I. Hattie Alice^ born November 2, 1879. 

III. John Elbridge^ born September 17, 1843 ? rnarried, July 4, 

1863, Mary Frances, daughter of Orlando Willard 
Badger, of Ashby ; resides in West Townsend. 


I. Cora Mabel^ (adopted), born June 30, 1874. 

IV. Rosanna Emogene', born October 29, 1848; married, Octo- 

ber 29, 1868, Sidney Robbins; resides in Townsend, 



Elbridge'' ( John^, David^, Asa^, Thomas^, Thomas^, 
Shadrach^), born in Reading, Vermont, June 8, 1812, received 
a mercantile education under his uncle, Bridgman Hapgood, 
Esquire, became station agent and depot master at Sullivan ; 
in 1853 received the appointment of mail agent for the road 
from Springfield, Massachusetts, to St. Johnsbury, Vermont, 
but soon returned to his former occupation. He married, 
August 24, 1842, Sarah Elizabeth Gilbert, of Montreal, born 
October 16, 1823. He died April 10, 1888, at Bellows Falls, 



I. Helen Elizabeths born July 20, 1843 ; died June i, 1875. 
II. Agnes Marion*, born June 7, 1845 ; died March i, 1863. 

III. Oscar Elbridge^, born June 5, 1847 ; resides in Bellows Falls ; 

clerk in Railroad Division ofifice ; unmarried. 

IV. George LorenzoS born March 16, 1849; baggage master at 

Fitchburg Railroad station, Bellows Falls ; unmarried. 


V. Frank Fay*, born April i, 1851, at Claremont, New Hamp- 
shire; married, December 26, 1876, Delia Weils Nay, of 
Peterboro, New Hampshire, born September 8, 1856; 
educated in the public schools of Bellows Falls ; 
entered a grocery store, 1868; clerk in the extensive 
wooden-ware factory of E. Murdock, Jr., Winchendon, 
1871 ; went into the clothing business in Peterboro, 
1877; removed his stock to Winchendon and sold out, 
1890, taking a position as book-keeper in the large 
factory of E. Murdock & Co. 

I. Lillian May^, born October 23, 1877. 
II. Edith Dora'', born September 17, 1879. 
III. Howard Gilbert^ born March 7, 1882. 

VI. Alice Louise^, born January 7, 1854; is a clerk in the dry 

goods store of Stone & Tuxbury at Bellows Falls. 
VII. Hattie May^ born May 15, 1862; cashier in the same store 
with her sister Alice. 
VIII. Maud MabeP, born September 6, 1864; resides with her 
mother in Bellows Falls ; a teacher of drawing and paint- 
ing at St. Agnes Hall. 


Addison^ {JoJuf, DavidP, Asa*, TJiomas\ Thomas^, 
Shadrach^), born June 23, 1816. Occupied the old home- 
stead in Reading, Vermont, until 1850, when he removed to 
Como, Illinois, established a tin, sheet-iron, and hardware 
business, and in 1862 enlarged so as to embrace general 
merchandise, which he conducted with energy and success 
till 1868, when he removed to Rock Falls, Whiteside County, 
Illinois, built the first store there, and remained in business 
two years. In October, 1871, he removed to Calhoun 
County, Iowa, and lived on a farm till the spring of 1875, 
when he took up his abode in Sterling, Illinois, where he 
remained until the spring of 1 880, when he moved to Denison, 
Crawford County, Iowa, and again embarked in agriculture. 


This business occupied his time and attention for eight years, 

when he returned to Rock Falls, where the closing days of 

his life terminated, December 14, 1893, honored and beloved. 

He married, April 4, 1838, at Reading, Vermont, Lorette 

Louisa Dunlap, born January 15, 1822; died at Sterling, 



I. Sarah Lorette^, born June 18, 1841, at Reading; married, 
June II, 1857, at Como, Illinois, Joel Burdick, of Adrian, 
Michigan, born February i, 1835 ; is a grocer in Manning, 
Iowa. She died November 23, 1874. 


1. Mary Lorette^ Burdick, born October 22, i860, at 

Sterling; married, November 5, 1884, at Audu- 
bon, Iowa, Francis Marion Beard, of Barnes- 
rille, Ohio ; resides in Des Moines, Iowa. 

2. George', born August 15, 1862, at Erie, Illinois; 

died December 10, 1862, at Como. 

3. Clara Hapgood^ born July 19, 1865, at Sterling; 

married, September 5, 1888, at Wellington, Kansas, 
James Frank Russell ; resides in Audubon. 

4. Fannie Dunlap^, born July 17, 1867, at Chicago, 

Illinois; married, October 16, 1889, Elliott Pres- 
ton, of Morrison, Illinois, where they reside. 

5. Julia RusselP, born March 13, 1870,3! Rock Falls ; 

resides in Morrison. 

II. Charles Clinton*, born April 21, 1843; drowned in Rock 
River, August i, 1853. 

III. Alice Maria*, born November 4, 1845, at Reading, Vermont ; 

married, September 14, 1869, at Rock Falls, Illinois, Sam- 
uel Ticknor'Davison, born November 4, 1844, at Hartwick 
Seminary, New York, son of William and Mary Davison ; 
resided on a farm in Iowa twenty-five years, but finally 
driven by blizzards and extreme cold to the more genial 
cHmate of Pasadena, California. No children. 

IV. Clara Louisa*, born December 20, 1851, at Como, Illinois; 

married October 4, 1874, at Rock Falls, Charles Henry 
Glassburn, of Gallia County, Ohio ; resides Austin, 



1. Grace Lorette'' Glassburn, born October 20, 1876, at 

Sterling, Illinois. 

2. Henry Hapgood'^, born October 31, 1878, at Ster- 

ling; died June 12, 1890, at Rock Falls. 
.'3. Hugh Damron^ born June i, 1882, at Portville. Iowa. 

4. Edward Wiley^, born March 10, 1884, at Ossian, 

Iowa; died May 11, 1884. 

5. Robert Price*, born June 10, 1886, at Ossian. 
Addison Hugh*, born August 14, 1861, at Como ; married, 

September i, 1886, Isabella Jane, daughter of Eli Henry 
and Sarah Rebecca Smith, of Denison, Crawford County, 
Iowa, born December 22,1867 '^ resides Denver, Colorado ; 
in the employ of the Union Pacific Railway. 

I. Warren Bayles*, born September 11, 1887, died 

January 18, 1888. 
II. Mary Bradford**, born April 26, 1889. 
III. Lorette Belle^ born January 26, 1896. 


Lorenzo'' {John^, David^, Asa\ Thomas^ Thomas-, 
Shadrach^), born December 7, 18 19, at Reading, Vermont; 
enjoyed superior advantages for education until aged eigh- 
teen, when he entered a general-goods store at Springfield, 
Vermont, for two years, and afterwards served for four years 
as clerk to O. A. Bryant, at Woodstock, Vermont ; after this 
he, self-reliant, made a bold dash for the West, and in 1843 
entered a store, as a partner, at St. Louis. In 1845 he re- 
moved to Como, Illinois, where he conducted mercantile 
business with marked success until 1854, and was there elected 
to several offices of profit and trust. In 1854 he removed to 
Sterling, Illinois, and engaged in the exchange and banking 
business until 1862. In 1858 Sterling was incorporated a city 
and he elected her first mayor, and reelected the year follow- 
ing. He married at Como, November 19, 1850, Eliza 


Frances, daughter of Stephen P. Breed, of Como, who re- 
moved later to North Weare, New Hampshire, where she 
died September 22, 1853; he married second, at SterHng, 
September 19, i860, Anna McShane, daughter of EUphalet 
B. Worthington, of Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania, born February 
15, 1835, died December 5, 1878. He died very suddenly, 

August, 1886. 

CHILDREN (by first wife). 

L Edmund Lorenzo^, born August 12, 1851, at Como; died 

December 14, 1866, at Sterling. 
IL James Dow^, born April 15, 1853; died December 16, 1853, 
at Weare, New Hampshire. 


Salmon Kimrall' {Davicf, David^, Asa*, Thoma^, 
Thomas^, Shadrach^), born October 19, 1833; married, 
November 1 1, 1858, Minerva Jane Robinson, born November 
I, 1838, at Calais, Vermont. He was a carpenter and cooper, 
residing in Reading, Vermont, served as one of the Listers 
three years, was prominent in the Patrons of Husbandry, 
being for some years Secretary and afterwards Master of 
Reading Grange. Shortly after his marriage he went to 
reside with his mother at the family homestead, and after 
her death in the winter of 1874-5 he bought out the in- 
terest of the other heirs and remained on the farm until 
the summer of 1894, when he sold the homestead which 
had been in his family from the settlement of the town, 
and removed to Lebanon, New Hampshire, where he died 

December 28, 1897. 


I. Maurice Engalls^ born October 20, 1859, at Reading ; married, 
December i, 1887, at Woodstock, Vermont, Josephine 
May Hubbard, and died May 20, 1892, at Lebanon. 


II. Annella Julia*, born September i8, 1861, at Calais ; married, 
October 3, 1880, at Reading, Henry Dwight Sumner- 
resides in Lebanon. 


1. Mabel Alice" Sumner, born December 29, 1885, at 


2. Edwin Hapgood*, born June 24, 1887, at Reading. 

3. lone Carrie^, born May 14, 1890, at Woodstock. 

4. Evelyn Josephine'^, born March 7, 1892. 

5. Myra Orsina'*, born in Lebanon, October 17, 1896. 

III. Evie Alice*, born June 20, 1863; resides in Woodstock. 

IV. Arthur Salmon*, born October 28, 1864, at Reading; mar- 

ried, December i, 1892, at Hartford, Vermont, Alice 
Roberts ; resides in Lebanon ; a boot and shoe dealer. 

I. Christine Alice", born May 12, 1894, at Lebanon. 

V. Burt Hiram*, born June 25, 1867; married, July 24, 1892, 
at Etna, New Hampshire, Carrie Lee Bridgman ; resides 
in Lebanon; a grocer. 
VI. Laura Jane*, born April 5, 1871 ; died May 20, 1871, at 
VII. Mary Jane*, born April 29, 1876, at Reading; married, June 
24, 1896, at Lebanon, Horace A. Benson, of that place, 
a farmer. 

1. Priscilla" Benson, born April 17, 1897. 

VIII. Myra Louise*, born June 24, 1879; died June 26, 1896. 


Harrison^ {Charles^, Asd% Asa", Thomas^, Thomas"-, 
ShadracIP-) , horn November 5, 1823 ; married, September 23, 
1849, Helen Adaline, daughter of Nathan C. Kimball, born 
August 21, 1830; he married second, May 31, 1868, 
Christine C. Delano, of Churchville, New York, born June 
II, 1842, at Caneadea, New York. The descendants of 


Asa^ are so meagrely represented, we cheerfully give space 

to the following letter: 

Fort Scott, Kansas, June 26, 1895. 
W. Hapgood, Esq. : 

Dear Sir : I lived in Rushford and adjoining town until 
1857 ; farming. That year I spent in Boston, Massachusetts, 
the next winter, 1857-8, I spent in Georgia for my health, 
having had a severe run of typhoid fever which left me so 
debilitated I could not endure cold weather. In the spring 
of 1858 I settled in Clinton, Iowa, where I farmed it two 
years, when I got restless and thought I would go "West." 
Myself and family crossed the plains in i860 to Denver, with 
ox teams, being about two months on the road. I got a 
section of land seventeen miles from Denver and went into 
the live stock business, made some money, and if I had 
remained there would long ago have become wealthy, but 
my family got uneasy and wanted to go back to the " States " 
again, so I sold out in 1864 and went to Cattaraugus County, 
New York. Being out of business, and every one was rushing 
into oil speculation, I followed suit, and lost about all I had 
made. In the fall of 1868 I came to Fort Scott, settled down 
in the suburbs of the town, and carried on market gardening. 
Have lived twenty-five years in the same place, and the result 
of hard work and economy is, I find myself loaded down with 
unproductive real estate and high taxes. How it will termi- 
nate time will tell. 

Yours truly, 

H. Hapgood. 


I. Addison Adelbert*, born May 21, 185 1, by first wife, at Hume, 
New York; married, October 11, 1872, at Randolph, 
New York, Grace A., daughter of Doctor Nelson Saun- 
ders, of Randolph, born June i, 1853; died April I, 1884; 
he married, second, April 15, 1885, at Randolph, Adele 
Davis, born November 3, 1847, daughter of Benjamin 
and Mary A. Davis ; resides in Jamestown, New York ; 
a travelling salesman. 


I. Chester McCoy*, born September 9, 1873, at Ran- 
dolph ; married, July 4, 1892, at Lancaster, New 


York, Julia Maria, daughter of Peter and Mary 
Zimmerman, born July 17, 1873, 'it Dunnerville, 
Ontario, Canada ; resides in Buffalo, New York ; 
a cigar manufacturer. 

II. Karl Nelson^, born July 4, 1879, ^^ Randolph; at 

present a student at Hackettstown, New Jersey. 
II. Mary Adeline**, born March 30, 1853, at Hume ; married, Sep- 
tember 5, 1874, at Powhattan, Kansas, George William 
Schaffer, born February 19, 1846, in Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania, son of John Schaffer; resides in Wetmore, 
Kansas ; a farmer. 


1. Grace Adeline^ Schaffer, born August 22, 1879. 

2. Ann Estelle", born December 22, 1880. 

3. Timothy Addison^, born December 2, 1882. 

4. Jessie Louise", born June 16, 1885. 

5. Claude Harrison'*, born September 21, 1887. 
(J. Violet Ella^ born July 21, 1889. 

III. Ella Louise**, born March 11, 1855, at Rushford ; married, 

March 11, 1879, Reverend John S. McGeary, a free 
Methodist preacher, son of William and Margaret 
McGeary, born February 13,' 1853, at Texas, Pennsyl- 
vania; resides in Gerry, New York. 


1. Clara Rosina" McGeary, born December 22, 1879, at 

Limestone, Cattaraugus County, New York. 

2. Herbert KimbalP, born January 7, x88o. 

3. Frances E. Willard*, born November 4, 1887, at Oil 

City, Pennsylvania. 

IV. Charles Kit*, born September 17, i860, at Denver, Colorado; 

married, December 23, 1883, Phenia E., daughter of 
Riley and Elizabeth D. (Watkins) Woodman, of Brown 
County, Kansas, born November 19, 1864; resides in 
Blue Rapids, Kansas ; farmer. 


I. Glinn Adelbert**, born February 5, 1885. 
II. Jay Woodman**, born August 25, 1887 ; died Decem- 
ber 21, 1888. 

III. Lena", born February 14, 1891. 

IV. Hazel", born March 21, 1894. 


V. Clara Alice^, born March ii, 1864, at Rushford ; married, 
May 15, 1884, at Olean, New York, Frederick Willard, 
son of Stephen Scuyier andHannah Eliza (Clark) Fish ; 
resides in Olean, New York; a mason and contractor. 
VI. Carrie", born February 11, 1869, by second wife, at Fort Scott, 
Kansas; resides with her parents; a photographer; un- 


Dexter Milton'' {Charles^, Asa^,Asa^, Thomai, Thomas^, 
Shadrach^), born July 16, 1828; married, July 15, 1848, 
Julia Corse, of Norway, New York. The earliest settlers of 
New York, as well as the other States, were humble tillers 
of the soil, which was the principal industry and source of 
wealth. Dexter was one of these successful yeomen. He 
bought land in French Creek, New York, and settled there, 
manifesting good judgment in his selection. 


I. Marion*, born January 13, 1849, ^^ Rushford; married, April 
7, 1868, at Clymer, Eli C. Beecher, born in Clymer, May 
25, 1842 ; she died April 2, 1897 ; he resides in Foxburg, 
Clarion County, Pennsylvania, where he is postmaster. 


1. Ethel Ruth^ Beecher, born in Foxburg, April 4, 1882. 

II. George Irving^ born January 27, 1852 ; died January 15, 1892. 

III. Florrie Adelle^ born May 13, 1859; married, April 20, 1887, 

at French Creek, Amos B. Parker, born May 28, 1857; 
resides in Harmony (Sherman), New York. 

IV. Cellie% born January 12, 1862; married, October 10, 1888, 

William S. Thompson, of Columbus, Pennsylvania, born 
November 9, 1862, and died at Clymer, March 2, 1891. 
V. Ethel Laura', born July 29, 1863; married, August 26, 1885, 
Leland Schramling, born November 9, 1862, at Colum- 
bus ; resides at French Creek. 

1. Hazel Adelle* Schramling, born July 12, 1893. 


VI. Frank*, born November lo, 1867; married, September 3, 
1 89 1, Bertha Schramling, born September 3, 1870, at 
Columbus, Pennsylvania ; resides at French Creek ; a 
farmer; no children. 


Daniel Smiley" {Joel Wilson^, Asa', Asa\ Thomas\ 

Thomas^, Shadracli"), born December 15, 1832; married, 

January i, 1856, Clarissa Laura Johnson, born at EUery, 

May 27, 1835, and died June 17, 1892; resides in Ellery ; a 



I. Cora May*, born August 21, 1858; married, February 23, 
1881, at Johnstown, New York, Anson Day Heath, born 
at Ellery, July 27, 1851 ; resides in Fluvanna. 


\. Orry Benjamin^ Heath, born December 4, 1881, at 

2. Mary Ethel^ born April 30, 1883. 
•S. Ellis Munroe^ born February 19, 1886. 

11. Clarence Emerson^ born May 13, i86o; married, September 

10, 1884, Louise May Ofterly, born April 2, i860, at 
Warren, Pennsylvania; resides in Erie, Pennsylvania; 
a travelling agent; she died April 8, 1896. 


I. Clarence Henry", born July 4, 1887, at Warren; 
resides with his father at Erie. 

11. Cora May^ born April 22, 1892, at Warren. 


Charles Elmore" {Joel Wilson^, Asa', Asa\ Thomas^, 
Thomas^, Shadrach^) , born February 15, 1840; married, Octo- 
ber 20, 1867, Mrs. Loranda Simmons Klock, born in Elicot, 


November 19, 1838; he died October 21, 1896; resided in 
Brocton, New York ; a stone mason by trade. 


L Clifford Elmer^ born December 8, 1869, at Ellery ; resides in 

Brocton ; a farmer. 
IL Franlc Joel*, born September 28, 1875, at Ellery; resides in 
Brocton ; a vineyardist. 


Albert' {Joel Wilson'', Asa\ Asa\ Thomas^, Thomas-, 
Shadrach^), born April 23, 1847; married, June 21, 1869, at 
Panama, New York, Ella H. Baldwin, born at Ellery, Janu- 
ary 8, 1852 ; resides in Fentonville, New York; a farmer. 


1. Claude Noyes\ born April 22, 1870; died March 5, 1871. 

II. Earl Wilson*, born January 9, 1872. 

III. Maud Sarah*, born January 7, 1874. 

IV. Leon LewisS born January 19, 1876. 
V. Minnie May*, born July 31, 1878. 

VI. Ethel Arline*, born September 15, 1884. 
VII. Flora Leah*, born January 23, 1888. 


Herbert Lyman^ {Lyman Wilder^, Artemas^, Asa*, 
Thoma^, Thomas^, Shadrach^), horn February 5, 1850; mar- 
ried, February 25, 1875, Mary Josephine Proctor, born at 
Athol, November 27, 1852. 


I. Lyman Proctor*, born June 18, 1876; a student in the Insti- 
tute of Technology, Boston. 
II. Edith Eliza*, born Novembers, 1878; graduated from Athol 
High School, 1896. 

III. Ruth Olivia*, born August 10, 1880; died January 19, 1886. 

IV. Frederick Herbert*, born January 28, 1892. 



Charles Hutchins^ {SetJf, Htctchins^, Setk*, Thomas^, 
Thomas'' , Shadrac/i^), born in Petersham, Massachusetts, 
March 6, 1836; married. May 4, 1867, Fannie Louise Col- 
Hns Powers, born November i, 1846, in Geneva, New York. 
He was graduated from Brown University, 1857, and a year 
later from the Harvard Law School ; practised for a time in 
Chicago ; became interested in agricultural implements, and 
finally established a plow factory, was burned out, and he 
started another in St. Louis, where his plant was again 
destroyed by the devouring element, about 1872 or 'y^. 
He then moved to Alton, Illinois, and organized the Hap- 
good Plow Company, which is believed to be financially very 
successful under his skilful management. 


L Norman', born March 28, 1868, at Alton; was fitted for col- 
lege, entered Harvard, where he was graduated 1890, 
and three years later from the Law School ; was in a law 
office in Chicago for a time, but finally drifted into jour- 
nalism ; employed on the " Chicago Post," and at present 
on the staff of the " New York Evening Post." Unmar- 
ried. He wields a vigorous pen, with fearless manner of 
expression, and has a brilliant future before him. We 
copy from the "Outlook" the following notice of the 
young author : " Mr. Norman Hapgood's ' Literary States- 
men and Others ' is well described by its sub-title, ' Essays 
on Men seen from a Distance.' Two qualities strike the 
reader of these articles almost at a glance — intelligence 
and directness. Mr. Hapgood has evidently no aptitude 
for literary artifice or artificiality. He aims to get at the 
heart of his subject with a directness which is a high 
quality of literary integrity, and he brings a very open 
and intelligent mind to its study. His comment, his 
analysis, and his characterization are eminently intelli- 
gent, and therefore eminently sane. It is very refresh- 
ing to come upon a book which illustrates so well, wide 
sympathy with different temperaments and occupations, 


with poise of judgment and candor of opinion. It would 
not be easy, for instance, to find a clearer impression, 
within a brief compass, of two men so far apart as Lord 
Rosebery and Stendhal than that which Mr. Hapgood 
gives us. His essays deserve careful reading. The 
volume may well be laid aside in the rush of contem- 
porary books for leisurely acquaintance. It has also the 
advantage of being very artistically made." 
II. Hutchins^ born May 21, 1869; fitted for college, was gradu- 
ated from Harvard 1891, and finished his collegiate course 
in a university in Germany. 

III. William Powers*, born February 22, 1872; preferring mercan- 

tile business to a professional life, after leaving school 
he entered the store of Franklin MacVeigh & Co., 

IV. Ruth', born June 9, 1880 ; died March 29, 1890, at Alton. 


Eugene Delarimore^ (^John JVecks\ Oliver", Setk\ 
Thoma^, Thomas^, Shadrach^), born December 5, 1838, at 
Burlington, Illinois; married, September 4, 1869, at Sacra- 
mento, California, Elizabeth Broad, born at Ogden, Utah ; 
resides in Smartsville, California; a carpenter. 

I. Eugenie^ born October 7, 1870, at Long Bar, Yuba County 
California; married, November 22, 1891, at Timbuctoo, 
California, William Eldorado Smith, born in Eldorado 
County, California, April 26, 1855 ; died at Timbuctoo 
July 2)0, 1892. His widow resides in Smartsville; a 
II. James Mortimer^ born March 28, 1872, at Long Bar; mar- 
ried, September 28, 1894, at Marysville, California, 
Fannie Elizabeth Marple, born March 28, 1862, at Tim- 
buctoo ; resides at Smartsville ; a carpenter. 

I. James Lester^ born August 12, 1895, at Timbuctoo. 
II. Elizabeth May", born January 14, 1897, at Smarts- 

Julicn lUeehs IbapciooD, "Mite anJ> 2)aucibtcr. 


III. Josephine IsabelP, born June lo, 1874, at Sicard Flat, Yuba 

County, California ; resides in Smartsville ; a teacher. 

IV. Sarah Theresa^ born September 11, 1881, at Sicard Flat. 

V. Ann Elizabeth*, born August 9, 1865 (adopted) ; drowned 


JULIEN Weeks' {John Weeks'", Oliver", Seth^, Thomas^, 
Thomas^, Shadrach^^, born at Burlington, Illinois, December 
26, 1844; married, December 20, 1868, Mary Catharine Kirk- 
patrick, born April 30, 1848, at Dayton, Wisconsin. 

Enlisted August 15, 1862, in Company G, 105th Regiment, 
Illinois Volunteer Infantry, De Kalb County; was in battles 
Resaca, Cassville, New Hope Church, Georgia, Kennesaw 
Mountains, and Atlanta ; with Sherman on his memorable 
" march to the sea," his regiment being credited with thirteen 
general engagements and one hundred skirmishes, all of 
which he participated in, and was honorably discharged at 
Washington, June 7, 1865. On his return to Humansville, 
Missouri, where he resides, was appointed deputy sheriff, and 
he also runs a small fruit farm. 

I. Laura Edith^ born September 26, 1869; married, January 6, 
1892, at Kansas City, Daniel Summer McNeil, born 
December 21. 1868, at Osceola, Missouri; editor of the 
•* Star Leader," Humansville. 


1. Zoe Eloie' McNeil, born December 7, 1892, at 


2. Daniel Hapgood', born August 4, 1896. 


Colonel Charles Edward^ {Joab'^, Elijah^, Joab^, 
Thomas^, Thomas^, Shadrach^), born December 11, 1830; 


married, October i8, 1854, Mary Elizabeth Miles, of Shrews- 
bury, born January 23, 1834, died at Brookline, Massachu- 
setts, September 2, 1879; and he married second, December 
30, 1885, Hannah Louise Chapin, of Brookline, born Feb- 
ruary 27, i860; resides in Brookline. 

He was educated in the public schools and graduated 
from the high school of his native town, learned the trade 
of gun-making with his father, went into mercantile busi- 
ness in Worcester, removed to Amherst, New Hampshire, 
where he continued till the breaking out of the war of the 
Rebellion, when he disposed of the business, and on the 12th 
of October, 1861, was commissioned Captain of Company I, 
in the Fifth Regiment, New Hampshire Volunteers, and con- 
tinued with the regiment in all its duties until July 9, 1862, 
when he was given leave of absence on surgeon's certificate. 
He was now ordered on recruiting service in New Hampshire. 
After the battle of Fredericksburg, he was commissioned 
Lieutenant-colonel, and joined his regiment in February, 
1863. On the 3d of July he was made Colonel of the Fifth, 
in place of Colonel Cross, killed in battle. He was with the 
regiment until June, 1864, when he was severely wounded at 
Petersburg. After partial recovery he was ordered to 
Philadelphia as President of the Board of Inspection of Mil- 
itary Hospitals in the State of Pennsylvania. He remained 
on this dut}^ for two months, when he was mustered out of 
service. After the war Colonel Hapgood, March 5, 1865, 
went into the wool business, in Boston, pursuing it with 
energy till 1885, when he retired. His long experience in the 
army and the favorable impression he made upon the soldiers 
fitted him for the service, and he was appointed Superintend- 
ent of the " Veterans Rights Union Claim Agency," with 

,.--•*' * 


\ ^ 








.. ly 


2^,^^^.:^, ^ ^^^^ aj^^^^-^^ 

CoLiiN-Ei. Fii- III New I[\Mr.siiinE Volunteer Iniantri 


office at No. 4 Pemberton square. He has deep sympathy 
for his comrades, and cheerfully does all in his power for their 
relief, or those dependent upon them. 

I. Charles Louis\ born January 22, 1891. 


Henry Roland^ {Nahum Roland^, ElijaJf, Joab^, 
Thomas^, Thomas'-, Shadrach^), born August 23, 1836; mar- 
ried, April 2, 1857, at Worcester, Martha Maria, daughter of 
Osgood and Martha (Buttrick) Collester, born April 27, 
1839, at South Gardner; resides in Worcester; a pattern- 

CHILDREN (all born in Worcester). 

I. Lloyd Henry*, born September 13, 1857; died October 28, 
II. Lottie Maria\ born September 30, 1859; married, December 
13, 1887, at Fitchburg, Massachusetts, Edward, son of 
Alfred and Mary Sawyer, born July 13, 1863, in Central 
City, Colorado ; resides in Fitchburg. No children. 

III. Florence Buttrick*, born November 26, 1862 ; married, Janu- 

ary 3, 1880, William Adford, son of Horace and Mirandia 
Day, born July 6, i860, at Webster, Massachusetts; re- 
sides in Worcester. 

IV. Warren Collester*, born August 9, 1864; married, at Fitch- 

burg, August 5, 1885, Susie Isadore, daughter of Charles 
and Harriet Litch, born September 8, 1864; resides in 
Worcester ; a machinist. 

I. Maud Estella^ born in Worcester, August 4, 1886. 

V. Walter Henry*, born November 28, 1865 ; died November 15, 

VI. Alice Eliza^ born November 20, 1867; married, October 15, 
1888, at Worcester, Lewis Arlington Weeks, born March 
4, 1861, at Eastford, Connecticut; resides in Parkville, 


VII. Fannie MaithaS born June 3, 1870; married, August 3, 1890, 

Henry Parkman, son of Calvin P. and Georgiana (Ham- 
ilton) Hinds, born Worcester, January 16, 1866; resides 
in Providence, Rhode Island. 

VIII. Ernest Osgood*, born December 22, 1873; died July 27, 

IX. Irving Roland', born February 26, 1875; married, January 
23, 1894, in Worcester, Emma, daughter of Andrew G. 
and Christina Levenson Thaliue, born in Stockholm, 
Sweden, June 27, 1876; resides in Worcester; a clerk. 

I. Ernest Nahum^ born in Worcester, March 29, 1895. 

X. Henry Roland, Jr.", born February 5, 1875 ; died July 5, 1875. 
XI. CarP, born February 30, 1879; died October 10, 1880. 
XII. Clarence Nahum*, born October 16, 1881. 


Horace Abbott" {Ephraim Augustin^, Elijah^, Joah^, 
Thomas^, Thomas^, Shadrach^), born August 9, 1846; mar- 
ried, January i, 1868, Alice Amelia, daughter of Nelson and 
Mary (Paine) Williams, born August i, 1848, at Uxbridge, 
Massachusetts. She died April i, 1872, and he married 
second, at Whitinsville, Massachusetts, April 13, 1874, Har- 
riet Freelove Leach, born at East Douglass, Massachusetts, 
September 11, 1844. She died March 6, 1879, and he 
married third, June i, 1880, Mary Jane, daughter of Stephen 
and Sarah Aldrich Williams, born September i, 1856. He 
settled in Uxbridge ; a farmer. 

CHILDREN (all by third marriage). 

I. Helen*, born March 20, 1881, in Uxbridge. 
II. Arthur Williams*, born May 13, 1883, in Whitinsville. 
III. Rachael Mildred*, born June 6, 1888, at Uxbridge. 

@^ ^y^^^r^y^ 



Francis Calvin' {Gilberf, Francif, Jonathan^, Johit\ 
Thomas-, Shadrach^), born January 17, 1852, at Lamotte, 
Jackson County, Iowa; removed with his parents to Banks- 
ton, Dubuque County, Iowa. At the age of five years his 
father died, and he remained with his mother on the farm, 
excepting a short period, until he became of age. 

While a boy he improved his time by going to the district 
school and attending Sunday school at the Congregational 
church on the Sabbath, generally capturing the prizes 
offered for good scholarship ; during vacation working on 
the farm, which occupied considerable of his time, as there 
were but seven months of school throughout the year. 
He continued school this way up to fourteen years of age, 
when he entered Epworth Seminary at Epworth, Dubuque 
County, Iowa, attending this institution long enough to get a 
fair education. He then returned to the farm, and continued 
to work the old homestead until he attained his majority. 

Thinking that a course in a business training school essen- 
tial to success in life, he resolved to attend such a one, and 
accordingly made arrangements with the Davenport Com- 
mercial College, situated at Davenport, Iowa, for a complete 
course. After obtaining his diploma at this school he took 
the first work offered him, and commenced teaching school. 

June 6, 1878, he was married to Annie Isabel Squiers, of 
Epworth, Iowa, born July 5, 1854, at Hartford, Connecticut. 

Soon after he settled on a farm in Fayette County, Iowa. 
Having a particular liking for dealing in real estate, it was 
not long before he sold this place, or rather traded for 
another, and removed to Farley, Iowa. Since then he pur- 
chased lands in Minnesota, Iowa, and Dakota. His success, 


with the exception of a few minor affairs, has been remuner- 
ative, from a financial standpoint. He now resides in Grand 
Meadow Township, Cherokee County, Iowa, on a farm of one 
hundred and sixty acres, which has been his home for about 
six years. He ahvays considered Iowa good enough to Hve in, 
and consequently remained within her borders. In political 
matters he votes for the party which makes temperance 
principles its leading issue ; uses no intoxicating beverages 
or tobacco, and discourages their use in every possible way ; 
also has never indulged in gambling schemes, or invested in 
boards of trade. He is not connected with any church 
denomination, but belongs to one secret society, viz. : Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows. 


I. Edsel Roy^ born August 14, 1879, ^^ Brush Creek, Fayette 

County, Iowa ; resides with his parents at Grand Meadow. 

II. Hattie Ella', born December 17, 1887, at Farley. 


Gilbert Warren" (yJonatJian^, Francis, Jonathan'', 
Johf, Thomas-, Shadrach^), born August 17, 1845, at 
Paxton; resided in Worcester till 1876, when he removed to 
Tama, Iowa, where he became a dealer in horses and cattle. 
His next experience was in the service of the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee, & St. Paul Railroad, up to 1882. Desirous of 
seeing more of his native land, he travelled extensively, and 
finally settled in that thriving young city, Seattle, Washing- 
ton, where he is doing a large real estate business. He 
married, March 7, 1871, at Boston, Emily Tamzin, daughter 
of George and Sarepta (Moore) Cutting, born December 20, 
1845, at Berlin, Massachusetts. 



1. Florence Luella^ born August 27, 1872; died May 13, 1875. 

2. Edith Emily*, born July 27, 1874; a student in the State 

University at Seattle. 

3. Grace Evelyn^ born February 6, 1876; also educated in the 

State University at Seattle; married, August 21, 1897, 
Thomas J. Norman. 


Christopher Banister^ (/m^ Thomas^, Thomas^, Jo- 
seph^, Thomas^, Shadrach^), born January 31, 1830; married, 
September 26, 1855, at South Reading, Massachusetts, Edna 
Wilkinson, born September 14, 1837, ^^ Goshen, Connecticut; 
removed, 1863, to Hudson, Massachusetts, where he has since 



I. Orton Christopher^ born July 28, 1856; resides in South 

Reading ; unmarried. 
II. Frank Chester*, born July 9, 1858 ; married, July 8, 1880, Ida 
Ann Millay, born in Lynn, Massachusetts, July 27, 1858. 

I. Elnoza Gertrude", born December 4, 1882 ; died De- 
cember 27, 1889. 
II. Bertha Lillian", born January 23, 1885. 
III. Irene Beatrice'*, born June 25, 1888. 

III. George Ira^ born August i, i860; died May 12, 1861. 

IV. Alice Gertl-ude^ born December 24, 1862 ; married, September 

ID, 1881, Edward Charoux, of Canada, born May 23, 
1861, and died December 31, 1894. 
V. CliiTord Elmer*, born February 27, 1865 ; died July 13, 1891. 
VI. Jessie May^, born August 16, 1868; married June 29, 1888, 
Francis Milton Mace, born July 9, 1858, at Boston; re- 
sides in Bolton. 

1. Myrtle Edna'' Mace, born at Hudson. 

VII. Charles Clarence'*, born July 13, 1873; died August 9, 1873. 
VIII. Bert Ellsworth-, born December 11, 1874. 
IX. Bertha Alma^ born July 27, 18S0; died October 13, 1880. 



Levi^ (/rrt^ TJiomas\ Thomas^, JosepJi\ Thomas'-, Shad- 
rac/i^), horn Aug. i6, 1834; married, at Marlboro, August 
II, 1856, Rebecca Haddock, born at Haverhill, Massachu- 
setts, January i, 1835, ^""^ thither he removed in 1854, estab- 
lished himself in the shoe manufacturing business, and being 
an intelligent and industrious man, his forty years of busi- 
ness life have resulted in prosperity and a good reputation for 


L Inez Elzorn*, born June 4, 1857; married, April 29, 1891, 
Warren Emerson, of Salem, New Hampshire, born De- 
cember 27, 1853. No children. 
II. Lilla Marion**, born August 4, i860; married, September 9, 
1896, Joseph Adams, son of Reverend William Henry 
and Elizabeth (Adams) Dalrymple, born April 26, 1858, 
at Hudson, New Hampshire. No children. 

III. Florence**, born August 4, i860, twin with Lilla; died Sep- 

tember 4, i860. 

IV. Gracie Florence*, born September 23, 1864; died June 8, 

V. Ernest Wilfred^ born May 28, 1868 ; resides in Haverhill ; un- 
VI. Eddie Alwin**, born August 6, 1871 ; died April i, 1875. 


Thomas Dana' {/ra^, Thomas', Thomas\ Joseph^, Thomas^, 
ShadracJi}), born April 7, 1839, at Bolton; married, Septem- 
ber 28, 1 861, at Chateaugay, New York, Martha Candace 
Asletine, born January 14, 1838, at Bangor, New York. 


I. Fred Warren*, born February 7, 1863, at Haverhill; married, 
December 19, 1888, Anna Mabel, daughter of Willard 
Houghton, born June 28, 1870, at Hudson. 



I. Stanley Allen^, born August 17, 1892, at Hudson. 
Stella Marion% born September 6, 1877, at Hudson. 


Lewis Ira^ {Ird, Thomas', Thomas^, Joseph^, Thomas^, 
Shadrach^) , born October 19, 1844, at Marlboro, Massachu- 
setts; married, August 22, 1865, Mary Green, daughter of 
Samuel H. Wheeler, of Berlin, Massachusetts, born May 25, 



I. Leslie Albert*, born May 25, 1868, at Hudson. 
II. Warren Elbert'', born July 2, 1870; married, June 12, 1896, 
Florence Gertrude'Stone, born July 11, 1870. 
III. Lucy Bigelow-, born September 24, 1883, at Marlboro. 


Ben Andrew' {Thomas Emersoii\ Thomas'', Thomas^, 
Joseph'', Thomas^, Shadrach^), born June 12, i860, at Marl- 
boro, which had been the family home for nearly two cen- 
turies. In 1862 his parents removed to Providence, Rhode 
Island, and in 1865 to Sing Sing, New York. His education 
was obtained in the public schools except one year at a pri- 
vate institution. When seventeen years old he entered the 
employ of the Bay State Shoe and Leather Company, 
managed by his father, where he continued until 1895, going 
in June of that year to Oswego, New York, taking a position 
with the Swits Conde Company. On August 21, 1888, 
he was married to Emma Elizabeth Layley, of New York, a 
young lady of charming traits of character. For ten years 
he was a member of the Sing Sing Steamer Company No. i, 
a fine volunteer fire and social organization, and for one year 


its foreman. He was a constant attendant at the First Bap- 
tist Church, and was for many years a member of its choir. 
On leaving Sing Sing he received many complimentary 
expressions of friendship and regret, together with a hand- 
some testimonial from his employers. 


I. Marie Josephine*, born August 21, 1889, at Sing Sing. 
IL Nancy Sophia**, born July 9, 1893, at Sing Sing, 
in. Thomas Layley*, born November i, 1896, at Oswego. 


Edward Tuouh':^' {Thomas Emerson^, Thomaf, Thomas^, 
JosepJf, Thomas^, ShadracJi"), born December 8, 1866, at 
Sing Sing, New York. 

At the age of fourteen entered Brier Cliff Military 
Academy at Sing Sing, and remained five years. At age of 
nineteen entered the Art School of the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, New York, in the course of architecture, under the 
instruction of Arthur Lyman Tuckerman ; remained there 
until the spring of 1886, leaving to enter the office of George 
Martin Huss, architect, New York, as a student in architect- 
ure ; followed a course of study under his direction for three 
years. In the spring of 1889 opened an office as architect 
at 1285 Broadway, remaining there four years, practising 
mostly in suburbs around New York, particularly in New 
Jersey and West Chester County, where he designed and 
built many artistic and very beautiful residences. 

On October 5, 1892, he was married to Elizabeth M., 
daughter of G. Frederick Smith, of Hartford, Connecticut, 
and May i, 1893, became a resident of that city, and a 
partner in the firm of Cook, Hapgood, & Co., architects and 


builders. The firm name remained the same till July i, 1893, 
when C. C. Cook retired and the firm name was changed to 
Hapgood & Hapgood. 


I. Thomas Emerson', born June 26, 1893, at Hartford. 
II. Elizabeth HilP, born November 15, 1897. 


Luke Barnard^ {Joseph Jackson^, Josia/t', Joseph^ 
JosepJf, Thomas"-, Shadmch'^) , born June 21, 1841 ; married, 
September 6, 1 864, Ellen Sarah, daughter of Horace Oscar and 
Lucy P. Davis, of Peru, Vermont, born August 22, 1843. 
He was in business with his father in Peru up to 1870, when 
he removed to Boston and went into wholesale shoe business 
with his brother Charles ; was burned out by the great fire, 
November 10, 1872; removed to Easton, Pennsylvania. 

I. Alice Francis^, born September 26, 1866, at Peru ; married, 
February 3, 1894, Edson Smith Mapes, of Goshen, Orange 
County, New York ; resides at Blue Ridge, New Jersey ; 
in the employ of the American Tobacco Company, New 
York City. 
II. George Davis", born May 19, 1872, at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts ; graduated from La Fayette College, Class of '93 ; 
resides in Brooklyn, New York; tutor in the Latin School. 


Charles Manning' {Joseph Jackson^, JosiaJf, Joseph''^ 
Joseph^, Thomas^, Shadrach^) , born March 3, 1845. Married 
first, January i, 1868, Olive Caroline Emery, and second, 
Margaret Emma Rockwell, of Boston. On the breaking 
out of the war of Rebellion, at his country's call he 


enlisted, October 31, 1861, in Company A, Second Regi- 
ment Vermont Volunteers, received a severe scalp wound 
May 12, 1864, at battle of Spottsylvania Court House; 
was in hospital; came home August i, 1864, on a month's 
furlough ; returned to duty and performed hospital service 
till October 31, 1864, when he was honorably discharged. 
Went into shoe business with his brother Luke in Bos- 
ton; after the great fire in 1872 he removed to Easton, 
Pennsylvania, doing an extensive shoe manufacturing busi- 
ness under firm name of C. M. Hapgood Shoe Company, 
making their own sales and frequently visiting Boston shoe 
houses to replenish stock and improve styles. His second 
wife died July 7, 1896. 


I. Herbert Jackson**, born July 5, 1870 (by first wife), at Rox- 
bury, Massachusetts; fitted for college at Hampton, New 
Hampshire; entered Dartmouth, Class of '96; an indus- 
trious student, receiving a book prize for scholarship ; 
taught school in Peru, 1890-91 ; manager of the ^gis, 
1894; elected member of Phi Beta Kappa, June 23, 1896. 
After graduating he removed to Easton and was with his 
father in the C. M. Hapgood Shoe Company ; is a teacher. 
n. Helen Emery^, born August 3, 1873 ; resides with her mother 
in Dorchester, Massachusetts ; a teacher ; unmarried. 


Marshall Jay' {JosepJi Jackson^, Josialf, Joseph'', 
Joseph^ y Thomas^, Shadrac/i^), born January 13, 1850, at 
Peru; married, May 25, 1874, Flora Edith, daughter of 
George and Elmira (Reed) Huggins, of Dorset, Vermont, 
born, 1855. He fitted for college at Burr and Burton's 
Seminary, was graduated from Williams College, studied law 
at Harvard Law School, admitted to the bar, but finally went 


into business with his father in Peru under firm name of J. J, 
Hapgood & Co., engaged in lumber business, bought large 
tracts of timber land, erected steam saw-mills on the moun- 
tains, did an extensive business, became much interested in 
the welfare of the town, especially in education, and for many 
years was superintendent of public schools. 


I. Delia Edith^ born June 29, 1875, at Peru; a student at 
Middlebury, and later entered Mt. Holyoke College, 
South Hadley, Massachusetts. 
II. Susie Lorraine^ born March 16, 1877; a student at Middle- 
bury College, but later entered Mt. Holyoke College. 


Luther Sawyer^ {Luther Maynard^, Joseph^, Joseph^, 
JosepJf, Thomas', Shadrach^), born July 26, 1836; married, 
July 4, 1862, Anna Maria Colvin, of Fitchburg; resides in 
Boylston, Massachusetts ; an industrious and thrifty farmer. 
On the breaking out of the war he enlisted in Company A, 
Fifteenth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, 1861 ; taken 
prisoner at battle of Ball's Bluff, October 21, 1861 ; served a 
term of torture and barbarity at Libby Prison, exchanged 
1862, discharged for disability caused by ill-treatment at 
Libby, and returned home. Again with patriotic zeal, 1864, 
enlisted in Massachusetts Fourth Heavy Artillery, and served 
to the end of the war, when he weis honorably discharged, 

I. Cora Jeanette', born November 27, 1863, at Leominster; 
married Alfred B. McPherson. No children. 
II. Alice Anna^ born March 2, 1865, at Oakdale ; married, 
January 19, 1884, at Providence, Rhode Island, George 
W. Grout, of Spencer, Massachusetts. 



1. Maud Hapgood' Grout, born June 8, 1890. 

2. Cora Ida, born May 24, 1892, at Boylston. 

3. Beatrice Estelle®, born July 8, 1894, at Sterling. 

III. Ida Charlotte^ born November 25, 1867; died December 

25, 1868. 

IV. Freddie Benora*, born June 8, 1873, at Sterling; died Feb- 

ruary 12, 1875. 


Melvin Hathaway^ {John Gibnan^, Joseplf, Joseph'', 
JosepJi\ Thomas^, Shadmcit'), born February 11, 1859; 
obtained the earlier part of his education at the Prescott 
Grammar and Charlestown High Schools. He had early 
evinced a fondness for drawing, particularly in architectural 
lines, and this being encouraged by his parents, soon led 
him to make a life study of architecture. During his last 
three years at the high school, he studied afternoons and 
evenings at the Massachusetts Normal Art School and 
at the Lowell Institute Drawing School, besides attending 
the course of scientific lectures at the Lowell Institute. 
In 1877, after graduating at the high school, he entered 
the architectural office of William Gibbons Preston as a 
student, working evenings at the Massachusetts Normal Art 
School, the Appleton-street Evening Drawing School, and 
taking architectural lectures at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology. He also taught drawing at the Bird School 
in South Boston. He had for several years been studying 
the characteristics of European architecture, and in 1880 
gratified his desire for a trip abroad. On returning from 
Europe he reentered Mr. Preston's office, remaining there 
till March, 1882, when he was employed by John C. 
Mead, a prominent builder of Hartford, Connecticut, as his 




architectural designer. After three years' experience with 
Mr. Mead he started in business for himself, as architect, 
at 234 Asylum street, Hartford. On January i, 1890,. 
Mr. Mead having died, leaving his business to his former 
superintendent, Charles C. Cook, the partnership of Cook, 
Hapgood & Co., architects and builders, was formed, the 
place being Mr. Mead's former establishment, at 141 Trum- 
bull street, where Mr. Hapgood has since remained. In 
May, 1893, Edward Thomas Hapgood was admitted to the 
firm, and on July i, 1893, Mr. Cook withdrew, leaving the 
two cousins, under the firm name of Hapgood & Hapgood, 
architects. Up to this time about three hundred buildings, 
public and private, ranging in location from Maine to Colo- 
rado, had been designed by the two partners. 

On the last day of 1890 Mr. Hapgood was married, at St. 
John's Church in Hartford, to Mary Morgan, second daugh- 
ter of James Allwood Smith, of the firm of Smith, Northam, 
& Co. Among Mrs. Hapgood's ancestors are Thomas 
Hooker, the founder of Hartford ; Miles Morgan, one of the 
founders of Springfield, Massachusetts ; and John and Pris- 
cilla Alden. Resides in Hartford. 


I. Ruth Morgan*, born November 6, 1891. 

II. Dorothy Alden^ born October 31, 1892. 

III. Alice Hathaway*, born November 5, 1893. 

IV. Miles Morgan'*, born December 29, 1895. 
V. Normand Webster^ born February 7, 1898. 


Charles Warren' {Lewis^, Jonathan', Joseph^, Joseph\ 
Thomas^, Shadrach}), born September 23, 1841 ; after his 


death the following notice and obituary appeared in a local 
paper : 

" Charles W. Hapgood, who was stricken with paralysis 
Monday morning, died at 8.10 o'clock Wednesday night, 
September 11, 1895. At fifteen years of age he went to 
Hudson and worked in the grocery store of his uncle, Silas 
Hapgood. After that he worked in Stow's shop, at Hudson, 
until his removal to Marlboro, in 1868. July 28, 1868, he 
married Miss Malvina A. Gleason, a daughter of William 
Gleason, now deceased. After his marriage he came to 
Marlboro, and worked for a time in the grocery store of 
E. J. Childs and L. A. Cunningham, which used to be in 
the Franklin block. Afterwards he worked in several shops 
in this city and Hudson, first as an operative on a pegging 
machine, and later on a McKay sewer. 

" He was a member of Doric Lodge, F. and A.M., Hud- 
son, and a prominent member and earnest worker in the Cen- 
tral Labor Union, being secretary of that organization for 
some time. 

•' He leaves a wife and four children to mourn the loss of a 
kind husband and father, who for twenty-seven years of mar- 
ried life was away from home but two nights. As a neigh- 
bor he was always obliging and willing to do all in his power 
for friends in sickness or trouble." 

L Herbert Warren*, born October 27, 1870. 
n. Charles Lewis*, born July 2, 1872; clerk. 
in. Ethel Gleason*, born October 30, 1873. 
IV. Roy Francis*, born April 12, 1877. 

Georcic IRccius 1ba^H■lC»o^. 


OTHER HAPGOOD FAMILIES whose identity with the de- 
scendants of Shadrach has not been fully established, some of whom 
are presumably of the same race or near akin, either in this country 
or in England. 

THE OHIO FAMILY is the most numerous, and they have first 

About the year 1817 there appeared in Warren, Ohio, a young 
man by name of George Negus Hapgood, a printer, who learned his 
trade in Brattleboro, Vermont, but being by nature reserved and 
silent he never talked of his boyhood days, his parents, or place of 
nativity. He was an enterprising young man of excellent habits, 
found employment in the office of the " Western Reserve Chronicle," 
a weekly paper published in that flourishing town, and by industry 
and economy in a few years saved up money enough to buy a half 
interest in the paper, and later on became sole proprietor and pub- 
lisher of that popular journal. Under his skilful management the 
paper prospered and had a wide circulation. 

In 1 841 he was appointed by President Harrison postmaster of 
Warren, and later on received the appointment of auditor of Trum- 
bull County, Ohio, In 1847 he bought ninety acres of land some 
two miles out from Warren, on what was called the river road, and 
converted it into a nursery farm. In 1853, having been in journal- 
istic harness for nearly thirty years and desiring to be released from 
its arduous and responsible duties, he sold his interest in the 
"Chronicle" to his son George and his nephew, Comfort Adams, 
under firm name of Hapgood & Adams, and removed to the fruit 
farm, where he lived and labored and enjoyed his well-earned repu- 
tation as an honorable, upright man of marked ability, up to the time 
of his death, September 2, 1861. 

On the 6th of April, 1820, at Girard, Ohio, he married Adaline 
Adams, bom February 24, 1799, in Canterbury, Connecticut, and 
died in Warren, Ohio, October 26, 187 1. 


L Adaline Adams^ born January i8, 1821, at Warren; 
married, March 17, 1841, Mathew Banning Tayler, born 
at Youngstown, Oiiio, Marcli 17, 1815 ; died November 
25, 1880. She died May 22, 1885. 


1. Emily L.^ Tayler, born January 22, 1842, at Warren ; 

married, November 7, 1866, John Wesley Excell ; 
resides in Cleveland, Ohio. 

2. Gertrude^*, born September 25, 1843; married, July 

25, 1877, Benj. J. Tayler of Warren. 

3. Helen A.^, born June 4, 1845 ; married, June, 1872, 

Samuel H. McCurdy of Warren. 

4. George Hapgood^, born May 5, 1847; married, Feb- 

ruary 23, 1888, Roxana Wilcox of St. Louis, 
Missouri ; resides in Warren ; Superintendent of 
Gas Company, 
o. Adaline Hapgood^ born May 29, 1849; married. May 
13, 1872, Martin Hecklinger ; resides in Warren. 

6. Maria L.^, born October 10, 1851 ; married, June 10, 

1879, William P. Lamphier. 

7. Charlotte J. ^, born March 30, 1854; married, March 

17, 1886, Clayton E. Strong. 

8. Florence^ born April 15, 1856; married. May 18, 

1 88 1, Jacob H. Ewalt. 

9. Lucy B.'', born April 30, 1858; married, January 

31, 1893, Clarence Page. 

10. Olivia S.^, born December 23, 1859 ; married, Decem- 
ber 27, 1886, John J. Sullivan. 

IL Mathew B.^, born September 17, 1862; married, 
September 23, 1891, Mary E. Shields ; bookkeeper. 
First National Bank, Warren. 

IL George Adams", born March 21, 1822; died August 12, 1823. 
III. Olivia^ born January 21, 1824; died March 11, 1832. 
1 IV. George Negus", born November 24, 1825 ; married, Decem- 

ber 24, 1846, Rebecca Dixon of Columbianna County, 
V. Sarah H.^, born December 22, 1827 ; married, December 26, 
1848, George Van Gorder of Warren, born May 8, 1827, 
son of James and Elizabeth Van Gorder. 



1. Ella^ Van Gorder, born November i, 1850; married, 

October, 1878, at Warren, Albert Soden of Pitts- 
burg, Pennsylvania. 

2. Albert H.^ born August i, 1852; married, June 11, 

1894, Nancy Boyce of Willoughby, Ohio; resides 
in Cleveland ; a druggist. 

3. Mathew^ born December 6, 1856; died February 12, 


4. Robert S.', born January 10, i860; resides in Port- 

land, Oregon. 

5. Emerson O.^, born April 10, 1868; resides in Cleve- 

land ; a druggist. 

VI. Charles'*, born May 22, 1830, at Warren; went to California 

in 1856; was in the mining business and at one time 
proprietor of a profitable silver mine. He was appointed, 
by President Arthur, postmaster of Marysville, Cali- 
fornia, in 1883, which office he held up to 1894; married, 
October 11, i860, Emma Wilson, born in Marysville, 
January 6, 1836; no children. 

VII. William^ born August 20, 1832 ; married, October 9, 1855, at 

Ashtabula, Ohio, Frances Amelia Ford. 
VIII. Henry King", born October 22, 1834; married, June 18, 1862, 
Sarah H. Douglass. 
IX. Lucy^ born July 26, 1837 ; died August, 1837. 

X. Laura Fitch", born July 26, 1837, twin sister with Lucy; 

married, June 5, i860, Paul Cooley Ford of Ashta- 
bula, born January 19, 1836, son of George and Mary 


1. Lucy^ Ford, born April 10, 1861 ; died March 31, 


2. Paul Cooley^ born June 27, 1863, in Ashtabula. 

3. Ella Van Gorder', born February 22, 1865 ; a teacher 

in Ashtabula. 

4. George Hapgood^ born December 10, 1867; a 

plumber in Ashtabula. 

5. Laura Adelaide^, born March 15, 1873: resides with 

her parents in Ashtabula. 
G. William^ born August 20, 1878 ; died June 5, 1888. 

XI. Lucy Adams-, born September 27, 1840; married, August 13, 


1863, Samuel Raymond Brown, born January 26, 1837. 
He died August 24, 1887, and she September 4, 1888. 

1. Albert Hapgood^ Brown, born at Warren, Ohio, 
October 12, 1869; died March 17, 1875. 

George Negus^ {George Negiis^), born November 24, 1825, in 
Warren, where he was educated under the special care of his parents ; 
married, December 24, 1846, Rebecca Dixon, of Columbianna 
County, Ohio, born June, 18 19. 

He succeeded his father as editor and publisher of the " Chroni- 
cle," associating with himself in its management his cousin, Comfort 
Adams, under firm name of Hapgood & Adams, and by skill 
in journalism sustained the reputation so well earned by his father. 
When the war of Rebellion came on he enlisted, on the call for 
ninety-days men, in Company A, One Hundred and Seventy-first Reg- 
iment Ohio Volunteers, infantry, was in the battle of Keller's Bridge, 
Kentucky. Served out his term, returned to Warren, and continued 
his labors on the " Chronicle " up to the time of his death. The 
name of the publishing firm had been changed to Hapgood & 
Ritezel, and after his death Mr. Ritezel purchased his interest, and 
assumed the responsibility of the publication in company with his 
son, and the paper passed out of the Hapgood family. 

He died, beloved and mourned by his many friends, August 18, 
1865. His widow died June 13, 1884. 


L Olivia', born October 12, 1847, at Salem, Ohio; unmarried. 
11. Frances^ born April 26, 1850, at Warren; married. May 14, 
1874, George S. Schryber, of Cleveland, Ohio, where he 
in. William Kersey', born June 14, 1852, in Warren; married, 
November 28, 1877, Stella Seymour, daughter of N. P. 
and Mary (Comstock) Bailey, born at Painesville, Ohio, 
December 19, 1856; resides, a clerk, in New York City. 






imuiiam IbapQooD. 


I. Eugene Palmer*, born June 29, 1880, at Warren; a 
student in University of Columbus, Ohio, 1897. 

IV. Mary Stiles', born June 27, i860; died December 18, 1874, 
at Cleveland. 

William- {George Negus^), born August 20, 1832, at Warren, 
Ohio, and educated there ; married, October 9, 1855, at Ashtabula, 
Ohio, Frances AmeUa, daughter of George and Mary (Cooley) 
Ford of Batavia, born May 23, 1834. In 1848 he was employed 
by E. E. Hoyt & Co., extensive dealers in drugs and dry goods. 
In 1853 he removed to Iowa City, and was employed by Jesse W. 
Holt in the dry goods business, and he also bought and sold govern- 
ment land on his own and others' account. In 1855 he went into the 
dry goods business for himself in Terre Haute, Illinois, where he was 
appointed postmaster in 1861, and was quite successful. After the 
death of his father he returned to his native town (1863) and 
bought the nursery farm of the heirs, but finding his health not 
equal to the duties required, he sold out and removed to town. In 
1866 he bought a third interest in the drug store of Hoyt & Strat- 
ton, the firm name being changed to Hoyt, Stratton, & Hapgood. 
He was also a partner with his brother-in-law, S. R. Brown, in a 
large dry goods house, and remained so up to the time of Mr. 
Brown's death, August 24, 1887, when the business terminated. In 
1869 he with Mr. Stratton started a new dry goods store under the 
firm name of Hapgood & Stratton. About 1874 he sold his in- 
terest to Stratton, and went into the drug business in Warren, which 
he prosecuted with energy, and it is still in his possession. On the 
twenty-fifth of February, 1888, he was having a house built, and the 
men in the sewer ditch not having given a proper pitch for drainage, 
he went down the ladder to show them their error, level in hand, 
when the bank caved in, burying him and another man in earth. The 
other man was killed, while William was dug out barely alive, with 
his spine injured so that he never recovered, and is a great sufferer. 
About four years ago he had to surrender the care of his business 
to his son and daughter, and has since been confined to his house, 


and much of the time to his bed. His physician gives no encourage- 
ment of his recovery. He was appointed by President Arthur, in 
1883, postmaster of Warren, has been an active member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church from boyhood, steward of the church up 
to within about two years of the present time, a successful merchant, 
having the confidence, respect, and sympathy of all who know him. 

i L George William^ born September 25, 1856, at Terre Haute; 

married. May 20, 1880, Mary Amelia Cracroft. 

5 n. Henry Ford\ born July 24, 1858, in Terre Haute; married, 

October 12, 1887, Nettie Hunt. 
III. Adaline Adams\ born June 21, 1863, in Terre Haute ; resides 
in Warren, and in conjunction with her brother George 
nobly attending to her father's business during his trying 
illness ; unmarried. 

6 IV. Alfred Adams^ born December 20, 1865, in Warren; mar- 

ried, March 25, 1888, Ella Frost. 
V. Frances Mary\ born November 11, 1868; married, May 5, 
1 891, at Warren, Frank Robert, son of Robert and Har- 
riet McBerty of Sharon, Pennsylvania, born February 
14, 1868 ; resides in Chicago, Illinois, where he is in 
employ of Western Electric Company. 
VI. Thomas Ford^ born August II, 1872 ; died February 28, 1874. 
VII. Laura Sarah^ born November 13, 1878, in Warren, where 
she resides : a student. 


Henry King- (George A^egus^), born October 22, 1834, in War- 
ren; married, June 18, 1862, Sarah H., daughter of Thomas and 
Sarah Douglass, of Braceville, Ohio, born January 26, 1840. He 
learned the jewelry business, but was too feeble to pursue it. In 
1869 he went to Humboldt, Kansas, and bought a farm, but was not 
able to work it. In 1874 he returned to Warren, where he died 
December 15 th of that year, an honorable, energetic man, and 
looked more like his father than either of the other boys. 

I. Charles Douglass'', born June 17, 1863, in Warren ; married, 
January 20, 1886, Carrie Bushstiner, born January 5, 
1862 ; resides in Warren; a printer. 



I. Lucy FredrekaS born December 29, 1886. 
II. John CharlesS born May 4, 1891. 

II. 'Lucy Adele', born August 11, 1867 ; died May 31, 1895. 

III. Clarence Henry', born July 23,-1869. 

IV. Fred Estabrook*. born August 31, 1871; died October 31 



George William" {Wiilianf, George Negus^), born September 25, 
1856, at Terre Haute, Illinois ; married, May 20, 1880, at Hiawatha, 
Kansas, Mary Amelia, daughter of Joseph and Lucretia Cracroft 
of Richland County, Ohio, born May 18, 1857; resides Warren, 
Ohio ; a druggist and civil engineer ; he and his sister Adaline are 
in charge of their father's drug business during his illness. 

CHILDREN (all born in Hiawatha). 

I. Frances Lucretia*, born March 8, 1881 ; resides in Warren; a 

II. Ruth Adaline*, born March 31, 1882. 

III. William*, born November 25, 1884. 

IV. Joseph Cracroft*, born January 9, 1891. 
V. Mary Amelia*, born December 7, 1892. 

Henry Ford^ {IViliiauP, George Negus^), born July 24, 1858, at 
Terre Haute, Illinois; married, October 12, 1887, at Kansas City, 
Missouri, Nettie Hunt ; resides in Salt Lake City, Utah ; a cattle 


I. Richard*, born October 7, 1888, at Salt Lake City. 

II. Florence*, born August 31, 1890. 

III. Wayne*, born April 20, 1892, at Eldorado. 

IV. Mildred*, born September 3, 1893, at Salt Lake City. 



Alfred Adams' {Williavr, George Negus^), born December 20, 
1865, at Warren, Ohio; married, March 25, 1888, at Daken, Ne- 
braska, Ella Frost ; resides in Carbon, Wyoming ; a railroad man. 


L Frank Alfred*, born January 2, 1889, at Fairmount, Nebraska. 
II. Harold Frost*, born October 7, 1894, at Carbon. 


We append a brief and very imperfect record of a family, some of 
whom came to this country about thirty-four or five years ago. The 
family had resided in Marksbury, Somersetshire, England. A portion 
of them removed to or near Swansea, Glamorganshire, South Wales ; 
some of them being born in Morriston. Later on they emigrated 
to this country and settled in Clay County, Kansas. Some of the 
ancestors lived near London, and in Southampton, not so very far 
from Andover, or Weyhill, whence came Shadrach, our ancestor ; 
and we cannot help thinking that not so very long ago they belonged 
to one family, or were of the same stock. The Christian names of 
the two families are almost identical. These names were transmitted 
to this country, and the Lindsborg branch names are so similar to 
those of the descendants of Shadrach that one would hardly suspect 
the two families were originally other than one. 

George Thomas Hapgood, who is a tutor in Bethany College, 
Lindsborg, Kansas, had two uncles, George and Thomas, who left 
England for Australia on the nineteenth of June, 1854, the very day 
on which he was born, and hence his name. The name George was 
common among the early Hapgoods, and one of the two sons of 
Shadrach, the first immigrant, was named Thomas. We are aware 
of the fact that most of the names bestowed upon the children 
of the early Hapgood setders were familiar in England, but there 
were many other names common in England that were never 
admitted into the Hapgood vocabulary. 

It is a little singular that neither branch can trace their ancestry 
back beyond their own time. There seems to be no tradition of 


noble deeds or generous acts to identify them, and yet we believe 
they were one and the same, not very remotely. 

1 I. John' Hapgood, born about 1784, resided in Marksbury, 
Somersetshire, England. 
II. Thomas\ born , resided in Bristol, England. 

III. Edward', born , resided in Bristol. 

IV. Susan\ born , resided in Bristol ; married Hood. 


John', bom about 1784; married Elizabeth Shore, 181 2, born 
1791. She died December 24, 1872, aged over eighty. He died 
September, 1864, aged eighty. Resided in the village of Marksbury, 
Somersetshire, England. 

I. William^, born February, 1815, at Bath, England; mar- 
ried Susan Payn, 1838, who died 1874. 

II. Hannah^, born May 10, 1816, at Somersetshire; married, 

March 30, 1839, James Henney, born October i, 
1813, in Somersetshire. 


1. William^ Henney, born at Marksbury, May 13, 

1844; married, March 20, 1865, Hannah'* 
Hapgood, sister to Thomas George and 
daughter of Richard^, born September 11, 
1848; resides in Clay Centre, Kansas. 

2. Ellen Hester^, born October 11, 1854; married, 

September 22, 1872, George Thomas Hapgood. 

III. Thomas", born 1817; went with his brother George 

Edward to Australia, June 19, 1854. 

IV. Elijah■^ born 1819; married ; died . 

V. Eliza^, born 1821. 

VI. Susan", born 1823; went with Thomas and George, 1854, 

to Australia and died there. 
VII. George Edward^, born 1825. Went with his brother to 
Australia, June 19, 1854. 
2 VIII. Richard^, born August, 1827, in Marksbury, Somerset- 

shire ; married Elizabeth Derry. 
IX. John^ born 1829. 
X. Ann^, born 1831. 



Richard'- {John}), born in Marksbury, Somersetshire ; married 
Elizabeth Derry. In 1851 he removed to Swansea, Glamorganshire, 
South Wales, where he resided seventeen years; then concluded to 
emigrate to America, and settled in Lockport, Illinois, May, 1869 ; 
and in 1876 or 1877 he removed to Stark, Bradford County, Florida, 
where he died March, 1884. 


3 I. Henry Derry^, born at Bath, England, fall of 1846; married, 

at Swansea, July, 1865, Elizabeth Jane Haynam, born 
February 22, 1849. 
II. Hannah^ born September 11, 1848; married, March 20, 1865, 
William Henney, a brother to the wife of George Thomas, 
born at Marksbury, May 13, 1844; resides in Clay Centre, 
III. Eliza'', born July 14, 185 1. 

4 IV. George Thomas^, born June 19, 1854; married, in Swansea, 

South Wales, September 22, 1872, Ellen Hester Henney. 
"V. James Derry ^, born December 20, 1857, at Morriston, near 
Swansea, in Wales ; married, September, 1877, at Clay 
Centre, Emma McLaughlin, born April, i860; resides in 
Denison, Texas. 

I. Eunice*, born January 5, 1879. 

II. Arthur Albert*, born October 2, 1882. He is a freight 
clerk for M. K. & T. Railroad. 


Henry Derry"* {Richard-, John^), born in Bath, England, fall 
of 1846 ; married, at Swansea, July, 1865, Elizabeth Jane Haynam, 
bom February 22, 1849. They had ten children, two born in Mor- 
riston, Wales, and eight in Clay Centre, Clay County, Kansas ; re- 
sides in Tulare, California. 


I. Clara\ born at Morriston, Wales, August 11, 1866; married, 
February 22, 1885, Martin Hines ; resides in Clay County, 



11. Annie Mary*, born January 29, 1868, at Morriston ; married, 
May 2, 1893, James Owen of California. 

III. Lucy*, born April 16, 1873. 

IV. Fannie Dora*, born January 28, 1875. 
V. William*, born September, 1877. 

VI. Alice*, born August, 1879. 

VII. Mamie*, born October, 188 1. 

VIII. Clifford*, born September, 1883. 

IX. Roy*, born October, 1885. 

X. Ralph*, born July 12, 1888. 


George Thomas" {Richard-, John^), born June 19, 1854, in 
Marksbury ; married in Swansea, South Wales, September 22, 1872, 
Ellen Hester, daughter of James and Hannah (Hapgood) Henney ; 
James, born Somersetshire, England, October i, 1813, and Hannah, 
born May 10, 18 16; married March 30, 1839. Ellen Hester Hen- 
ney, born at Marksbury, October 11, 1854. They emigrated to 
America and settled in Clay Centre, Clay County, Kansas, in 1S74. 
He is now, 1897, a teacher in Bethany College, Lindsborg, Kansas. 


I. Henry George*, born June 24, 1873, at Morriston, Wales; 
married, May 23, 1894, at Morriston, Emma Gardiner, 
where he resides ; a laundryman. 
II. Frank Richard*, born July 9, 1876; resides with his parents 
in Lindsborg ; a student. 

III. William James*, born June 18, 1879; a student. 

IV. Albert Edward*, born June 27, 1881 ; a student. 
V. Gladys Helene*, born June 27, 1888. 

VI. Clarence Edgar*, born Lindsborg, June 16, 1895. 


Alfred' (^Richard'-, born 1832, Thomas^, born about 1805 ; had 
six children), born May 20, i860, at Lot 7, Prince Edward Island ; 
came to East Boston, Massachusetts, where he married, July 19, 
1 88 2, Charlotte Fleming of St. John, New Brunswick, born De- 
cember 29, 1 86 1. 


He removed to St. John, New Brunswick, 1869, and to East 
Boston, 1878; is by trade a painter. His father was a farmer at 
Cascumpeque, and his grandfather was also a farmer at Cascum- 
peque. Prince Edward Island, his son Richard settling with him on 
the homestead. Thomas came from Yorkshire, England, about 
1832, bringing Richard with him, at the age of six weeks. Richard 
died when his son Alfred was thirteen months old ; and his mother 
married second, about 1863, Samuel Warren of Prince Edward 


I. William James*, born May 18, 1883, at East Boston; died 

July 17, 1883. 
II. James Royce*, born May 22, 1885, at Melrose, Massachusetts. 

III. Louisa% born October 27, 1887, at East Boston; died Septem- 

ber 21, 1891, at Melrose. 

IV. Alfred*, Jr., born January i, 1889, at Melrose. 
V. Mary Ann*, born May 23, 1890, at Melrose. 

VI. Louisa*, born December 22, 1891, at East Boston. 
VII. John Jackson*, born May 25, 1894, at East Boston. 


Very likely may be a descendant of Shadrach, but in vain have we 
striven to obtain satisfactory evidence to warrant such conclusion. 

William Henry, Jr., son of William Henry and Kate (Campbell) 
Hapgood, born December 13, 1869, at Lebanon, St. Clair County, 
IlUnois; married, October 20, 1891, at St. Louis, Missouri, Lillie 
Fay, born at St. Louis, September 28, 187 1 ; resides in St. Louis; 
in charge of a stationary engine. 


I. Olivette, born July 7, 1892. 
II. Pearl, born July 12, 1895. 

Several other Hapgoods, scattered over the country, have been 
seriously importuned for family or individual records, but have 
persistently declined to respond, thereby placing themselves beyond 
the pale of this edition, much to the regret of the compiler. 


APPENDIX. . 347 



Wednesday evening, 12 September, 1888. 
Warren Hapgood, Esq., Midland Grand Hotel, London : 

My dear Sir : I have visited Andover as you requested, and had 
better luck than I expected, although my luck did not extend as far 
as the finding of the name Shadrach. 

The records I found in a wretched condition, and I will not claim 
that I have exhausted them for you (especially the burials). It 
might be well to go again some time and study them more patiently. 
I have not been well since Sunday inclusive, but still was determined 
to go, in order to gratify you, if possible, before your departure 

If Shadrach was fourteen at his embarkation in 1656, then he 
might be the child of Robert Hopgood, baptized 14 September, 
1642, Pray take note of the name of Peter, (eldest) son of Robert 
(born 1 631), named perhaps after Mr. Peter Noyes. From certain 
wills I have in my collection I had already inferred that Mr. Peter 
Noyes was connected with the Blake family of Andover. Please 
note that John Hopgood married an Elizabeth Blake in 1605. The 
connection with the Noyes family may have come through that mar- 
riage. Still I think much of the fact that Robert named a son (and 
probably his eldest) Peter, and so am inclined to believe that this 
same Robert was the father of your ancestor Shadrach. What do 
you think? What a pity I could not get the name of the child 
baptized in 1642 ! The wills ought to be carefully examined, and if 
you care to have the search made, I am inclined to take it up and 
see what comes of it. 

I have been looking over your pamphlet (the first part of it), and 
beg to call your attention to what I believe to be an error, first made 
by Mr. Savage (or his printers) and repeated by Mr. Morse. Savage 
says (under the name Shadrach Hapgood) that " in Sept., 1657," 
he " is call, kinsman by the first Peter Haynes in his will, who per- 


haps three yrs. bef. had sent his s. Thomas to bring him." Now, as 
a fact, the first FeterJVojes made /lis will 22 September, 1657, and in it 
mentioned his " kinsman Shadrack Habgood." Substitute Noyes for 
Hayties in the above extract and you will have the exact fact as 
Savage undoubtedly meant to state it. The Passenger List of the 
" Speedwell," which brought over young Hopgood, contains the name 
of Thomas Noyce, aged 32, the one whom Savage had in mind as 
" sent to bring him," and the name of Haynes does not appear on 
that list. 

As to a " first Peter Haynes, brother of Walter, and making a will 
in September, 1657," I am inclined to repeat the words of Betsey 
Prig which so roused the ire of Mrs. Gamp when referring to that 
oft quoted but never visible friend, Mrs. Harris, — "I don't believe 
there's no sitch a person." The earliest Peter Haynes that I know 
anything about (or I think Savage either) was bom in 1654, son of 
John and grandson of Walter Haynes. His father, John Haynes, 
married Dorothy Noyes, one of the daughters of the very Peter 
Noyes we have been alluding to, and named his second son after 
him. So if I were you I would recast that sentence on page i of 
your pamphlet, and also the note at bottom of the page, and change 
Thomas Haynes to Thomas Noyes in middle of the second page. 

Now as to the name. If the work were mine, I frankly say I 
would cut out the whole of those remarks — the entire first para- 
graph of the first page. Please note the spelling in the extracts I 
send you. The old woman who attended upon me in the church at 
Andover knew of the name of Hapgood. I recollect seeing in an 
old will the name of Roger Synghymselfe. Does not that seem quite 
as strange? The name Hopper is quite common. So is Do-good. 
In the course of one day's reading I encountered the names of Robert 
Gotobed and Abigail Walklate. The name of Young-husband I saw 
on a sign within a week. Near Pall Mall is a sign bearing the name 
" Strongitharm " (a shortening for " strong in the arm ") . Hopgood 
does not sound strange to my ears after all the strange names I have 
run across. What think you of Fromabove Dove? or Fieldflower 
Goe and Gardenflower Goe ? or Pascal Lamb ? or Amiable Fish ? or 
Beaten Gold? or John Rottengoose? or Jonas Whale? or Jonas 
Whalebelly? I have seen them all. 


However, I must not fill the sheet with gossip. I wish merely to 
say that I do not believe in that Latino-Saxon derivation of your 
name. I do believe its older form was Hopgood, and that it was 
plain English. 

Please let me hear if this reaches you. 

Sincerely yours, 

Henry F. Waters. 

P.S. — I ought to say that I did not go to Weephill because 
Somerby seems to say (see your pamphlet) that the name does not 
occur on the records. 

I would have gone to Penton if I had not been informed that the 
registers there do not go back further than 1642. Tangley registers, 
I learned, begin much later. H. F. W. 


Greenwich, London, S.E., 

13 April, 1889. 
Warren Hapgood, Esq. : 

My dear Sir : I regret to say that I have not yet visited (or 
rather, revisited) Andover. But I have not been idle. The name 
(as Hapgood, Habgood, Hopgood) I have found in the Records of 
Wills here. I note will of Thomas Habgood of Wymbourne Myn- 
ster, 1583, who mentions brother Richard, sons John and Richard 

sister Edith, wife Edith, daughter (not named), and my ( ) 

Robert (whether he meant to say brother Robert or not I cannot 
now determine). Wimborne Minster is in the County of Dorset. 

Thos. Hapgood of Conholde (1589-90) makes bequest to Chute 
Church, mentions son Thos. and his children, son Richard and his 
son Thos., son Edward, dau. Johane, Katherine Hapgood (without 
indicating her relationship), wife Katherine, and son Rowland. A 
Richard Hapgood is appointed one of the overseers. Another over- 
seer is Christopher Cooke. 

Katherine Hapgood of Chute (1604- 160 7) mentions Rich'' H. 
and his four children, " my other children," son Thos. and his 2 
children (sons), son John's 6 children, dau. Joane's 2 children Chris- 
toper & Abigail, dau. Joane's dau. Katherine, son Rowland's 2 chil- 
dren, son Edward to be exor. (Chute is in Wiltshire.) 


Richard Hapgood of Wymbourne Mynster, Dorset, merchant 
(1607), mentions "my mother," my sister and her children, sister 
Ann Marshall, dau. Edith, wife Mary (executrix). 

(I ought to have said that Thos. H. in 1583 mentioned Mary 
Marshall under 14.) 

Mary Hapgood, widow, of Wymbourne Mynster, Dorset (1609), 
mentions " my mother in law " and sister Marshall, her daughter, 
dau. Edith and kinsman Will'" Fishmore. 

Edward Hapgood of Chute, Wilts, husbandman (1632), mentions 
son Edmund, under 21 (to live with his mother), Richard, son of 
bro. Rich"*, Edward, another son of bro. Rich'', kinswoman Hester 
Annatts, under 21 and unmarried, Dorothy Sharpesse, wife Anna, 
Edward Annatts of Chuite and Will'" A., his son, and Edmond Pike 
of Collingborne Ducis. 

John Habgood of Wymbourne Mynster, tanner ( 1635-36), wishes 
to be buried near wife, mentions dau. Johane, dau. Edith and her 
son Thos., dau. Agnes, dau. Susan and her son Thos. Ovvtinge, dau. 
Dorothy, wife of Robert Lewen (and her children), the 2 sons of 
deceased son John, and son Richard's 4 children. 

Later on I hope to send you more. It is evident that there were 
two families, one at and about Chute, and the other at Wimborne 
Minster. The name of Shadrach, you notice, does not occur. 

I sincerely wish I may be lucky enough to get information that 
will be a help to you. 

Sincerely yours, 

Henry F. Waters. 


The earliest found seem to begin in 1587. Those previous to the 
year 1642/3 are in miserable condition. 

Rowland Hopgood and Elizabeth Hibbard 9 January, 1597. 
John Hopgood and EHzabeth Blake 18 June, 1605. 
Henry Read and Mary Hapgood 11 October, 1613. 


Robert Hopgood and Ellen Scullard 1628. 

Thomas Hopgood and Mabell Smith 7 February, 1630. 
Thomas Hopgood and Joane Scullard 25 October, 1641. 

Richard, son to Robert Hopgood, 14 January, 1637. 
Thomas, " " John Hopgood, 5 December, 1638. 
Mabell, wife to Thomas Hopgood, 7 January, 1639. 
Thomas Hobgood of Woodhouse, 28 January, 1643. 
Lucke, son of Thomas Hobgood, 6 February, 1644. 
Amy, daughter to William Hobgood, 19 April, 1C75. 
Thomas, son to Jo". Hobgood, Hatherden, 16 May, 1675. 
Jn°. Hobgood Sen""., of Wildheim, 16 September, 1675. 

Peter Hobgood 18 June, 1676. 

John Hobgood, of Hatherden, 14 August, 1676. 
Ann Hopgood, widow, 21 August, 1679. 

Richard, son of Thomas Hopgood, i April (1591 ?) 

Mary, daughter of John Hopgood, 27 August ( ?) 

Thomas, son of Thomas Hopgood, n March, 1598. 
Peter, son of Rowlon Hopgood, i November, 1599. 
Jonathan, son of Rowland Hopgood, 28 November, 1601. 
Thomas, son of John Hopgood, 28 November, 1601. 
Mary, daughter of Rowland Hopgood, 21 December, 1603. 
Robert, son of John Hopgood, of Hatherden, 1 November, 1604. 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Hopgood, 16 July, 1606. 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Hapgood, 16 September, 1613. 
Richard, son of Ric — Hopgood, 4 September, 1627. 
Susan, daughter of Robert Hopgood, 18 October, 1629. 

, daughter of John Hopgood of Hatherden, 4 September, 1 63 1 . 

Peter, son of Robert Hopgood, 13 December, 1631. 

John, son of Thomas Hopgood, 2 April, 1632. 
Kath. daughter of Richard Hopgood, 24 October, 1633. 
William, son of John Hopgood, of Widhearn, 18 January, 1633. 
Richard, son to Robert Hopgood, 10 December, 1637. 
Thomas, son to John Hopgood, 27 February, 1637. 


Elizabeth, daughter to Robert Hopgood, 21 July, 1639. 

to Robert Hopgood, 14 September, 1642. 

28 August, 1889. 
Warren Hapgood, Esq. : 

Dear Sir : Yours of 7th inst. received. That suggestion meant 
to be /respective as well, and not simply retrospective. 

As to getting much, how can one ever say ? On this Washington 
matter I may be said to have been working six years. The first 
decided step was taken only after I had been here a year or a little 
more, and then I had to possess my soul in patience for the space 
of four years before taking the next step. Since then it has been 
altogether plainer sailing, and I have been able to move over the 
ground rapidly. 

I have made up my mind never to promise anything in way of 
results. The only thing I can promise is to give my attention to a 

Yours sincerely, 

Henry F. Waters. 

We publish the following letter in its entirety, thinking it may 
throw some light upon the difficulty that besets one when he attempts 
to obtain genealogical information from the mother country : 

12 Whitehall Place, 
London, S.W., December 28, 1894. 
Mr. W. Hapgood : 

My dear Sir : When I received your letter I was laid up by a 
bad accident, from the effects of which I have not yet recovered, 
and I trust you will therefore excuse my not having replied to you 

I am afraid I am not able at present to give you much informa- 
tion beyond what you already possess about our ancestry ; indeed, I 
was not aware of so much as you have discovered. 

Our name in the three forms which you mention is an uncommon 
one in England, except in Hampshire and Dorsetshire. My grand- 
father came out of Dorsetshire into Hampshire about the close of 


the last century, and I know next to nothing about our family before 
his time. I think they must have been Dorset yeomen. None of 
my relatives on my father's side are now (I believe) living except 
my brothers and sister, and they cannot help me. 

As to the ancestors believed to have lived near Andover, I can 
say this, that some years ago 1 heard that there was formerly a 
family of our name at Weyhill, near that town, which had, however, 
disappeared. I shall probably, all being well, see a friend at 
Andover before long who may be able to tell me more about these 
Hapgoods. I will not fail to keep your letter in mind, and will 
take any opportunity I can to get further information for you from 
this or any other source. I cannot think of any other persons who 
would be likely to be able to assist you more than I can. 
1 remain, dear sir, 

Your faithful servant and namesake, 

H. J. Hapgood. 



Abraham Hapgood appears on the Lexington alarm roll, as a 

private in Capt. John Hayward's Co., of Col. Abijah Pierce's 

Regt., which marched from Acton, Mass., April 19, 1775. 

Time of service 10 days. 

Mass. Arc/lives, vol. 12, page 116. 

Abraham Hapgood, as 2d Corporal in Capt. Israel Heald's Co., 
of Col. Eleazer Brooks' Regt., marched from Acton to Rox- 
bury, March 4, 1776. Time of service 6 months. 

Vol. 20, page j6. 

Abraham Hapgood appears among a list of men drafted by 
Capt. Simon Hunt, under a resolve of Aug. S, 1777, to rein- 
force the Continental Army. Dated Acton, Aug. 14, 1777. 
Returns made to Col. Eleazer Brooks. 

Vol. 5J, page igo. 

Abraham Hapgood appears on the muster and pay roll as a pri- 
vate in Capt. George Minott's Co., of Col. Sam. Bullard's 
Regt. Enlisted Aug. 16, 1777; discharged Nov. 30, 1777. 
Service performed was in the Northern Department. 

Vol. 21, page jg. 

Abraham Hapgood appears among a list of officers of the Mass. 
Militia, as 2d Lieut, in Capt. Daniel Davis' Co., of the 3d 


Middlesex County Regt., under command of Colonel Faulk- 
ner. Commissioned June 7, 1780. 

Vol. 28, page 66. 

Asa Hapgood of Bfirre appears as a private on the muster and 
pay roll of Capt. William Henry's Co., in Colonel Whit- 
ney's Regt., for service at Rhode Island on the alarm. En- 
listed May 5, 1777; discharged July 5, 1777. 

Vol. 2, page no. 

Asa Hapgood of Barre enlisted Sept. 26, 1777, as a private, in 
Capt. Benj. Nye's Co., of Maj. Jonas Wilder's Regt., 
which marched to assist the Northern Army. Discharged 
Oct. 18, 1777. 

Vol. 2T, page i2g. 

Daniel Hapgood of Stowe appears on the Lexington Alarm 
Roll, as corporal, in William Whitcomb's Co., of Col. 
James Prescott's Regt. Time of service 8 days. 

Vol. 13, page 168. 

Daniel Hapgood appears as a private on the muster and pay 
roll of Capt. Silas Taylor's Co., in Col. Jonathan Reed's 
Regt. Enlisted Oct. i, 1777; discharged Nov. 8, 1777. 

This was a company of volunteers w^hich marched by 
resolve of Sept. 32, i777' ^^ J*^^" ^^^^ army under General 
Gates. He was a sergeant, serving as a volunteer. 

Vol. 2j, page lyg. 

Dec", (probably Daniel) Hapgood appears among a "list of 
men belonging to the alarm list " in Capt. Benj. Munroe's 
6th Co., of the 4th Regt. Dated December, 1776. 

Vol. 32, page S4a. 

Ephraim Hapgood of Acton appears as a private on the mus- 
ter and pay roll of Capt. Israel Heald's Co., in Col. Eleazer 
Brooks' Regt., which marched to Roxbury March 4, 1776. 
Time of service 6 days. 

Vol. 20, page 76. 

Hezekiah Hapgood appears as a private on the muster and 
pay roll of Capt. Edward Longley's Co., in Colonel Cog- 
well's Regt. Enlisted Oct. 1, 1778; discharged Dec. 31, 


177S. This company was detached for the purpose ot 
guarding and fortifying the ports in and near Boston. 

Vol. 2/, page jj. 

Jonathan Hapgood appears among a list of field officers of the 
Mass. Militia as ist Major in the ist Middlesex County 
Regt., Col. Oliver Prescott in command. Commission 
dated Aug. 30, 1775. 

Vol. 28^ pages 57, g^. 

Jonathan Hapgood was chosen by Legislature Feb. 15, 1776, as 
ist Major of Col. Henry Gardner's Regt. Commissioned in 
Council. This commission was declined. 

Vol. 41, page 134. 

Jonathan Hapgood was chosen ist Major of the 4th Middlesex 
County Regt. under command of Col. Ezekiel Howe, Com- 
missioned May 10, 1776. This was a second appointment, 
the first having been declined. 

Vol. 28, pages 9/, J04. 

Jonathan Hapgood appears in an official record of a ballot by 
the House of Representatives, Feb. 25, 1779, as Lieutenant- 
Colonel of 4th Regt. of Militia in Middlesex County, Col. 
Cyprian Howe, Commander. Appointment concurred in by 
the Council, Feb. 26, 1779. 

Vol. 221, page 300. 

Nathaniel Hapgood appears on the muster and pay roll as a 
private in Capt. John Buttrick's Co., of Col. Reed's Regt. 
He enlisted Sept. 28, 1777; w^as discharged Nov. 7, 1777. 
A volunteer company which served at the taking of Bur- 
goyne's army in 1777 ; Colonel Buttrick went as captain. 

Vol. s^, page 28 L. 

Nathaniel Hapgood appears on the muster and pay roll of 
Capt. Francis Brown's Co., in Colonel Mcintosh's Regt. 
Enlisted Aug. 4, 1778; discharged Sept. 11, 1778. Served 
in General Lovell's brigade on the Rhode Island alarm. 

Vol. I, page go. 

Nathaniel Hapgood appears on the muster and pay roll of 
Capt. Joshua Walker's Co., in Col. Samuel Denny's Regt. 
Enlisted Oct. 23, 1779; discharged Nov. 23, 1779. De- 


tached to join the Continental Army at Claverack. Raised 
for 3 months by resolve of the General Court, Oct. 9, i779* 
Roll dated at Woburn. 

Vol. 3, page 2jg. 

Sam. Hapgood appeai-s on the Lexington alarm roll as 
private in Capt. William Whitemore's Co., of Col. James 
Prescott's Regt., which marched on the alarm of April 19, 
1775, from Stowe. Length of service, 3 days. 

Vol. ij, p»ge 16S. 

Shadracii Hapgood appears on the muster and pay roll as a 
private in Capt. Sam. Hill's Co., of Col. Josiah Whitney's 
Reg. Enlisted Oct. 2, 1777; discharged Oct. 26, 1777. 
Service 24 days; marched from Harvard. Under Lieu.- 
Col. Ephraim Sawyer for service in the Northern Army. 

Vol. ig, pages i6g, 218. 

Shadrack Hapgood of Lancaster appears as a private on the 
Lexington alarm roll of April 19, 1775. 

Vol. 12, page 95. 

Shadrach Hapgood of Harvard appears on the muster and 
pay roll as a private in Capt. Samuel Hill's Co., of Col. 
Josiah Whitney's Regt., which marched on the Bennington 
alarm. Enlisted Aug. 19, 1777; discharged Aug. 23, 

Vol. 20, page 2j. 

Thomas Hapgood of Bolton or Princeton appears as a 
sergeant on the muster and pay roll of Capt. James Mirick's 
Co., in Col. Whitney's Regt., which marched under com- 
mand of Lieut. -Col. Ephraim Sawyer, Jr., to reinforce 
General Gates at Saratoga. Enlisted Oct. 2, 1777; dis- 
charged Oct. iS, 1777. 

Vol. 21, pages iig, 122. 

Thomas Hapgood appears on the muster and pay roll as a 
private, in Capt. William Morse's Co., of Col. Jona Read's 
Regt. Enlisted Oct. 2, 1777; discharged Nov. 8, 1777; 
belonged to Marlboro. This was a company of volunteers 
which marched to assist General Gates, under resolve of 
Sept. 22, 1777. 

Vol. 21, page 83. 




Carpenter, Ezra J., enlisted Aug. 23, 1864; mustered out June 7, 
1865. Page 107. 

Felton, Levi L., enlisted in a company of the Heavy Artillery. 

Page 285. 
Florence, William, enlisted July 25, 1862 ; discharged for ill health 
March 5, 1863. Page 214. 

Ford, Oscar Rodolphus, engineer in U. S. Navy in 1862. 

Page 92. 
Gates, FrankUn, enUsted Jan. 5, 1864, in 15th Massachusetts Bat- 
tery; mustered out Aug. 4, 1865. Page 54. 
Hapgood, Albion Danvill, enUsted Jan. 4, 1863 : mustered out at 
the close of the war. Page 136. 
" Andrew Sprout, enhsted in 1861 ; discharged at expira- 
tion of term of service. Page 98. 
" Cephas Jonathan, enhsted in the navy 1863. Page 284. 
" Charles Burt, enlisted in 1862, served to the close of the 
war. Page 263. 
" Charles Edward (Colonel), commissioned October 12, 
Captain in 5th Regiment New Hampshire Volunteers ; 
mustered out as Colonel in 1865. P^g^ 3^9- 
" Charles F., in 23d Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers; 
died on board ship Aug. 8, 1863. Page 254. 
" Charles Henry, enlisted in Company C, 15 th Regiment 
Massachusetts Volunteers. Page in. 
" Charles Manning, enlisted Oct. 31, 1861 ; discharged 
Oct. 31, 1864. Page 329. 


Hapgood, Frank Leander, enlisted Sept. 25, 1862 ; died in Baltimore. 

Page 280. 
George Washington (Sergeant), enlisted Sept. 13, 1861 ; 
discharged Aug. 10, 1865. Page 247. 

Henry, enlisted Aug. 31, 1862 ; died from effects of 
service Nov. 25, 1863. Page 89 

Howard, enlisted in Co. D, 14 2d Regiment, New York 
Volunteers; killed in battle May 10, 1864. Page 107. 
John Henry, enlisted in naval service on the " Potomac," 
under Admiral Farragut. Page 295. 

Joseph Henry, enhsted July 12, 1861, for three years; re- 
enlisted Nov. 22, 1864, in 5th Regiment Maryland 
Volunteers; discharged Sept. i, 1865. Page 300. 
Julian Weeks, enlisted Aug. 15, 1862; discharged June 
7, 1865. Page 319. 

Lemuel Bicknell, enlisted in 1862 ; mustered out in 1865. 

Page 152. 
Luther, enhsted July 13, 1862 ; discharged July 13, 1865. 

Page 218. 

Luther Maynard, enlisted July 12, 1861 ; discharged for 

disability. Page 299. 

Luther Sawyer, enlisted in 1861 ; served to the end of the 

war. Page 331. 

Oliver (Sergeant), enlisted in 1861 ; killed in battle June 

30, 1862. Page 143. 

Reuben Henry, enlisted Feb. 27, 1864; died in New 

Orleans. Page 286. 

Reuben Leander, enlisted Sept. 25, 1862 ; mustered out 

July 27, 1863. Page 278. 

Harlow, Charles Ellis (Corporal), enlisted Aug. 25, 1862 ; died in 

service March 2, 1864. Page 71. 

Hill, Charles H., enlisted in the nth New York Battery. Page 295. 

Leonard, John Hiram, enlisted Sept. 14, 1861, for three years; 

mustered out in 1864. Page 114. 

Lewis, Marshall James, enlisted Aug. 22, 1864 ; discharged June 17, 

1865. Page 233. 


Lewis, Albert Jerome, enlisted Aug. 22, 1864; discharged June 17, 
1865. Page 233. 

Stockwell, Cyrus Hapgood (Sergeant), enlisted in 77th Regiment 
Illinois Volunteers; died in service May 13, 1864. Page 85. 

Taylor, Charles Henry, enlisted in 1861 in the 38th Regiment 
Massachusetts Volunteers; wounded June 14, 1863. Page 215. 

Wells, Morrice Berry, enlisted in Company C, Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers. Page 195. 

VVhittaker, Jason David, enlisted July 12, 1864 ; discharged for disa- 
bility, Sept. 20, 1864. Page 234. 


The supplement contains a variety of articles written by 
the compiler of the genealogy while in active business, 
running through a period of many years upon widely 
different subjects, mostly, however, of a sporting character, 
which appeared in the public journals, from time to time, as 
they were produced. Some of these papers will not be 
likely to interest the general reader, and they are not here 
collected with that expectation, but in the hope that some 
of our younger readers, with sporting proclivities, may be 
attracted by them and profit by our experience and life-long 
amusements. To be a sportsman one should be a hearty 
admirer of nature and her stupendous and wonderful works, 
lofty mountains, noble forests, running brooks, precipice 
and prairie, and the ways and habits of their multitudinous 
inhabitants. If all these do not bring joy to his heart and 
elevate his soul, he is no sportsman, and had better let his 
faculties drift into some other field. Nor would we advise 
any one to follow our example unless he intends to cheat the 
undertaker, as we think we have, by prolonging life beyond 
the four-score limit. Every one must, however, have some 
amusement. The old maxim, " All work and no play makes 
Jack a dull boy," is as true now as in the days of the fathers. 
The article on "Brant " — the first of the series — was the 
first long paper that fell from our pen, and this was so highly 
commended as to induce us to continue the very agreeable 
pastime. We would advise our young friends to form the 
habit of writing articles for the press, on familiar topics, 
with that thoughtful care required, as teaching methods 
of clearness of statement, a proper selection of words to 
express thoughts, training the mind to analyze material, 


strengthening the memory, and in many other ways useful. 
The chase has ever produced a race of brave and hardy men, 
in whom keenness of perception and courage in execution 
go hand in hand with sound judgment as to final results. 
A sportsman is one who pursues game for the pleasure it 
affords him, with due regard to time and season, so as not to 
destroy or unreasonably waste the same. A pot-hunter is a 
person who pursues game at any and all seasons, without 
regard to its final destruction, simply for what he can get out 
of it as a day laborer. He is a mercenary destroyer, in 
whom the soul-stirring sentiments of the sportsman have 
become extinct. 

The Author. 

ir^ mm» fJKit.^'^i 




{Anser bernicla — Bon.) 

Their Habits — Migrations — Breeding Places. 

(From Forest and Stream.) 

None of our game birds are, perhaps, so little known as the brant of 
the east coast of North America and Arctic region. This bird must not 
be confounded with the brant of the Mississippi Valley (Anser Albi- 
frons — Aud.), or with that of the Pacific {Anser Nigrican — Law.). 
The subject of these remarks has been so often and so accurately de- 
scribed by ornithologists as to require no further specific characterization. 
We would, however, remark that our observation has led us to believe 
there is no sexual difference in plumage or size. The young birds are 
a shade paler brown than the old ones, and have the wing coverts more 
deeply margined with white. They are exclusive and reserved in their 
habits, never consorting with other fowl. They hiss at one approaching 
as other geese do, and their "ruck, ruck," and ''r-r-ronk, r-ronk," when 
trilled off by an expert, is not altogether unmusical. They travel within 
circumscribed limits, and are not like other birds scattered and diffused 
over the continent. As far as we know, they have never been bred or 
domesticated in this country or England. Their domestic life, the order 
of the family, the food of the young, their growth and development, is 
entirely unknown. No one has at any time, we presume, studied their 
habits from birth to maturity, and consequently that great field for study- 
ing character — the home — is lost to us. 

We have had good opportunity for observing their habits during their 
migrations at Cape Cod for more than twenty years, and we learn that 
at other migratory points their habits are identical. The M. B. Club 
has for many years kept as decoys all the way from six to twenty of 
these birds, but in no instance have they exhibited any connubial desire. 
Some years since, the club presented half a dozen of the birds to a 
wealthy bird fancier in this vicinity for the purpose of breeding, but the 
scheme totally failed. Another party has three fine specimens that are 
allowed by day to roam about the house with other fowl, but they, in 
common with all their fellows, are first shorn of the tip of a wing to pre- 
vent their speedy departure. Nor have these shown any reproductive 
proclivities. While in bondage they drink fresh water, but in a normal 
condition, if they drink at all, it is of salt water. Their food is wholly 
vegetable, consisting of eel grass and other marine growths. We have 
never seen them partake of fish, or any of the myriads of animal life 


that infest our shores. Their excrementary deposits indicate entirely 
vegetable diet, and as they never dive except when wounded and pur- 
sued, they must feed where the water is less than two feet deep. Corn 
alone constitutes the bill of fare of the decoys. From our stand-point 
on Cape Cod, we should say, in ordinary seasons brant begin to arrive 
and depart early in March, and they continue coming and going till the 
end of April. At times there are immense numbers on the feeding 
ground. They are too wise to set out upon a long voyage in the teeth 
of a northeasterly storm; but let the wind haul to southwest, and one 
will see those nearest shore gobble a quantity of sand, — " take in 
ballast," as the natives say, — lift up and swing round, often two or three 
times to get the proper altitude, then strike out over the beach in an 
east northeast direction, and with such precision as to provoke the 
remark that each leader must carry a compass in the top of his head to 
steer by. There is no day during the season above named when there 
are not more or less brant at this point, and with proper appliances and 
skilful management large numbers of them may be slaughtered, but no 
sport is more dubious than this brant shooting. The tides, wind, and 
weather all have their influence, and the birds are often very freakish 
and do not decoy well. The course they lay in departing is further on, 
somewhat deflected, so as to bring them into the Bay of Fundy, up 
which they pass, lifting over the narrow neck of land to Northumber- 
land Straits, where again they find shoal water and good feeding ground. 
Here, and along the shore of Prince Edward's Island, they "feed and 
batten " till the end of May or fore part of June, when they push along 
still further north. Between Cape Cod and Prince Edward's Island 
they rarely stop, except when compelled to do so by hard winds or a 
storm, nor have they at any time ventured far inland or out to sea. 
Here, however, with an accumulation of strength and adipose matter, 
they are prepared for the long, tedious, and possibly somewhat dan- 
gerous journey that is before them. Leaving the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
they proceed along to westward of the Island of Anticosti, and at 65° or 
66" west longitude, strike out boldly over the land in a northwesterly 
direction to the Arctic Ocean. Navigators on Hudson's Bay have not 
spoken of seeing them in such numbers as to warrant the belief that 
they make any considerable stop there. Their line of flight from the 
St. Lawrence to the Arctic is not definitely known, and yet it is certain 
they pass north between Boothia and Victoria Land, and between Mel- 
ville Island and North Devon. Whether in the long journey they are 
guided by certain isothermal lines, influenced by electric currents, or 
drawn thither by the magnetic pole, which is represented as being at 
about latitude 70° 10' — west longitude 96° 5' — is not known. That 
they do arrive in the vicinity of Melville Island in vast numbers, and 


that they pass along Wellington Channel and other Arctic waters to still 
more northern feeding and breeding grounds, is well authenticated. We 
assume then that all the other swimming birds — the eiders, auks, gulls, 
swan, etc., travel and breed along the coast of Labrador, Baffin's Bay, 
and Smith's Sound, while the brant do not. They take a widely different 
route and go much further north than the great mass of other birds. 
What we know, all we know in fact, of the birds away up in this in- 
hospitable region, is gathered from the fragmentary narration of Arctic 
explorers, and from the birds themselves. That they do go north of 70°, 
or even 82° north latitude, and go in large flocks, we will further on 
undertake to prove. We do not assume that all the brant go north of 
82°, but that nearly all that intend to reproduce their young, do. Some 
from weakness or weariness, caused by the long journey, or possibly 
from the pressure of the egg for extrusion, or other causes, may drop 
out of the flock and hence be seen in summer south of 70° north latitude. 
Again, some may linger with no intention of breeding, as do the other 
geese. Sir John Richardson says of geese (Vol. I, p. 251): "There are 
a considerable number who do not breed, but keep in small bands and 
are called barren geese. Of these we saw several flocks." Among the 
earlier Arctic explorers the opinion evidently prevailed that brant did 
not go so far north to breed. So late as 1848, Sir John Richardson 
writes: "In Coronation Gulf are many islands. Swan, snow geese, 
brant geese, eiders, . . . breed in immense numbers on these 
islands." Further on he says that they (brant) breed on Wollaston 
Land. They were going north, and he presumed they would stop there ; 
but now recent explorers have demonstrated his error. Hall, on his first 
expedition, saw brant at the mouth of the Jordan River, and others may 
have been seen in out-of-the-way places. The surgeon of the " Hecla" 
and " Griper," Alex. Fisher, on the i6th of July, remarks : " A party of 
six went out for a ten-days' hunt. They saw a great many brant, but 
only succeeded in killing a dozen." And further on, latitude 70" 30' — 
longitude 71° 15', on the third of September, 1820: " Saw two flocks of 
brant geese." June 12, while at Hooper's Island (near Melville), he 
observes : " We saw several ptarmigan and a great many of the geese so 
often mentioned in the course of our journey; ... of these birds 
we managed to shoot four during our stay, and found them to be brant 
geese. They weighed about four pounds each." Parry, on his first 
voyage to Melville Island, June 12, 1820, says: "The birds seen by 
our people were many brant geese and ptarmigan, several golden plover, 
one or two boatswains, and abundance of snow buntings." They were 
hurrying along north, just as they do at Cape Cod; in fact, they are 
always in a hurry; always on the alert. We have never seen them sit 
down like other fowl, head under wing, and sleep. 


McClure, while at Prince of Wales Straits, wrote the following: 
"The king and common eider, the pin-tail ducks, and the brant geese 
form their simple nests in spite of the prowling fox." As he does not 
speak of seeing a brant's nest, we are rather inclined to believe it was not 
there. We doubt, with a single exception, if any one has ever discovered 
or seen a brant's nest. McClintock, at Cape Bird, remarks (p. 290) : " I 
saw and shot a brant goose, seated upon an accessible ledge, and made 
a prize of four eggs." But apparantly fearing his reader might be led 
to believe it a common occurrence, appended the following: " It seemed 
strange that the bird should have selected so unusual a breeding place." 
Further on, at Boothia Felix, latitude 69° 50', longitude 96° 10' (p. 280) 
he says : " On the 8th of June the first ducks and brant geese were seen 
flying northward." At Bellot Straits (1858) he writes: "We cannot 
discover the nests of either ducks or geese." 

Dr. Kane, on his first voyage (1850), saw no brant till he arrived in 
the vicinity of Wellington Channel. So early as the 26th of Angus?, 
the brant began to be seen on the return voyage. He says (p. 160) : 
" If we add to these (the other birds) the crowding tenants of the 
air, the brant geese which now came in great cunoid flocks from the 
north by east." And again (p. 174): "Our solitary goose (one shot 
b) Murdaugh with a rifle on the wing) was the Anser bernicla, crowds 
of which now begin to fly over the land, and in a cunoid stream 
to the east of south." This " cunoid stream " rather puzzles us. If 
they fly in that shape in the Arctic region, it is different from what they 
move in New England. They generally fly irregularly in a line. That 
line is sometimes bent forward in the centre so as nearly to represent 
a V, but never continues so for any length of time. We should be in- 
clined to believe the birds described were Canada geese, were they not 
named specifically. And, besides, we presume Anser canadensis does 
not reach so high a latitude. Sir John Richardson says (Vol. I, p. 320): 
" The Canada geese breed throughout the woody districts (of North 
America), but do not reach the vicinity of the Arctic Sea." Again, writ- 
ing from Fort Confidence (Vol. II, p. 105): " The Canada geese come in 
the van (May 19), and remain breeding in the woody country." 

In this northern journey, from the vicinity of Wellington Channel, the 
brant take a northeast course which brings them to the north part of 
Smith's Sound, where they were seen by Kane, Morton, and others. 
We quote from Morton's statement (Kane's expedition): "June 21, 
1854, a flock of brant geese were coming down the valley of the lowland, 
and ducks were seen in crowds upon the open water. When we saw 
the geese first, they were apparently coming from the eastward ; they 
made a curve out to seaward, then turning, flew far ahead over the plain 
until they were lost to view, showing that their destination was inland. 


The general line of flight of the flock was to the northeast." This 
was near Cape Constitution, and about latitude 80° north. At Rens- 
salaer, Kane says (p. 302-3): "The brant geese had not been seen 
before, since entering Smith Straits. It is well known to the Polar 
traveler as a migratory bird of the American Continent. Like the others 
of the same family, it feeds upon vegetable matter, generally marine 
plants, with the adherent molluscous life. It is rarely or never seen in 
the interior, and from its habits may be regarded as singularly indic- 
ative of open water. The flocks of these birds, easily distinguished 
by their wedge-shaped line of flight, now crossed the water obliquely 
and disappeared over the land to the north and east. I have often shot 
these birds in Wellington Channel in latitude 74° 50' nearly six degrees 
to the south. They were then flying in the same direction." 

Dr. Hayes' sledge expedition reached Cape Lieber, latitude 81° 35', 
April, 1861, and found the nests and breeding places of many birds, but 
no brant. If further testimony were needed that these birds breed north 
of, and beyond, any human footprints, we would give the following from 
the last-named author: " Long lines of cackling geese were sailing far 
overhead, winging their way to some more remote point of Northness." 
(P. 382.) Again, July 7, he says : " I found a flock of brant geese, but 
could not discover their nests." (P. 411.) If they do breed along the 
shores of Bafiin's Bay and the Arctic Archipelago, it is very singular 
that none of these voyagers have spoken of finding their nests or eggs, 
as they do of the eiders and other birds. 

Captain Hall's first expedition reached Frobisher's Bay, June 24, 1861, 
and a party went ashore for eider ducks' eggs with the following result: 
" In ten minutes four of us gathered six dozen, and at another island, 
in twenty minutes, sixteen dozen and five." He makes no mention of 
brant in this vicinity. Again, July 23, he observes : " Duck were to be 
seen in every direction. . . . They were in such numbers that 
when above us they almost darkened the air." His second voyage was 
through Hudson's Bay, to King William's Land, but he does not speak 
of seeing brant. The third expedition — the unfortunate " Polaris " — 
reached 82° 29' north latitude, where he pens this sentence : " Seals, 
game, geese, ducks, musk cattle, wolves, fowls, bears, partridges, and 
lemmings are plenty." Our quotations from the brave men who have 
suffered untold hardships to discover a " Northwest passage," or "open 
Polar Sea," are, we submit, sufficient to establish the hypothesis that brant 
go north of 82° to breed, and that they go in large flocks. Any observer of 
the habits of birds knows very well that while they are in " large flocks," 
they are in no condition for breeding. Before nidification takes place, 
they " woo and wed," /. e. they pair and retire to solitary nooks for the 
seclusion of the little family, and although hugely gregarious at other 


times, during the breeding season we believe all the anserhice are strictly 
monogamous. Nor do we suppose all the birds go to one island, or 
arrive or depart at the same time. It takes from four to six weeks for 
all of them to pass a given point at Cape Cod or Prince Edward's Island, 
so that the last of the flight does not reach the Arctic Archipelago till 
late in June. Then see how brief a period they have to build their nests, 
incubate, and carry their young through the various stages of growth, 
from the tender days of infancy, to the self-sustaining period of maturity. 
It seems almost incredible that all this is accomplished in less than three 
months ! It so happens that some years there are no young brant. The 
cause of this, we presume, to be the shortness of the season, i. e. when 
the spring is backward and winter sets in early. When the young ice 
forms rapidly by the 3d of September the parent birds must abandon 
their progeny or perish with them. The law of self-preservation is 
stronger than the love of offspring, and with sorrowing hearts they bid 
adieu to the callow brood and wing their way to more genial climes. 
On the following spring the epicure will in vain call at the Parker House 
for the coveted morsel. 

We have spoken of the Arctic Archipelago as the place of nativity of 
these birds. It is possible that Greenland continues to and beyond the 
pole. Certain it is that these birds do not go into the middle of the 
ocean or " open Polar Sea " to lay their eggs and rear their young. 
They are not divers, and must feed on shore or in shoal water. It is 
probable that the region north of Greenland and around the pole is 
dotted all over with islands. The Austrian "Tegethoff " expedition of 
1872, which discovered Francis Joseph's Land, and other islands, has 
proved this theory further east, and we think the brant themselves have 
westward. The climate must be so warm as to produce marine vege- 
tables for food, and also to exempt the eggs from the possibility of 
■destruction by frost. There is something inexplicable in the temperature 
of these unexplored latitudes. The sun's rays fall more obliquely as we 
approach the pole, and yet it must be warmer than at 70° of north lati- 
tude. Is it not possible — nay, probable — that, in the wisdom of the 
Creator, some law exists whereby the sun's rays, on reaching a 
certain degree of obliquity, renew their heating power, which being 
intensified as it approaches the pole makes a comparatively warm 
climate there ? We know that a similar law exists in regard to water. 
Water diminishes in bulk as it cools down to 39:80", at which point 
it expands down to the freezing point. Let us suppose the law of 
solar heat to be cooling as the rays incline up to an angle of 45^, 
(or any other), and warming beyond that degree, and we are at once 
relieved from our brant dilemma. Another feature of the climate 
disturbs us. Dr. Kane discovered ice in Smith's Sound forty feet 


thick, and Koldeway, on the east coast of Greenland, sixty feet! The 
old navigator, Scoresby, in 1820, undertook to prove that this ice formed 
in mid-ocean; but this hypothesis is contrary to our observation. The 
first young ice is formed along the shore line, in shoal water, then pushes 
itself out into the bay or ocean. We presume, in the Arctic region the 
ice forms around the islands, then extends to meet that formed around 
other islands until it encases everything in its crystal folds. Then, as 
summer approaches, it is disengaged from the land or broken up by 
heavy gales, and drifts with the current down through Baffin's Bay, or 
between Spitzbergen and the coast of Greenland, where it melts and 
disappears. Of course, the ice first melts in spring, where it first froze 
in autumn, along the shore line, and is there first disengaged. Were it 
not so, the brant would not be able to get on to their feeding ground so 
early as the end of June, and consequently would not be able to repro- 
duce at all. Then there would seem to be scarcely time for the growth 
of marine plants for food. It may be foreordained by Divine wisdom 
that the tender herb may be dispensed with. We have observed, more 
especially in spring time, the decoys constantly pecking at the boards 
and decayed posts of their pen. They seem to hanker after decayed 
wood, and we have been led to suspect that this article forms no incon- 
siderable portion of their food in their boreal abode. Why should they 
eat up their pen? It is a curious way of obtaining their liberty, and 
yet we are well assured they devoutly desire this boon. They often try 
to fly or jump out of their pens, and when a flock is flying overhead in 
sight, they instantly and vociferously utter the call note, " r-r-ronk ! 
r-r-ronk ! " There is plenty of drift wood in the Arctic region which, in 
time, must decay. Captain John Franklin (afterwards Sir John) found, 
in 1821, at the mouth of Banks' River, a fine log of drift wood sufficient 
to cook a bear. McClure, at Banks' Land, 1851, discovered wood to the 
depth of forty feet. McClintock, and the other navigators in that 
quarter, speak of great quantities of drift wood along the coast of Green- 
land, and Parry finds the same thing at Spitzbergen. All the rivers of 
northern Asia, Europe, and America, as well as the swift currents of 
Behring's Straits, are constantly discharging their rich freight of drift 
wood into the Polar Sea, and if the brant do not feed upon it there, they 
act very different from what they do in bondage. Here, then, we may, 
in our mind's eye, see the different families isolated and scattered all 
over these islands, at the end of August or first of September, gathering 
and reuniting into large flocks ready for the long voyage south. Doubt- 
less many of the young are too feeble to endure the long journey, and 
either do not set out, or fall by the way. Their return is by nearly the 
same route they went thither. They make no stop at Cape Cod, unless 
compelled to do so by stress of weather, and the time of their passage is 


the latter part of October and whole of November, but at this season 
they are poor and not prized, either by sportsmen or epicures. They 
spend the winter months along shore from Barnegat to Florida, or, pos- 
sibly, the Gulf of Mexico, where they again recuperate, and on their 
return north, in spring, are regarded as among the finest fowl on our 

Boston, August 14, 1875. W. Hapgood. 


Record of An Attempt to Introduce European 
Quail into America. 

[J^rom Forest and Stream, ]. 

For several years gentlemen in this vicinity, who are interested in 
the preservation and propagation of game, have been discussing the 
practicability of introducing some new species of game birds into New 
England. When we consider how few we have of really game birds — 
birds that will lie to and are hunted with dogs — and these few growing 
fewer and fewer every year, the reason for this solicitude will be obvious. 
If we name partridges {Bonasa umbellus), quail {Ortyx virginianus), 
woodcock {Philohela minor), Wilson snipe {Gullinago wilsoni), we 
have enumerated about all that are worthy the attention or consideration 
of sportsmen. There are a few other species, some of which will lie 
to a dog, that are occasionally admitted to bag ; but to a true sportsman, 
who enjoys the manly and invigorating exercise of the field, they offer 
very little satisfaction. Among the indifferent birds, the spruce par- 
tridge {Canace canadensis), which inhabits the northern part of New 
England, is of good size, and will sometimes lie to a dog, but are not 
numerous. Their home is a great way off from sporting centres, in a 
region where there are very few other game birds ; are difficult to shoot, 
shying about in dense spruce or hemlock forests, and, gastronomically, 
are of no account, nor are they often on sale in our markets. 

We have at times several species of the rail family, but they arrive 
late and depart early, are here during the hottest weather, are found 
only in reedy bogs or filthy sloughs where no sportsman likes to go ; and 


although most game dogs will point them, they have no dignity of 
character, and while the dog honestly thinks he has game, the little 
Rallus is running, swimming, diving, flying — anything to sneak away 
and puzzle his pursuers until he is far over the bog or thick reeds, 
beyond reach, or, if reached, is a poor reward to dog and man, and in 
this latitude is almost never hunted '■'^ per se." Further south they are 
more abundant, and one may fill a bag or boat as he pleases. 

Along some of the hill-tops or valleys of New England one occasion- 
ally meets with a very delicious bird, the upland plover {Actiturus 
bartramius); but they will not lie to a dog or anything else, are very wary, 
will respond to no call note or decoy, and are hardly to be considered 
game birds in the sense we have indicated. 

There are a few other birds that are sometimes shot, among them the 
meadow \a.rk {S^urne//a tnagria), which most any bird dog will point; 
but the bird will lie as well to a man or cow as to a canine ; nor are they 
regarded as very gamy. 

Snipe shooting is, we believe, everywhere regarded as very fine sport, 
than which, in some sections of the United States, none is better. In 
New England — more particularly in the northern and eastern parts — 
none is, however, more uncertain or perplexing. They are here to-day 
and there to-morrow, never staying long in a place, and some seasons 
scarcely making an appearance at all, though, when found, lie tolerably 
well to a dog, and are a nice, palatable bird. We have been unable to 
suggest any of the Scolopacidce as a substitute or auxiliary. There are 
many species of the snipe in the world, but their habits are so nomadic 
as to render hopeless the task of localization or breeding. 

The woodcock is, to our mind, the crown jewel, the very ne plus 
ultra of all sport. To a man who loves a well-bred, well-trained dog, 
and also loves shooting in cover with — as dear old Isaak Walton used 
to say — "a companion that is cheerful and free from swearing," no 
bird gives so much pleasure, so much real joy and satisfaction, as this 
noble bird — the woodcock. They arrive in March, breed early, stay 
with us till November,'and would probably be quite plenty if we could 
enforce a law making all the year, except September, October, and 
November, a close season. But these birds are mercilessly pursued 
by old and young, in season and out of season, with all sorts and con- 
ditions of arms and animals, until it is almost impossible to make a 
respectable bag. It is believed that some of our finest woodcock 
sections have been ruined by the birds being killed in June on their 
breeding grounds, leaving none to return to the place of their nativity, 
as is their wont, on the following spring, to reproduce their young. 
Stringent laws have been granted by the legislature, but there seems to 
be no disposition on the part of the gunners to observe, or the authori- 


ties to enforce, these laws. Game laws are looked upon by most people 
as an infringement of their natural and inherent rights, to be spurned 
and trampled upon whenever and wherever encountered. The earlier 
settlers of New England had to contend with the savages and savage 
beasts for the soil they occupied, and only by the skilful use of the gun 
were they frequently saved from destruction. When starvation stood 
upon the threshold of the little hut, the gun brought the wished-for 
meat, and all were happy again. Hunting was a necessity, and what at 
first was a pinching necessity, afterward became a pleasant pastime. 
As game grew scarce, the aid of the legislature was invoked for its 
preservation, but many short-sighted persons declared that gunning and 
fishing had in this country ever been free, and so they must forever 
remain. And this is the spirit by which the friends of the protective 
system are met. Time, observation, statistics, our sporting literature, 
and intelligent sportsmen are doing much to obliterate these prejudices, 
and yet he who undertakes to correct or reform the habits or morals of 
a people, has before him no light task. But the question before us now 
is. Can we introduce any new species of waders that will take the place 
of or aid in preserving our woodcock? Would the European wood- 
cock {Scolopax rusticola\ if once planted here, be successful in its 
results? It is a splendid bird, larger than its congener this side the 
ocean, and if colonized would probably thrive well. It is, however, no 
easy matter to capture them in such numbers as would be required to 
stock a continent. It would be a grand enterprise, and we hope some 
magnanimous individual or rich club will do itself the honor of the 

The partridge is the largest of our game birds, and is eagerly sought, 
both for table and field. They are hardy, capable of enduring the 
severest weather, feeding in winter mostly on buds, and roosting upon 
trees, or plunging into soft snow to escape the cold and other enemies. If 
while thus encased in flaky folds, a light rain should fall and then 
suddenly freeze, so as to form a crust, they would be unable to extricate 
themselves, and quite likely in this way many would perish. But the 
most destructive enemy of the partridge is the snare or trap. An 
expert with these wicked and nefarious contrivances can, in a short 
time, "clean out " all the partridges within his reach. No species of 
bird can, we presume, be exterminated by the gun, while several may be 
with snares. 

Then we have the sharp-tailed growst{Pedioccetes phasianellus) of the 
Rocky Mountains, which would undoubtedly thrive well in the moun- 
tain regions of New England. They survive the winters there, why not 
here? We know that climate, soil, arul food have much to do with the 
successful planting and propagating new species of plants or animals. 


Many years ago some benevolent gentlemen undertook to colonize the 
pinnated grouse, or heath hens {Cupidonia cupido), on Cape Cod. 
Ample legal protection was thrown around them by the legislature, and 
it was believed they would in time spread and populate the whole 
commonwealth. But in place of doing this, they gradually dwindled 
away, most likely from want of food in that barren region, till none are 
left, save possibly a few on the island of Naushon. This may be 
another evidence in favor of Darwin's theory of the " Survival of the 
Fittest." Phasianellus may be one of these, while Cupido evidently is 
not. We hope, before another spring, some liberal-minded individual 
will not only stock the Green Mountain range with these noble birds, 
but also the heaths of Cape Cod. 

In Europe there are several of the partridge family that would 
undoubtedly thrive well in this country ; among them the English par- 
tridge {Perdix cincerea) is veryproHfic, feeding in corn and turnip fields, 
v/here they persist in staying, and if driven from one part, they 
immediately rally in another; but as they roost upon the ground 
huddled together, and are not migratory, it is somewhat problematical 
whether they would go through our hard winters. The latitude of 
Virginia would suit them splendidly, and would, we think, if once 
introduced, make a fine addition to their present stock of game birds. 

The red-legged partridge {Perdix rubra)oi France, was, about eighty 
years ago, introduced into England by the Marquis of Hertford and 
others, and has, in some counties, become very abundant. Its flesh is 
regarded inferior to Cinerea, but still is a great favorite with most 
sportsmen. We do not forget, however, that the winters in Old England 
are much milder than in New England. 

The boon we devoutly desire is a migratory bird. Our native quail is 
a toothsome, prolific, cunning, gamy little fellow, feeding chiefly on seeds 
and grains in winter, most of which are within a foot of the ground, all 
of which are at any time placed beyond his reach by a fall of two feet 
of snow. Nor is he a good traveler upon light snow. But it so happens 
that every few years a deep, damp snow falls in the night-time upon the 
birds as they are huddled together in a little circle, heads out, and if at 
such time a sudden change in the weather takes place, so as to freeze 
the surface, they can never escape. The bones of whole bevies have 
frequently been found as the snow melts away in the following spring. 
Nay, more; whole sections of country have in this way been depopu- 
lated, and then the anxious sportsman must wait long years till the few 
that escape in some remote corner have time to propagate and spread 
over the land so as to make good shooting again. . The consumer fares 
better, as he can get a supply from the South or West. These con- 
siderations have led to the inquiry as to whether there is not some of 
the quail family better adapted to our inhospitable climate. 


California quail (Lophoriyx californicus)2ir& a very numerous bird 
along the Pacific slopes of the mountains, as well as the plains, and at 
no distant day will, we trust, be transplanted on the Atlantic shores, 
where it is destined to become one of our most popular and interesting 
game birds. We understand they are partially migratory, /. e. they 
travel from the mountain regions to the plains below, or to the seaboard, 
where there is very little snow, and return again in spring. They lay a 
great many eggs; in some instances as many as twenty-four, and, to 
cover them, both parents incubate at the same time. Their food is quite 
similar to that of our quail, but they are more gregarious, often assem- 
bling in flocks of several hundred each. Another feature in their habits, 
and the one most favorable to their propagation here, is that, at the 
approach of evening, they run from the open fields to the thick oak 
forest trees, upon which they roost at night. If the habit of roosting 
on trees is universal, they would escape death by deep snows, and would 
certainly be a success here, if they could be supplied with food. By 
introducing three or four new species of game birds, we should attract 
a portion of the gunners from their old haunts, and thereby make better 
shooting for those who remain; and, further, we shall have added some- 
thing to our food supply, which is a subject worthy the attention of our 
wisest legislators. 

Of all the game birds that have come to our notice, the one that has 
most good qualities and best adapted to succeed and prosper in this 
country, is the common migratory quail of Europe {Coturnix com- 
tnunis\ or, as Mr. Baird prefers, Coturnix dactylisotians. They are 
about two-thirds the size of Ortyx virginianus, generally lighter color 
or rufous brown, suffused with fulvous ; bill slim, long and less arched; 
legs slender and nearly flesh color; wings larger in proportion than our 
quail, and the whole make-up more delicate. Their food is largely 
insectivorous, as their bills indicate. They lie well to a dog, and often 
do not all spring at once, but get up one or two at a time, and then give 
the gun an excellent opportunity to do its work. The bird is very com- 
mon all over Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa, going as far north as 
Scandinavia in summer to breed, but almost upon the first chill blast of 
autumn the warning note is given, and the little bevy is summoned to 
depart from the breeding ground to the more genial climate of the 
South. In September and October vast numbers of them are seen 
along the northern shores of the Mediterranean preparing for the long 
flight across the sea to North Africa, where they pass the winter, and, 
it is said, bring out another brood of young. The nearest point at 
which they would be likely to cross must be about loo miles, which is 
a long flight for a bird with so large a body and so small a wing. 
Whether the two continents were originally more nearly united than at 
present, as is assumed by some of our savants, and the birds by the 


constant widening of the channel have been gradually educated to these 
long flights, is not a subject for discussion here. Certain it is that many 
on their passage are met by storms or adverse winds and perish in the 
sea. In April and May they return again in serried columns. 

On this continent we have very little conception of the vast numbers, 
the multitudinous millions of these birds. They have been the marvel 
of all generations from prehistoric periods to the present day. The 
language of the Pentateuch, the Psalms, and of the writers of ancient 
and modern times, would seem to warrant any extravagant expression 
we might use. " And it came to pass that even the quails came up and 
covered the camp." — Exodus xvi. 13. "And there went forth a wind 
from the Lord and brought quails from the sea and let them fall by the 
camp, as it were a day's journey on this side, and as it were a day's 
journey on the other side, round about the camp, and as it were two 
cubits high upon the face of the earth." — Numbers xi. 31. " The peo- 
ple asked, and he brought quails and satistied them." — Psalm cv. 40. 
Bellonius says : " When we sailed from Rhodes to Alexandria, about 
autumn, many quails flying from the north to the south were taken in our 
ship ; and sailing at springtime the contrary way, from the south to the 
north, I observed them on their return where many of them were taken in 
the same manner." Bumstead, in his very useful book for young sports- 
men, entitled "On the Wing," uses the following language: "It is 
recorded that on one occasion such a quantity of them appeared on the 
west coast of the kingdom of Naples that one hundred thousand were 
taken in a single day, and all within the space of six miles ; and on the 
island of Capri, not far from the city of Naples, so many were annually 
captured that they formed the principal source of the revenue of the 
bishop of that diocese, who, in consequence, rejoices in the title of the 
' Bishop of Quails.' " Quail fighting was one of the amusements of the 
Athenians, and in Italy and China at the present time large sums of 
money are staked upon the issue of a single combat, the same as with us 
upon the success of our game-cocks. They are sold in Naples and 
other markets for one or two cents a piece, and their return each season 
is hailed with joy by the peasants, as aiding to patch out their slender 
revenues. We must say, in view of all this, that we have not been with- 
out our fears, lest, if they were introduced into this country, they would 
in time become so numerous as to "waste and havoc" our grain fields. 
The world is said to be governed by equivalents, and it is possible that, 
in the wisdom of Divine Providence, the Fox gun was invented about 
the same time that the project of importing these birds was conceived, 
by the use of which, and other improved breech-loaders, our agricul- 
tural interests may be protected from these devouring hordes. So 
thoroughly impressed were we in favor of this prolific little foreigner, 
that he would fill a gap and furnish food for millions of our people, we 


set about finding some one who had been in Sicily or southern Italy that 
could give us some positive and reliable information about them. For 
this purpose we visited several ship masters then in port, but none of 
them had taken the slightest interest in the matter, nor did they evidently 
care to. We came pretty thoroughly to understand that sailing a ship 
and shooting quail were quite different occupations, and often developed 
dissimilar characteristics. We were about discouraged. At last we 
were put upon the track of Capt. P. M. Beal, of the bark Neptune, who 
had just arrived from Messina with a cargo of fruit and sulphur. The 
captain not being on board at the time of our call, we walked up and 
down the wharf, and as we gazed upon the tons of one part of the cargo, 
we were forcibly reminded of the lessons about the " bottomless pit " we 
received in early youth from our pious mother, and started for State 
street. A note soon brought us in contact with the captain, which amply 
rewarded us for all our trouble. He is a genial, intelligent, communi- 
cative gentleman, and withal an enthusiastic sportsman, generally taking 
on board a fine dog, with which, while in a foreign port discharging and 
taking in cargo, he manages to get a few days' shooting. He at once 
entered heartily into the spirit of our plan ; had often shot the quail, 
knew their habits, and would aid us in every way possible. He gave the 
name of his friend and brother sportsman in Messina, Dominick Fisher, 
who would be likely to take an interest in purchasing and forwarding 
the birds to us. The next voyage of Captain Beal was to the West 
Indies, and should we fail in getting the quail that spring, it was under- 
stood he would bring out two or three hundred on his next voyage to 
Messina the following winter. At once we addressed a note to Mr, 
Fisher, from which we make the following extract: 

Boston, March 27, 1875. 
Dominick Fisher, Esq., Messina: 

Dear Sir — Several sportsmen in this vicinity wish to try the experi- 
ment of introducing European quail {Coturnix communis) into this 
country. But "how are we to get them here?" This is the question 
that gives us most trouble . . . We would like to ask if, in your 
opinion, the birds can be obtained in numbers, say two or three hundred, 
and, if so, at what price ? At what season of the year can it be done ? 
Very truly yours, W. Hapgood. 

We presume the letter miscarried, as no answer was received. We 
must now wait till Captain Beal makes his autumn trip, hoping he may 
get out before the birds migrate for Africa. He did not, however, arrive 
till near December, when no birds were to be found, and he returned in 
the spring of 1876 to relate his trials and receive our condolence. What 
then was to be done ? We had worried through a whole year, and were 
no nearer the goal of our ambition than when we started. Shall we 
abandon the scheme altogether? No; we will "dwell in our necessity" 
till another fall, hoping our captain will get an early voyage "up the 


Straits," and our heart's desire realized. Not so; the gales that ushered 
in the autumn also wafted the '• Neptune," with our coadjutor on board, 
to the ports of Beyroot and Alexandria. We might send an order to 
Messina, but our success hitherto in that direction had not inspired us 
with much confidence; and, besides, these birds require a great deal of 
attention. They must be fed and watered regularly, their cages must be 
kept clean, and they must be free from a liability to be wet with salt 
water. We might for a consideration secure the services of a steward 
to perform this duty ; but if the birds were shipped via London or Liver- 
pool, would that service be transferred with them to the ship for Boston 
or New York? Neglect, mismanagement, a few days' delay, might dis- 
rupt our whole scheme. Rather than run this risk we preferred to take 
our chance of getting them at Beyroot or Alexandria, as Captain Beal 
had orders before he sailed to bring with him as many as he could, 
knowing as we did that they would receive the very best of care. He 
came very near securing 150 at Alexandria, but just as the prize was 
about to be clutched, it slipped, and he came home in early spring empty- 
handed. Now comes another voyage to the West Indies, but previous 
to his sailing we instructed him to write to his friend Fisher to ship two 
or three hundred of the quail, dividing the lot, if he thought best, send- 
ing one moiety to New York, and the other to Boston, or the whole to 
either place. They were to be consigned, care of Adams & Co.'s Ex- 
press, to John H. Whitcomb, of Ayer Junction, Mass., who had from 
the very first been one of the warmest friends of the enterprise, for dis- 
tribution. Late in May we had the satisfaction of receiving a letter 
from our correspondent, so positive and hearty that we make the follow- 
ing extracts, which will sufficiently explain itself : 

Messina, May 5, 1877. 
Warren Hapgood, Esq., Boston, Mass.: 

Dear Sir — In pursuance of a letter received from Captain Beal, I 
hereby beg leave to inform you that I have to-day shipped by the Eng. 
S. S. J. B. Walker, bound to New York, two cages containing 250 quails, 
addressed to John H. Whitcomb, Esq., Ayer Junction, Mass., care 
Adams' Express Co. . . . Hoping they will reach New York in 
good condition, I remain, dear sir, respectfully yours, 

Dominick Fisher. 

The J. B. Walker arrived in New York on June 5, but owing to some 
misunderstanding of Adams & Co.'s express, the birds were not delivered 
to Mr. Whitcomb until a week later. Mr. Fisher took particular pains 
to have a couple of nice cages made for the comfort and safety of our 
little pets, laid in a large stock of hempseed for food, and for personal 
attention on the voyage gave the steward two pounds sterling, and other- 
wise took every precaution that friendship or interest could dictate. 
Whatever may happen to the birds, we shall ever feel grateful to him for 
his kindness. From some cause or other, 61 were lost on the passage, 


leaving us but 189 for distribution. By the best observers of the habits, 
of quail, it is understood there is a law regulating their breeding. For 
instance; a section of country or even part of a township that is over- 
stocked, /". e. when there are already too many for the supply of food in 
that section, they will not pair or breed the following season, but will re- 
main in flocks or bevies. That food supply has great influence on the 
reproductiveness of both animals and man is a well-established fact. It 
was therefore decided not to liberate all the birds in one place. They 
might find plenty of food to their liking in one town but fail to do so in 
another. Foxes or other enemies might destroy them in one place but 
not in another, and for the greater security, the more certain perpetuity 
of our little colony, they were scattered in several of the counties in the 
eastern part of the State. The most serious objection to the division 
was that the plumage of the sexes is so nearly alike it was found very 
difficult to select them in pairs. And here let us pause for a word in 
explanation. It might be inferred from the foregoing that we claim to 
have originated and consummated the only plan for stocking this country 
with European quail. We wish it understood distinctly that we put 
forth no such claim. We have simply narrated our own griefs and joys 
— our own failures and final triumphs, not wishing in the slightest 
degree to detract from others, nor would it become us to attempt to 
portray the trials and annoyances of others who are much better able to 
do it for themselves, and yet we would venture a few words in this direc- 
tion. The Hon. Martin G. Everts, of Rutland, Vt., we understand, 
had conceived the idea of importing these birds, and had actually 
moved in the matter as early, or even earlier, than the period at which 
parties here had begun to agitate or discuss the subject. His letters 
largely antedate ours, and although at first each acted independently 
and without the knowledge of the other, later it was known to 
each that the other was struggling to get the birds out for the 
purpose of colonizing, and each would cheerfully, if he could, aid the 
other. It was a most singular circumstance that after years of delay 
and disappointment, each operating through different agents — he 
through Consul Owens, and we through Mr. Fisher, without any concert 
of action whatever — at last our birds should happen to be shipped on 
board the same vessel and arrive at the same time. And yet such is the 
fact. Of the 200 birds invoiced to him only three were lost. By skilful 
management of transportation his birds were delivered to him and 
liberated a few days before ours were, and if any one is entitled to the 
credit of first planting in this country the migratory quail of Europe 
that man is the Hon. Martin G. Everts, of Rutland, Vermont. 
And now the birds are here what will they do ? -. They have frequently 
been seen since they were liberated, and it is thought they have mated 
or paired, which looks well for their future family relations, though we 

Ximicola: — Sbore=:©irOs. 


are not certain that any nests or eggs have been discovered. If they 
breed, will they in this new and strange land, as the winter draws near, 
with their little families, migrate ? If they migrate, will they strike 
boldly out to sea, thinking they are to cross the Mediterranean and thus 
perish, or will they follow the coast line or a more inland route to 
Florida? Will they pass the winter there or cross over to Cuba, and 
there intermarry with their non-migratory cousins {Ortyx cabanensis), 
and so mix themselves up with their mean relations as to lose their 
identity and forget to return? Or, again, will they nobly fulfill their 
mission and sustain the confidence we reposed in them when we brought 
them out of the land of Egypt? Or, still again, will they forsake their 
migratory habits and stupidly squat down here in the very jaws of relent- 
less winter, where certain death awaits them ? If they once go South to 
pass the winter and return the following spring our triumph is complete. 
But will they do this? " Nous verrons.'''' W. Hapgood. 

Boston, July 28, 1877. 

P. S. — Since writing the above, a note from Mr. Everts informs us 
that the birds in his neighborhood have brought out several large broods, 
and he is quite sanguine of success. W. H. 

SHORE BIRDS. — L/w/^^/^. 

\Forest and Stream.] 

It was in the month of April, 1868, that we made our debut as a duck 
shooter on a Western prairie. Born and bred almost within the sound 
of the breakers on " New England's rock-bound coast," we had been 
taught to believe that the shore birds — Limicolee — were, with few 
exceptions, confined to the seaboard, and when we saw large flocks 
of several species of these birds feeding on the prairies we could 
scarcely believe our eyes, nor would anything short of a dead speci- 
men in hand satisfy us of our errors. A golden plover {Charadrius 
virginicus, Borck.) was secured and found to be identical in every 
particular with the golden plover of the Atlantic coast; and, notwith- 
standing Professor Baird had many years earlier declared their habitat to 
be " all of North America, and visiting also other continents," we could not 
somehow seem to realize the fact that they were so abundant at so great 
a distance from the seashore. Other species were also observed, notably 


sickle-billed curlew {Numenius longirostris, Wils.), Esquimaux curlew 
(Numenius borealis, Lath.), summer yellow-legs (Totanus flavipes, 
Vieill.), and pectoral sand-pipers {Tringa pectoralis. Say.). We 
endeavored to glean from intelligent gunners of that region some 
information relating to the habits, food, migrations, etc., of these birds, 
but our labors in this direction were vain and futile. The fact was 
patent that no one cared to waste time or ammunition on such "small 
birds " as plover or curlew when deer, swan, geese, ducks, and their 
congeners were abundant in every direction. Another very serious 
obstacle in the way of our inquiries was encountered, viz., synonymy, 
We found it very difficult to make ourselves understood when under- 
taking to describe a particular species, so very different are the local 
names of birds. 

Sportsmen, as a general rule, are quick, keen, and intelligent, but not 
always literary people, and in the absence of scientific terms — some 
common platform upon which both parties could stand — our progress 
was very slow and unsatisfactory. We cannot always account for the 
origin or introduction and retention of such a diversity of common 
names for our feathered friends. It certainly is a great barrier to the 
acquisition of knowledge upon these topics. Names that are familiar 
as household words in one section are entirely unknown in another. It 
is about as perplexing as when two persons speaking different languages 
attempt to carry on a conversation. For instance, the first bird we have 
named above was not known in the West where we were located as a 
plover at all, but as a " prairie pigeon." The turnstone in Massachusetts 
is commonly called " chicken bird," but elsewhere " calico back." A 
pectoral sandpiper in our section is "jack Snipe," and in others 
"krieker," "grass snipe," etc. One often hears in the West, or even 
on Long Island, the name " Dowitcher," but that cognomen would not be 
recognized in Massachusetts as referring to red-breasted snipe {Macror- 
hamphus grisezts^ Leach), but if the bird was called " brown back,""'he 
would be instantly acknowledged. A " redbreast " (7>/«_^'a canutus, 
Linn.) is variously known as "robin snipe," " grayback " and "knot." 
The marlin of the West is the marble godwit {Limosa fedoa, Ord.) of 
the East, and so on ad injifntum. This unhappy state of affairs should 
no longer exist. We have monetary, railroad, religious, and other 
conferences to harmonize conflicting interests or opinions, fix values 
and establish rules of action. Why not have a national or universal 
conference to establish a uniform nomenclature for our birds ? Possibly 
the urbane individual who occupies the editorial chair of Forest and 
Stream, and exercises a sort of autocratic influence over the sportsmen 
of this country, would undertake to bring about this much-needed 
reform. Whoever shall accomplish this will receive the gratitude of 
thousands of sportsmen, and his name would go down to posterity as a 


benefactor to the race. The past ten or fifteen years has witnessed a 
vast improvement in our sporting literature and knowledge of birds. 
The works of Baird, Brewer, Coues, and the rest will ever stand as 
proud monuments of their labors and successes. Much more is to be 
done. The field is still open. May we not hope the future will raise up 
laborers worthy to wear the mantle of their predecessors and to carry 
forward the work so nobly begun ? 

We puzzled over this matter of the shore birds for many years, trying 
to discover some satisfactory theory that would account for their move- 
ments and idiosyncracies. Why should certain species divide, one part 
going up the Valley of the Mississippi and the other via the Atlantic 
coast, to their northern breeding grounds.'* Why should some numerous 
species all together follow the former and others the latter route? 
Again, why do some of them proceed by the one route and return by the 
other? The inquiry seemed to lead to the conclusion that golden plover, 
Esquimaux curlew, summer yellow-legs, and a few other species, did take 
the broad valley of the " Father of Waters " for a highway northward in 
spring, but that the great mass of the adults did not return by the same 
road. A few of each species of young, or such as do not breed, may 
return by the route indicated. Then it was ascertained that the above- 
named species did not appear on the Atlantic coast in spring-time, but 
that all of them were abundant in autumn, both old and young. With 
the birds, as with ourselves, food supply is of the most vital importance. 
If we study the habits of these birds in relation to their food, we shall 
find, to some extent, that the species that travel up the Mississippi 
Valley are of the class that run about on the fields and prairies, and pick 
up such worms, grubs, and insects as are found on the surface of the 
ground, while those that follow the seashore feed mostly on such marine 
worms and insects as lie buried in the moist sand or mud, which must 
be obtained by plunging in the bill and wrenching the savory morsel from 
its hiding place. But in order to study carefully the habits, food, and 
peculiarities of the shore birds, we must be among them, or with them — 
must seek some locality where they can easily be observed during the 
season of their migrations — and, if the reader will go with us early in 
April to the easterly shores of New England, say to Cape Cod, the most 
prominent point on the whole coast, and the one where most of the 
migrants that follow the coast line must show themselves, we will take 
our stand there and "see what we shall see " of these birds as they pass 
along. Of the swimming birds {Natatores), and the other orders, we have 
at present nothing to do, nor shall we speak of such waders {Grallatores) 
as are not considered worthy the attention of sportsmen, or, in other 
words, our remarks will refer only to such of the waders as visit the sea- 
shore, and will add something to our supply of food. 


The winter residents, the snow buntings {Embereza nivalis, Linn.), 
and the shore larks {Alauda alpesiris, Foster), have barely bid adieu to 
the land of their sojourn and set out for their more northern homes, 
when the spring season is ushered in by the soft plaintive note of the 
piping plover {A£gialitis 7nelodus, Cab.) and the shrill tones of the ring- 
neck {ALgialiiis semipalmatus, Cab.). The former is a summer resident, 
and rears its young within the doleful sound of the fog horn on Pollock 
Rip. Possibly the latter may have bred here in Colonial times, but 
rarely, if at all, in later years. They do not seem to be as gregarious in 
spring as most of the other shore birds, nor is either species very 
numerous. They lead an industrious life, running about upon the dry 
sand more than most of this order, and seem to feed on sand fleas and 
such other insects as they find there. By the middle of April, in a for- 
ward season, will be heard the peculiarly curved and inspiriting triple note 
of the winter yellow-leg {Totanus melanoleucus, Vieill.), and if we take a 
stroll down over the low marshes, we shall be likely to see a solitary 
individual or small flock feeding on the little minnows that are so numer- 
ous along the ditches and marshy inlets at high tide. Sometimes they 
resort to the sand flats, but do not seem to pick up any food there ; nor 
is this their usual feeding ground. They breed pretty much all over the 
country, and are common in winter as far north as the Carolinas. 

Another early visitant is the red-backed sandpiper or winter snipe 
{Tringa alpina var. americana, Cass.). Not numerous in spring, but 
quite so in fall. They are abundant at Lake Ontario and further west 
about the middle of May, and will be found all winter in Virginia, at 
Currituck Sound, and points further south, where they are regarded as 
winter residents. They feed on the flats and around the lake shores, 
much the same as do sanderlings and other members of the group. In 
the Hebrides they mix with the golden plover and are called "plover's 

About the loth of May the least sandpiper (Tringa pusilla, Wils.) 
comes gliding along, trilling its cheerful, gleesome notes. There are two 
— possibly three — species or varieties of these graceful little creatures, 
commonly called "peeps." The above species is designated as a "marsh 
peep," has olive or yellow bill and feet, and feeds around little pools on 
the marshes, or on mud patches. The other species, "sand peep" 
{Tringa semipahnata, Wils.), is larger, lighter color, and more gregarious 
than his little cousin of the marshes; has black feet and bill, feeds on 
the sand flats and spits, though they sometimes go on to the marshes as 
do the others on to the sand flats. They retire at high tide with the 
other shore birds to the high beaches for safety or rest, but return as 
soon as the tide ebbs sufficiently to allow them to feed. They are very 
industrious, running about, punching their bills into the sand in search 
of food, devouring only the choicest specimens of worms or minute 


mollusks, always in a hurry, and by the ist of June scarcely any will be 
seen in this vicinity. 

The sa.nderl'mg (Ca/u/rz's arenaria, 111.) is another numerous species, 
which arrives about the same time of the preceding. They are quite 
gregarious, feeding along the edges of tide-water much the same as the 
peeps, and exhibiting about the same nervous energy in searching for 

By May 20th we shall begin to hear the dual whistling note of the red- 
breasted sandpiper {Tri7iga camctiis, Linn.), which is hailed with delight 
by such gunners as enjoy slaughtering them at this season of the year. 
Usually they are in large flocks hurrying along, stopping but a few days 
to feed and rest. Nor will many be seen after the ist or 5th of June. 
They have a penchant for " horsefoot " eggs, and display considerable 
ingenuity in discovering these delicate morceaux, as they lie buried in 
the sand. When any particular spot is suspected, they commence 
scratching a la hen, and poking out the eggs with their bills. Turn- 
stones seem as well to enjoy the rich repast, often joining in the search, 
and, when found, a free fight ensues to see who shall possess the prize. 
Canutus also feeds on the insects, fish-spawn, and other glutinous sub- 
stances found at low tide attached to eel grass and other aquatic plants. 
It is presumed they go very far north to breed, as they are abundant all 
the way from the Great Lakes to Cape Breton and the Magdalen Islands, 
or more to the eastward than most of the shore birds. The adult males 
begin to return about the 26th of July, followed by the females, and still 
later by the young, who do not all retire before the forepart of October. 

Strepsilas interpres. 111., with as many aliases as a pickpocket, is still 
a very clever little fellow, but hardly belongs to any family. They arrive 
about the 15th of May, not in large flocks, but singly or in groups of 
three or four individuals, feeding along the edge of the tide, or diligently 
turning over small stones or pebbles, exploring every nook and corner 
to find any tiny crab, flea, or worm that may lie secreted there. They 
are not particularly shy birds, and as they decoy well, are easily killed 
from blinds or stands, though their call note is ever so hard to imitate. 
Early in August they come straggling along back, feeding much as in 
spring, nor do they ever go on to the marshes or fields, except when 
driven by wind or tide. 

The black-breasted plover — beetle-head {Squatarola helvetica, Cuv.) 
is the largest of the plover family. The date fixed for their arrival in 
some sportsmen's calendar is May 16, though in a favorable season they 
appear a few days earlier. Their round, full note is the "sportsmen's 
joy," though we have for years protested against the slaughter of these 
noble birds just as they are on the verge of the breeding season. Every 
true sportsman must feel in autumn at what a fearful cost he gets a few 
days' shooting in spring. Every year the " bay birds " are getting 


scarcer and scarcer, until it is even now almost impossible to make a 
respectable "bag." One gets hardly enough to call it sport. Legisla- 
tive authority has been invoked, but very little wisdom has been ex- 
hibited by that august body in framing laws to protect these birds. 
Often has a blush mantled our cheeks, as we have been reminded of the 
stupidity of our legislatures in making it a crime to kill the least of the 
shore birds, a peep, while any pot-hunter may slaughter blackbreasts, 
redbreasts, chicken-birds, winter yellow-legs, and Wilson's snipe to his 
heart's content, without fear of molestation, all through the spring 
migrations ! 

At this season of the year all of the order are socially inclined, as it 
is their wooing and pairing season, when they are often in large flocks, 
easily decoyed, and then the serried columns are cut down; nay, 
slaughtered by thousands, ruthlessly, by hands whose love of greed has 
conquered their better judgment. It requires no prophet to come and 
tell us that if we destroy the birds in spring time just as they are about 
to lay their eggs, they will not return with their offspring in the fall. 
Beetle-heads do not go on to the fields or pastures, but keep down on 
the beach or sand flats, where they find an abundance of long, depressed 
worms, with many legs, upon which they feed. They are, as their food 
would indicate, more of a shore than inland bird, though very likely a 
few may wander away as far west as Iowa. The plovers, in common 
with the other shore birds, belong to the class called pmcoces, i. e. run 
about in search of food as soon as hatched and, therefore, require much 
less attention from their parents than do Altrices. The paternal rela- 
tive reposing great confidence in the energy and skill of his spouse to 
protect and nurse the callow brood, literally deserts his home and family, 
and wanders away back, the wretch, possibly to fall a victim to some 
breech-loader on Cape Cod at the very spot where, in spring, he was 
observed so attentive to his youthful bride on their northern tour. 

The willet or humility {Symphemia semipalfnaia, Hart.) arrives, often 
paired, toward the end of May; not abundant. Breeds in this latitude 
and even much further south. They are scattered over the western 
States down to the Gulf of Mexico and the West India Islands, where 
many of them pass the winter. They go on to the marshes at high tide, 
but feed along the edge of the water on minnows, crabs, and marine 
insects. More of an inland bird, frequenting wet places on the prairies 
and around pond holes. Not regarded of much value for food. Occa- 
sionally we shall see marbled godwit {Limosa fedoa, Ord.) strolling 
about on the sand or mud flats, plunging their long, stout bills in up to 
their eyes in search of small worms that are teeming there in great 
variety. It is alleged that they devour small fish and fiddler crabs. 
They do not go on to upland fields, but at high tide retire with their 
congeners to the sand dunes. Abundant in the neighborhood of Oregon 


Inlet, and further west in summer. Quiet in their manners, not flying 
about as much as some of the other waders. Were formerly quite 
plentiful in New England, but for the last decade have been scarce. 
The other godwit {Limosa Htidsonka, Swain.), better known here as 
"spot rump," is very rare in spring; has much the same manner and 
habits as the preceding, but is more likely to be caught out in an 
easterly storm, and driven on to our coast with golden plover, than his 
stalwart relative, Limosa fedoa,\fh\c\\ would seem to indicate an eastern 
or Atlantic route for their southern migrations. 

The vernal season will scarcely bring us acquaintance with sickle- 
billed curlew {Numem'us longirostris, Wils.), though a straggler may 
occasionally be seen. These birds hardly go as far east as the Magda- 
len Islands or Labrador, come on to our coast in small flocks in the fall, 
and linger about the high beaches, dry marshes, and along the wind- 
rows of seaweed which have been washed up by the tide, where they 
gormandize on black crickets and flies which they are very expert in 
capturing. They are said to roost at night on these heaps of seaweed. 
They sometimes betake themselves to the sand flats where they occa- 
sionally indulge in a stray minnow, paltry crab, or juvenile insect. Well 
distributed over the continent, they are believed to breed as far south as 
Virginia. They are plenty all winter on Savannah River, and are there 
called "fish ducks" by the natives, but are not esteemed of value for 
table use. They feed there more on the marshes, and retire to adjacent 
islands to roost. Being heavy, clumsy creatures, they are, many of them, 
presumed to pass the winter within the territorial limits of the United 

Toward the end of May a few short billed or jack curlew {Nnmenius 
Hudsonicjis, Lath.) may be seen, like their congeneric relative with the 
long, decurved rostrum, running about on the high beach, picking up 
black crickets, small snails, and crabs. Both species have been scarce 
for many years. 

Of the snipe family we have a beautiful representative in {Macror- 
hamphus griseus, Leach). It is not numerous in spring, but is quite so 
in summer, and easily bagged. They are not here generally called 
red-breasted snipe, but " brown backs." They stick their long bills into 
the mud or sand flats presumably to frighten out the insects and worms 
that lie burrowed there, so that they may be easily captured. Very likely 
their sense of smell is so acute that they are able to strike at once their 
prey. Their sojourn to their breeding ground is very brief, scarcely 
more than six weeks. The adult males begin to return in considerable 
numbers about the loth or 15th of July, and by the end of August, both 
young and old have winged their way toward equatorial regions. 

There is another beautiful plump little bird {Tringa jnactdata, Vieill.) 
well-known on our coast in summer and autumn under various cogno- 


mens, as "jack snipe," "krieker," "grass bird," etc., but they are rarely, 
if ever, seen in the spring. The advancing columns occupy the broad 
Valley of the Mississippi, especially that portion of it lying nearest to 
sunset. As this interesting species is not a spring visitant at Cape Cod, 
it hardly comes within the scope of these notes, and yet we cannot 
refrain from a passing remark, particularly as there seems to be a wide 
discrepancy of opinion in relation to it. The best observers, with whom 
we have come in contact, declare there are two distinct species or 
varieties, though none of the books recognize two. One is ever smaller, 
more delicate, and produces a finer, softer, gentler note than the other, 
which is more robust and utters a strong, shrill, trilling, whistling note. 
A casual observer would, most likely, pronounce them old and young; 
but there is such constant divergence as to preclude the possibility of 
harmony in one species. The habits of the two species are quite similar. 
Their usual place of abode is on the bare spots or amidst the short grass 
or mossy places on the marshes, where they seem to feed on flies, 
insects, and mollusks, and become very fat, so much so that they are 
often called "fat birds." They rarely go on to the sand flats or pastures, 
nor do they seem to be as sensitive to cold as some of the shore birds, 
and although they begin to be seen as early as the 20th of July, they do 
not all bid farewell to these friendly feeding grounds till into November. 
They are abundant in Chile and other parts of South America. 

There are a few other species represented at this point, such as buff- 
breasted sandpiper {Tringa rufescens, Cab.), curlew sandpiper ( 7r/;zf a 
subarquata^ Temm.), Bonaparte's sandpiper {Tringa Bonapartii, 
Schleg.), stilt sandpiper {Micropolama himantopus^ Baird), purple sand- 
piper ( Tringa marztima, Brunn.), and possibly a few others, including 
two or three of the phalaropes, but none of these are in such numbers 
as to be attractive to sportsmen or receive any special notice in this 
connection. It will also be observed we have made no mention of 
golden plover, Esquimaux curlew or summer yellow-legs {Totatius fla- 
vipes, Bon.), simply because they are not constant visitants to our shores 
in spring, though the latter does appear here exceptionally. Mr. C, a 
very keen observer of the habits of birds, informs us that during a 
period of seventy-five years himself and father had been in the field, they 
had seen only three summer yellow-legs and but two golden plover in 
spring. Mr. B., who has been for forty years a gunner on this coast, 
has seen but one golden plover at this season. . 

But let us step over to the Mississippi Valley and take a seat beside 
our intelligent friend and naturalist, Dr. N., of Fort Dodge, Iowa, and 
listen to his discourse, and we shall discover quite a different state of 
things. He will inform us that early in spring sickle-billed curlew and 
marbled godwits arrive paired, breed in the neighborhood, and disappear 
in July, or as early as the young are fledged and can take care of them- 


selves, and are seen no more till the following spring. Undoubtedly 
portions of both species go to much more northern breeding grounds. 
The offspring of the previous year arrive a little later than the adults, in 
flocks, and remain so all summer, as they do not propagate till the second 
year. The young return by the same road they came. The curlew feed 
on dry plain or prairie land, while the godwits betake themselves to the 
fens or boggy places, where they can force their long, stout bills into the 
soft mud for worms, after the manner of woodcock. Willet arrive singly 
or in small groups. Not abundant. Breed. The Hudsonian godwits 
come along in large flocks, sojourn for a brief period, and then push on 
further north to breed, nor are they seen again till the next year. Kill- 
deer (^_^/a//V/j vociferus, Cass.), called here "dotterel," are abundant 
summer residents — in fact, they breed pretty generally over the conti- 
nent. The little sandpiper ( Tringa tnimitilla, Vieill.) is also a summer 
resident and breeds. The white-rumped sandpiper {T. Bonapartit) is 
quite common, breeds here as well as further north, and returns with the 
two preceding. There are two of the dowitchers {M. griseus, Leach, 
and M. scolopaceus, Law.). Both appear in closely compacted flocks in 
May, tarry but a short time, when they are drawn to their northern and 
more secluded nesting places. The first named make their return trip 
mostly via the Atlantic coast, while the last named return by the same 
route they advanced. From the ist to the loth of May, just as the 
young and tender grass begins to grow, one may see immense flocks of 
golden plover sweeping along like an invading army. They are attracted 
to newly burned prairie lands, which seem to furnish an abundance of 
little hard worms upon which they feed. They also frequent the newly 
ploughed fields or those just sowed with wheat. They are less numerous 
now than they were forty years ago, when, as we are informed, the 
farmers in many places believed they devoured a great part of the seed 
wheat, and poisonous grains were scattered for the purpose of destroying 
them. As the birds do not belong to the gizzard tribe — Gallinae — we 
doubt if the allegation can be sustained. They probably go to the freshly 
upturned fields in quest of larvae and grubs that are injurious to the wheat 
crop, and are really friends and co-workers with the farmer, as are most 
of the feathered tribes, rather than his enemies. They do not, however, 
tarry many days, but proceed to their extreme boreal breeding grounds, 
nor do they, except a few youngsters — "pale bellies" — return by the 
valley route. Accompanying and mingling freely with the golden plover 
are the Esquimaux curlew, or dough-birds, in great numbers. Their 
habits are very similar to those of their co-migrants, but they do not get 
as fat. Still they are slaughtered by thousands, barreled and shipped 
to Eastern markets. A few only of the young return. 

Upland plover {Actiturus bariramius, Bon.) come paired, breed, and 
retire early. In New England they rear their young on the grassy slopes 


of high hills, where they remain till the middle of July, when they retreat 
to the river bottoms, intervales, or dry salt marshes and plains, where 
they feed on grasshoppers and crickets till about the 15th of August, 
when they silently depart. Their line of flight is not confined to the 
seaboard, and both old and young of this species travel in company. 
They are a very shy bird, as any one who has attempted to hunt them 
will vouch, taxing his utmost skill, and even then will most likely defeat 
the object of his ambition. One of the most successful sportsmen and 
best shots in this section, Mr. T., informs us — and we insert this bit of 
secrecy here as a douceur to our disappointed brethren who have tried in 
vain to circumvent one of these wary creatures — that he hunts them 
" down wind," and as soon as one rises on his wing, he (T.) drops close to 
the ground. The bird's " bump " of curiosity is developed about equal to 
a black duck's, and not seeing any one there apparently imagines he 
has been duped, or, as we say, "fooled"; and not being willing to be 
laughed at by his fellows, who are feeding undisturbed over the fields, 
he approaches the spot from whence came his " scare," and as he comes 
"quiddling" along, trilling his alarm note, when in the right place, the 
gun is seized and in a trice the victim falls nearly at the feet of the gun- 
ner. He instantly drops again and remains quiescent till the birds have 
recovered from their fright, when he proceeds as before. On one occa- 
sion he discovered seventeen of these birds, in a pasture of only a few 
acres on a hill, and in less than two hours, in this way, retreating and 
working the ground over several times, he killed the entire seventeen ! 

Winter yellow-legs appear in moderate quantities, nest here, and 
further north, and return. Summer yellow-legs {Totanus Jlavipes, Bon.)^ 
also arrive early in considerable numbers, but push on further north as 
soon as the season will permit. Their southern journey is mostly by 
some other and more easterly route. The red-backed sandpiper T. 
alpina, better known here as "dunlin," is a regular visitant, though not 
in large numbers; breeds further north. The little solitary sandpiper, 
"tip up," is common here as in most other parts of the country. Beetle- 
headed plover, red-breasted sandpiper, sanderlings, and jack curlew, 
although occasional visitants in this locality, are not as abundant as 
they are further east. We are inclined to the opinion that most of these 
birds that pass down the Valley of the Mississippi, being either imma- 
ture or heavy flyers, as for instance, sickle-billed curlew and the god- 
wits, spend the winter in the Gulf States, Mexico, or Central America. 

It must be apparent to the reader, from the foregoing, that certain 
species of shore birds pass up the Mississippi Valley in spring, but do 
not return by that broad highway. It will moreover be seen that the 
species that do not return by that road are abundant on the Atlantic 
coast in autumn. If these premises hold, the conclusion is inevitable, 
that they go very far north to breed, swing over to the eastern shores 


where they recuperate, and then proceed on their southern journey. 
We propose, however, to introduce some testimony in support of this 
hypothesis. There is, to the northward of the Great Lakes and to the 
eastward of the Rocky Mountain Range, a vast, unexplored territory, 
within whose boundaries are mountains, valleys, prairies, and marshes. 
Nestling away in the quiet bosom of the mountains, or sleeping gently 
in the valleys, are many lakes and ponds, sources of numerous rivers, 
possible highways for future commerce. Thither for countless ages the 
feathered migrants have wandered in search of that solitude, that entire 
immunity from dangerous contact with man, not accorded them in later 
years along our frontiers. Here, too, must be found abundance of food 
suited to the wants of both old and young. Possibly this may have 
something to do with their line of flight. If it should be found that 
this region produced food peculiarly adapted to their tastes, they would 
very likely take the shorter route 7>ia Mississippi Valley to reach it, rather 
than travel away round the Atlantic coast, Labrador, etc., and moreover 
it is well known that most of the shore birds resort to fresh-water lakes 
and marshes to rear their young. That they do populate this whole region, 
reaching the Arctic shores in large numbers, is attested by the explorers 
who have visited that inhospitable country. For many years naturalists 
have recognized these birds as belonging to Arctic fauna. In July, 1771, 
near the mouth of Coppermine River, Hearne writes : " In the pools saw 
swan and geese in a moulting state, and on the marshes some curlew and 
plovers." Alexander Fisher, in giving an account of Parry's first voyage, 
1819-20, saw at Baffin's Bay, "red phalarope and ring plover," and at 
Winter Harbor, latitude 74.47, longitude 1 10.48, " shot a golden plover," 
and July 16, he adds : "A few ptarmigan, plover, sanderlings, and snow 
buntings were all the land birds that were seen." Again, at the Melville 
Islands, June 12, " saw several golden plover." Sir J. Richardson, while 
at WoUoston Land, wrote as follows: " On the first of June, bees, sand- 
pipers, long-tailed ducks, caccawees, eiders, and king ducks and northern 
divers were seen." Again, May 15 : "The yellow warblers feed on the 
alpine arbutus, as did likewise the golden plover, whose stomachs also 
contained the juicy fruit of the Enipetrum nigrum. The Eskimo cur- 
lew at this time feed on large ants." McClure, while the " Investigator" 
was packed in the ice at Prince of Wales Straits, latitude 70 degrees, 
after making several excursions reported the following: "The plover 
and phalaropes and buntings here rear their young untroubled by man 
around the margins of petty lakes." Dr. Kane speaks of seeing snipe at 
Renssalaer Bay, June 16, 1S51, also at Cornwallis Island, September 4, 
1850. Dr. Hayes saw the same species at Port Foulke, June 8, 1861. 
Mr. C. B. Cory, author of the charming little volume, entitled "A 
Naturalist in the Magdalen Islands," informs us he has the eggs of the 
the golden plover taken at the northern extremity of Hudsons Bay, and 
that they are common there. 


The above references will, we think, be sufficient to satisfy the 
average mind that the birds do reach very high latitudes in considerable 
numbers, and that they breed there. The enervating duty of nidifying, 
laying, incubating, and rendering unto the juvenile specimens such brief 
care and protection as the mothers of pracoces might be expected to 
bestow, seems to generate a desire for a journey to some fashionable 
watering-place. Possibly the food, they find so abundant earlier around 
the lakes or marshes, now gives out, or their tastes change and they 
hanker after marine worms, or the berries of the coast, and they set out 
upon the journey to Baffin's Bay, Smith's Sound, or Labrador, where 
they again regale themselves in the fresh bracing air of that isolated 
region. There are hundreds of miles, up and down the coast of Labra- 
dor, of low plain lands, which produce great quantities of berry-bearing 
shrubs. Some of these berries are not unlike our blueberries, only 
larger. They are called by the natives "gallon berries," and the birds 
that feed on them " gallon birds," probably a corruption of curlew. The 
berries are also called "rotten apples." Upon these berries the Esqui- 
maux curlew and dough-birds feed. Dr. Coues, in his observations in 
Labrador, in i860, says of these birds: "Their food consists almost 
entirely of the cowberry {Empetrtan 7iigrum\ which grows on the hill- 
sides in astonishing profusion. It is also called the 'bear berry' and 
' curlew berry.' It is a small berry, of a deep purple color, almost black, 
growing upon a procumbent-running kind of heath, the foliage of which 
has a peculiar moss-like appearance. This is their principal and favorite 
food, and the whole intestines, the vent, the legs, the bill, throat, and 
even the plumage, are more or less stained with the deep purple juice. 
They are also very fond of a species of small snail that adheres to the 
rocks in immense quantities, to procure which they frequent the land- 
washes at low tide." The birds as far south as Cape Cod, when shot, 
still have the anal and tibial feathers discolored by the excrements. We 
are informed by shipmasters and fishermen, who have often visited the 
coast of Labrador, that the birds come stringing along down over the 
mountains and hills on to the plains in myriads to feed on these berries. 
There are no towns away up on the coast, but a few scattered Esqui- 
maux huts, where the hardy fishermen go ashore to cure their fish, and 
it is during these visits that the observations are made. The old birds, 
after resting awhile, move on to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Magdalen 
Islands. Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia, and thence southward, to give 
place to the young that must soon follow. Mr. Cory reports "young 
dough-birds are due here, Magdalen Islands, about 8th September; 
young golden plover come about 20th September." 

A friend at Newfoundland writes: "Snipe, sanderlings, and yellow- 
legs are plenty — the latter breed." Thinks the Esquimaux curlew 
breed at Labrador. They are so plenty the fishermen kill them and salt 


them up in barrels. They arrive at Labrador before they reach New- 
foundland in millions, so that they darken the sky as they rise. Large 
flocks of sanderlings and grass-birds arrive late in the fall. He believes 
the birds go to Prince Edward Island, and thence to South America. 

Another good authority remarks as follows : "At the Magdalen Islands 
millions of golden plover and dough-birds come every year, in August 
and September. They feed on the uplands, and go on to the high beach 
at night to roost. So plenty are they that on a dark night one with a 
lantern and stick may kill bushels of them." The same party reports 
seeing, in 1864, as late as October, on the coast from Chediac to Dal- 
housie, immense numbers of these birds. Mr. E., an intelligent mer- 
chant of Boston, informs us he has visited Prince Edward Island for 
nine consecutive years, and has failed but twice to get good shooting. 
They have a "flight" of birds there on an east wind just the same as at 
Cape Cod. Is of the opinion that birds feeding in a certain field this 
year unmolested will return the next year to the same field. In one 
day he shot green plover, Esquimaux curlew, and summer yellow-legs in 
a field where, as he alleges, they came to feed on herds-grass seed. 
Many of the birds reach the Bay of Fundy by crossing the narrow belt 
of land from Straits of Northumberland. 

If the birds strike boldly out to sea from Nova Scotia in a southerly 
direction, as it is very clear they do, it would carry them to the Lesser 
Antilles. Now, it is settled beyond a peradventure, that they do have a 
"flight" there just the same as at Newfoundland and Cape Cod. From 
the Barbadoes, the most windward of the Windward Islands, we have 
the most positive assurance of a "flight." One of the memorable 
events recorded in the almanac of the island is: "September 12, 1846, 
great flight of plovers." The United States Consul at that place writes 
us in reference to this matter, October 29, 1878: " By all accounts the 
island was covered with them. They were killed in the streets with 
sticks." The following from a reliable source is so clear and pertinent 
we venture to quote entire : " I have seen none of the birds myself, only 
what we call grass-birds, but by all accounts they come here the last of 
August and first of September till October, a few, but at no other time 
of the year. My idea is that they take a due south course from New- 
foundland and Nova Scotia. When they go back in the spring the 
trade winds are strong from northeast, and they are blown more to the 
westward, and strike Georgia and the Carolinas, and so make their way 
north to go over it again." Further on he remarks : " I have seen some 
black-breasted plover and yellow-legs. They are very tired when they 
arrive here ; so tired sometimes, they can't stand up." Again, he writes, 
as if to corroborate his previous statement that they take a " 'bee line' 
for the West Indies. I was coming home (to Boston) from Europe one 
voyage and passed large flocks 300 miles from land, going south, in 


Captain informs our friend E. that one autumn he saw 

thousands of plover in the Gulf Stream, nearly 500 miles from land, skip- 
ping about and lighting in the water and on accumulated seaweed and 
other vegetable matter. He is quite sure the birds go by this route to 
South America. Other shipmasters have made similar statements. It 
must, however, be understood that when these people who are not nat- 
uralists speak of " plover," they are liable to refer to any of the marsh 
or shore birds. In order to make it more clear that most of the shore 
birds do visit the Barbadoes, we insert the following extract from the 
History of the Island, kindly furnished us by Captain P., the Consul at 
that place : " The number of indigenous species (of birds)do not amount 
to fifteen. About forty species and varieties arrive toward the end of 
August, and merely alight on their passage to some more distant land. 
. , . If during this period a southerly wind and rain prevails, they 
alight, whereas fine weather tempts them to continue their progress. 
. . . The greater part are then seen to fly very high, and to keep 
their course direct to the east. . . . The black-breasted plover 
(C. Virgtnict{s)\s the most numerous. The male appears about the 25th 
of August, and the female (young ?) which is called in Barbadoes the 
'white-breast plover,' after the flight of the male has ceased, about the 
middle of September." Here is a partial list of the migrants that come 
to the islands: '■'■ Sqjiatarola helvetica^ Linn.; C. Virginicus, Borck.; 
C. semipaltnattis, Kaup. ; Strepsilas interpres, Linn.; Numenius htid- 
softicus, Lath.; Numenius borealis^ Gml. ; Totanus flavipes, Gml. ; 
Tetanus chloropygius, Vieill.; Tringoides macularms. Gray; Tringa 
bartramia^'WWs.; Tringa canutus, Linn.; Tringa pectora/is, Say ; Tringa 
pusilla, Wils. ; Macrorhatnphus griseus, Leach ; Gallinago IVilsojti, 

On departing from the Windward Islands the birds take an easterly 
direction, which would, if persisted in, carry them to the coast of Africa 
— in fact, it is a prevailing opinion among the inhabitants that the birds 
do go to that continent, nor do we presume the distance would be a 
insurmountable barrier. Other considerations oppose the conjecture. 
They would be likely there to meet allied European species and frater- 
nize with them, and either be carried there or bring back those they met, 
and in course of time lose their identity ; nor is any such return flight 
ever witnessed. The reason of their taking an easterly course in setting 
out upon the long voyage is, probably, to overcome drift of the " trade 
winds." If they are to reach Guiana, or even pass Cape St. Rogue, a 
distance of 2,000 miles, with a quartering current of fifteen knots on set- 
ting out, they must start up into the wind or they will impinge the conti- 
nent far to the westward of their objective point. Any one who has ever 
seen a skilful oarsman cross a rapid stream must have observed that he 
always heads his boat up stream in starting, or he would rench the 


opposite shore far below the place intended. But the birds, in their 
migrations, are not circumscribed in such narrow limits as the Lesser 
Antilles. Their range embraces nearly the whole of the West India 
Islands. A letter from C. W. H., of Turk's Island, is of such general 
interest that we make from it a very liberal extract : " Golden plover, 
sometimes in large numbers, a few upland plover and curlew also arrive 
here from the north regularly about the end of August or ist of Septem- 
ber, and remain with us generally from four to six weeks, although a few 
stragglers stop a little longer. If these latter happen to be golden plover, 
after a short time they lose their yellow and pretty-marked dark-mottled 
plumage, and don a gray suit of feathers, looking like quite a different 
bird from what they did when they first arrived here, and are then some- 
times called 'gray plover,' These birds go south from us, and they 
evidently pursue some other route going north, as we never see them 
taking flight in that direction. I have often heard old sea captains re- 
mark that they saw flocks of these birds in the autumn going south, but 
never in a single instance have they met them going north at any time 
of year." 

Mr. C. B. Cory, in " Birds of the Bahama Islands," gives a similar list 
to that of the Barbadoes, but under somewhat different synonyms. He 
does not, however, recognize the godwits, cur'ew, Tringa bartramia, or 
Tringa canutus, as visitants of the Bahamas, nor are the former found 
in the Barbadoes catalogue. The godwits and sickle-billed curlew are 
rather clumsy flying birds, and it is possible very few reach these remote 
islands, but Tringa bartramia (Wils.), Tringa cauntiis, and Numenius 
borealis are among the migrants whose "range" is the widest of all the 
shore birds, and we cannot account for their nor.-observance on any other 
ground than by supposing that at the time of his arrival, late in Decem- 
ber, these birds had mostly departed south. He had to rely on the 
authority of Dr. Bryant, Mr. Moore and others, for information of these 
birds during their migrating season, September and October. His winter 
observations lead him to believe that a few of several species each pass 
the winter on those lovely islands. He does not, however, seem to find 
any of them abundant at that season, except, the two least sandpipers, 
nor do they, to any extent, remain on the islands to breed in summer. 
As a rule, they all go north to breed, and they also go further south to 
pass the winter. A straggler may be occasionally found in winter, even 
as far north as New England, but this is an exception to the general 
rule. Their return trip in spring is very far to the westward of^'these 
islands, and, of course, would not be observed at that season. 

Mr. F. A. Ober, in his admirable work, entitled " Camps in the 
Caribees," enumerates seventeen species of these waders as "birds of 
the Lesser Antilles," all of which come from the United States. He 
does not seem to have met either of the godwits, Tringa catiutus, M. 


griseus^ or Numenius borealis. Why he did not meet with them is a 
marvel, especially the last named, which elsewhere travels in company 
with C. Virginicus, and is recognized by other authorities as a visitant 
to adjacent islands. Possibly at the period of their passage he was in 
the mountains securing some rarer specimens of that region. But most 
of the Limicolae do reach these islands, a part of them coming in a 
"bee line" from Newfoundland, and a part coasting along down to the 
Carolinas, dropping off on the road as inclination or strength might 
dictate, and striking out southeast till they reach the Windward Islands, 
where again they join the columns from the north. It would not be at 
variance with the facts herein collated to suppose that the birds that set 
out upon the lonely journey from Newfoundland or Nova Scotia would 
pass to the eastward of the Bermudas while those that pursue the coast 
line, if caught out in a westerly gale, would be blown on to that group. 
A letter from a reliable gentleman (W. W. D.), residing on one of the 
Bermudas, informs us " the plover and curlew, before the country was 
so broken up for agricultural purposes, were quite plenty in large flocks 
about the marshes and valleys, but now they are quite scarce. Gener- 
ally make their appearance about September and October. They always 
show themselves after a strong westerly gale." He also incloses 
Lieutenant Dennison's list of 179 species of birds that visit the islands. 
The list is very complete and covers about all the migratory waders that 
visit the east coast of North America and West Indies, except winter 
yellow-legs, sickle-billed curlew and great marbled godwits. We would 
like now to take the reader back to Cape Cod, if he has not already had 
Cape Cod ad nauseam^ and see what effect an easterly storm has on the 
birds there. If for three or four days during the flight period there 
happens to be a strong northeast wind, attended by considerable rainfall 
or fog, we are almost sure to get a " flight " of birds. Possibly we could 
not better illustrate this than by the recital of an instance that occurred 
under our own observation. On the 29th of August, 1863, we made a 
trip to Chatham, Cape Cod, for the purpose of enjoying several days' 
plover shooting. The weather was fine, with a westerly wind, and birds 
very scarce — in fact, the outlook for shooting was gloomy in the 
extreme. In a couple of days, however, the wind hauled to the eastward 
and blew fresh, attended by a dense thick fog and considerable rain. 
Toward evening of the 3d of September, the deflected line of golden 
plover and Esquimaux curlew struck the shore and were at once driven 
to th^ fields or pastures. A few gunners happened to be there, and 
seventy-seven of the birds were bagged. All night long the birds could 
be heard crying and calling to each other for help. There were some 
eight or ten gunners stopping at the same house, and of course there was 
a great deal of excitement and confusion getting ready for the morrow's 
slaughter. Long before the golden light had tinged the eastern horizon 


the next morning, breakfast was dispatched, lunch baskets packed, 
ammunition snugly bestowed — there were no breech-loaders then — 
teams were at the door ready to take and distribute the parties in the 
various fields from one to four miles distant. Quite early the birds came 
rushing along in the wildest confusion, but paid very little attention to 
the decoys or call notes. Those that did alight seemed perfectly bewil- 
dered and stared about as much as to say, " Where are we ? " "What 
has happened ? " Flock after flock went rushing along, pellmell, as best 
they could in a gale of wind, till night fortunately overtook the weary 
birds and their pursuers. The parties drove back to the house one 
after the other, and spread out the contents of their "bags" upon the 
floor — 281 golden plover and Esquimaux curlew, together with a 
few beetle heads ! It was a grand sight ! Of course there was some 
pretty tall talking done on that memorable night. We would not vouch 
for the truth of all the stories that were told. A slight deviation, a 
little — just a little — exaggeration upon such an occasion is pardonable. 
There was about as little sleeping done in that house that night as was 
ever done in a house of its size. Well, teams had been ordered for the 
next day (September 5th), with every prospect of favorable results, 
when, lo ! the wind had shifted to the northwest ! It was a cool, crisp, 
bracing morning, and scarcely a bird to be seen anywhere. This little 
narrative will show how dependent we are at this point upon an easterly 
storm for golden plover and curlew shooting. It so happens that for 
years there will not be at the proper time a storm sufficient to throw the 
birds on to the land, and, of course, there will be no shooting during those 
years. In this instance, had the birds not been on the wing to the east- 
ward of Cape Cod, they would not have been blown on to the land by a 
wind from that quarter. A change during the night enabled them to 
escape " westlin winds and slaughtering guns," nor did they wait for day- 
light or lunch. On departing they take a southeasterly course evidently 
to get back on to their line of travel as soon as possible. A "flight" 
of birds is liable to occur anywhere up and down the coast during the 
migrating season, when the wind and other conditions are favorable. 
Mr. S., afterward, " His Honor, the Mayor " of Portland, writes October, 
1878: "There was the most immense flight of golden plover and 
Esquimaux curlew on a Sunday, the last of August, I ever knew on the 
coast, during a sudden storm, but a northwester following closely, they 
all disappeared." The same stories are told at Currituck Sound and 
other points along the coast. If then the line of flight of these birds is 
due south from Newfoundland for a period of six weeks, and if during 
that time an easterly gale prevails, the results will be as we have stated. 
Several trustworthy fishermen, who are excellent sportsmen as well, and 
who have often been cod-fishing off George's Banks, seventy miles east 
of Cape Cod, inform us they have frequently seen golden plover and 


dough-birds there in large flocks, always mixed up together, going south, 
and for weeks, when not too foggy, there was scarcely a moment when 
one or more flocks were not visible. Captain B. wrote us from Cien- 
fuegos, June 23d: "On the passage (from Boston) May 27th, forty 
miles southeast from Nantucket, I saw, distant from the ship not over 
120 yards, eight plover swimming very gracefully on the water. They 
took wing and shifted a few hundred yards further to the westward." 
He gives a very interesting account of the natural accumulation of 
marine vegetables in the eddies at sea, and thinks the birds stop to rest 
and feed on tiny crabs and other marine animals, myriads of which 
make their homes in these bunches of seaweed. Again we quote from 
a letter of September 11, 1879: "August 12, sixty-seven miles south- 
east of Nantucket, I saw quite a large number of migratory birds.". . . 
" I saw no large birds on the wing, but I passed several flocks of them 
sitting on the water, and either feeding or bathing. There were at least 
three kinds." We have cited the above very reliable authorities to 
prove that if these birds get weary on the long voyage of over 2,000 
miles, from Newfoundland to the West Indies, they can safely stop any- 
where to rest as they are graceful swimmers. 

We shall now attempt, very briefly, to follow our beautiful little 
winged wayfarers on their voyage to South America. The data on 
hand, however, are few and quite incomplete, and we have had to patch 
them out and fill up gaps and interspaces as best we could. We 
hardly know how to express to the reader intelligently the great 
difficulty of obtaining from any point of interest in South America 
the most meagre information in relation to these birds. We have 
from several correspondents in various localities the most positive 
assurance that they know nothing at all about the birds, nor can 
they obtain from those around them any items of interest upon the sub- 
ject. None of the books that have fallen under our notice give any 
detailed account of the migratory shore birds that visit the continent. 
From some books of travel, special papers read before certain societies, 
incidental remarks here and there, and from our own correspondents, 
we have been able to glean such information as to warrant the belief 
that these birds not only reach the continent in immense numbers, but 
that they cross the equator and pass as far south as Patagonia or Terra 
del Fuego. This theory is, however, pretty conjectural and liable to 
great modification by further investigations. The evidence to sustain 
it is not as ample as that we had the satisfaction of presenting in sup- 
port of the theory that the breeding grounds of these birds embrace 
even polar regions, but by grouping and cementing the few scattered 
links, we trust the chain is strong enough to sustain at least a portion of 
its own weight. 


We know, then, very well, that these birds eti masse do leave the 
West India Islands in September and October. But where do they go. ^ 
Not northward, certainly, at this season of the year. We have, however, 
the most reliable testimony that they are very abundant in Guiana about 
the same time of their departure from the Antilles. Our friend, Captain 
B., who is an intelligent gentleman, as well as an enthusiastic sportsman, 
v/as at Demerara with his ship about the end of September, 1877. 
While lying there his friends invited him to participate in a plover 
shooting excursion. In fact, he had several days of the grandest sport 
in this line he has ever witnessed. Another voyage was made the next 
year to the same place, but he arrived six weeks later expecting to enjoy 
a repetition of the previous year's sport. He went to his friend and 
asked him if he could get a few days' shooting while his ship was taking 
in cargo. Mark the reply. " Why, Captain, you are too late ! Had you 
been here a month earlier you would have had splendid shooting, as 
there was an extraordinary ' flight ' of birds, but now they are all gone ! " 
Further inquiry satisfied him that in September and October there is a 
"flight" at Guiana, just the same as there is at Labrador, Newfound- 
land, Cape Cod, and the Barbadoes. A letter from the ornithologist of 
the National Museum at Rio de Janeiro, under date of July 9, 1879, 
throws some light upon the subject. "I iound. Charadrius pluvialis, 
Wils., on the island of Marajo, in the month of December, in flocks of 
about twenty individuals. Later I found it in the month of May in Rio 
de Sul and in December, 1878, near Rio de Janeiro at Lopopember in a 
small flock of twelve individuals. This bird seems to me to be one of 
passage in these parts, because in Rio de Janeiro, for example, they are 
known as migratory birds, appearing only in the wet season, and in 
other places they appear always in flocks of ten, twenty, or thirty 
individuals." As the plover are accompanied in their departure from 
the West Indies by many other species, so we may infer that, notwith- 
standing they were not seen at Rio, still they were abundant in the 
vicinity. We are informed that during the migrating season these birds 
are plenty at the mouths of the Rio de la Plata and further south, and 
we are not quite clear that they do not breed there. They certainly 
have time enough. Brant are not on their breeding grounds over three 
months, and A user bernicla must require as much time to propagate as 
Tringa pjisilla. A valued correspondent (Professor B.) writes, January 
3, 1881, from Concepcion del Uruguay: "All the Li7nicola, with the 
exception of Vanellus cayanensis and possibly Rhyiicteaca seniicollaris, 
are migratory to a greater or less extent at this place." (The two 
exceptional species are peculiar to South America.) We must not 
forget that the seasons there are the reverse of ours — /'. e. their autumn 
corresponds to our spring, their winter to our summer. All the Limicolce 
introduced here have large, strong wings, and are capable of sustaining 


long-continued flights. In tracing these birds to the northeastern shores 
of South America we have left them in a hot place, not over six degrees 
north of the equator. Now, we do not suppose any of the shore birds — 
possessing as they do the means whereby they can put distance so rap- 
idly behind them — will tarry for any great length of time in the torrid 
zone. Their natures seem to lead them to temperate, north temperate, 
or even frigid zones. They must pass at once from the chilling, repul- 
sive blasts of our autumn across the equator to the attractive, wooing 
breezes of a Southern spring. They are very sensitive to heat and cold, 
and it is not in the nature of things that they should remain four or five 
months sweltering under a tropical sun. A few may linger, as seen at 
Rio, down into December, but most of them must have " crossed the 
line " before the end of November. The fact that the people of the 
torrid zone are ignorant of the existence of these migrants is proof that 
they do not stay there during all the long Northern winter months. 
Those seen so late as December at Rio must have been the tail end 
of the autumn flight, nor would they be at all likely to abide as 
near the equator as the mouth of the La Plata, latitude 35°, but 
would push on still further south, even down to Cape Horn, to regale 
themselves in the cooling breezes of that region. Very few if any 
of these birds north breed as near the equator as 35°. Most of 
them seem to be more ambitious to reach the seventieth parallel. 
May we not then safely conclude, in the absence of positive evidence, 
that their habits south of the equator would correspond with their traits 
north ? It is not very clearly established what route they take in pass- 
ing from Guiana to Patagonia. Whether they follow the coast line and 
double Cape St. Rogue, or take a shorter or more direct route across 
the country, is not so fully determined. The weight of evidence is in 
favor of the direct route. Some of the main branches of the Amazon 
reach up very nearly to the head waters of the Paraguay, and these 
river valleys would seem to offer natural highways for our migrants. 
The birds seen at Concepcion would most naturally follow this route to 
that inland town. Then the mountain ranges are mostly parallel to this 
line and the birds seen at Rio de Janeiro may have flitted along down the 
valleys and water courses to that point. Some of the stronger winged, 
as Charadrius Virginicus, Niimeniiis borealis, and Totanus flavipes, 
may follow the coast line, or they may divide as they do in going north 
in spring, on a question of food, some taking the shore and some the 
inland route. Still there is a serious obstacle in the way of their fol- 
lowing the shore. The " trade winds," which blow constantly from 
southeast, would be likely to drift them inland, and this possibly may 
account for their appearance at Concepcion. The same influence would 
bear upon them on their return trip, though it would not be a head wind. 
But the birds do return the next autumn, say, March and April, and do 


arrive on the northern shore of the Continent. From this point one 
would naturally expect them to return by the same route, which undoubt- 
edly they would do were there no disturbing causes, but in crossing the 
Caribbean Sea they meet the northern "trade winds," which blow at an 
average northeast current of fifteen knots from the ninth to the thirtieth 
degrees of north latitude. Of course, at either extreme there is very 
little, if any, observable current, not enough to impede the progress of 
the birds whichever way they might wish to steer. We have seen, how- 
ever, by the letters from the Barbadoes and Turks Island, that they do 
not come there in spring. They are forced by the trades down on to the 
coast of Central America and Mexico, from whence they beat their way 
up across the Gulf, some reaching Cape Cod via the Atlantic coast, and 
some turning up the valley of the Mississippi, soon reach Fort Dodge, 
where they will be heartily welcomed by our friend, the Doctor, having 
completed their circuit as hereinbefore narrated. 

W. Hapgood. 


Delivered in Town Hall of Harvard at the 

Dedication of the Public Library, 

June 22, 1887. 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,— li gives me great pleasure 
to be here to-day, and to meet so many of my fellow-citizens ; for I still, 
though for so many years a non-resident, count myself of and from this 
picturesque town, and am proud of the distinction. 

I esteem it a great blessing that my life has been spared to see that 
substantial and beautiful structure finished and dedicated to the free and 
equal use of all the inhabitants of the town. 

I congratulate you, ladies and gentlemen, heartily upon the acquisition 
of so desirable a benefaction, not wholly the gift of others, but largely of 
your own munificence. I regard the vote of this town, whereby so large 
a sum was raised ($3,500) to encourage the commencement of the work 
under such favorable auspices, one of the grandest, most praiseworthy, 
and more gratefully to be remembered by posterity, than any upon its 


records. That edifice will stand not only as a monument to the gener- 
osity and philanthropy of those who have passed beyond the line of 
time, but also to the deep interest you feel in education and the higher 
mental culture. 

Our common schools are excellent in elementary instruction, giving 
the key to the great storehouse of knowledge, laying the foundation for 
the superstructure that is to follow; but a pupil on leaving the public 
school has hardly begun the great work of education. All along life's 
pathway will arise new and intricate questions in art, science, literature, 
that will tax to their utmost capacity all the resources of a large and 
well-selected library to solve, and then leave, moreover, a wide field for 
future investigators to explore. Still the joy of life, the solace of labor, 
and the sweet perfume that surrounds old age will be largely drawn from 
a free public library. 

We were impressed by our boyhood experience of the need, in rural 
districts, of more and better reading matter for young people. Older 
persons might have the means wherewith to purchase books, which con- 
dition would hardly be vouchsafed to a child. We well remember the 
heart-throbs and anxieties we endured while waiting to get hold of any 
new books that w^re in prospect, more especially those suited to our age 
and capacity. The " French Revolution " — one of the earlier books 
placed in our hands — might be very palatable and nutritious for an adult 
of some culture, but would be rather tough and indigestible for a youth 
of a dozen summers. The thought of the scarcity of suitable books for 
young people had haunted us from our youth up ; and various schemes 
for relief have entered cranial apartments, to be banished only by want 
of means or opportunity. In fact, it was among our earlier dreams — 
nor had the vision entirely vanished up to the very hour of the noble 
bequest of Mrs. Sawyer — that we should, if fortune smiled, leave funds 
sufficient to build and endow a free public library for the use of the peo- 
ple of the place of our nativity, and the home of so many of our ances- 
tors and kindred. It was not, however, so ordered. Others, whose 
hearts were touched with sympathy by the pressing needs for such an 
institution, were called before ; and their timely gifts supplied the want, 
and deprived us of the pleasure of performing a long-cherished desire. 

One of your most worthy and esteemed fellow-townsmen, the late 
Augustus J. Sawyer, Esq., who was ever a friend to education and the 
best interests of the town, had avowed his intention of leaving, at his 
decease, a portion of his wealth for a public library. But before that 
plan was consummated he was called from this sphere of usefulness. 
His loving wife, also a friend to literature and progressive thought, not 
only faithfully carried out his philanthropic wishes, but added the larger 
part of her own estate in furtherance of these ends. The town has 
received by this bequest the munificent sum of about |6,ooo, a portion 


of which might be expended in the purchase of a site upon which to 
erect a building. Her trustees had the good fortune to secure that 
beautiful corner lot facing the Common, which from the earlier settle- 
ment of the town was occupied by that renowned hostelry in which, for 
two generations, the Wetherbees — father and son — had entertained 
travelers and guests in a most hospitable and sumptuous manner. The 
insatiable fire fiend, a few years since, swept away the buildings, and left 
the memorable spot to be occupied by its most worthy successor. We 
trust the new building will give to living hearts in the future as much 
joy as was accorded to the old, by loving hearts, in paeans of praise, from 
_/?/^-pant tongues in the past. 

This bequest may be regarded as the incipient step, the foundation of 
the building which we are here assembled to dedicate to public uses; 
and it seems to us that the name of Sawyer will be very dear to the 
people of Harvard as long as the books in the library are read. 

Nor are you under a less debt of obligation to another of Harvard's 
most estimable, liberal, and prosperous sons, — the late Hon. Edward 
Lawrence, — who was not only an honor to his native town, but a credit 
to that of his adoption, — Charlestown, — where his genial manner and 
unostentatious benevolence won for him the love and respect of his 
fellow-citizens, who were ever proud to call him their own. He be- 
queathed to the town the sum of $5,000; but, with his usual good sense 
and keenness, foresaw the future needs of such an institution, and 
wisely left four fifths of the sum to be invested as a reserve fund, the 
income to be used in the purchase of books. This annual accretion 
of new books will tend to keep alive the pregnant desire of the younger 
portion of the community for fresh literature, and so perpetuate the 
interest in and usefulness of the library. 

You are, moreover, indebted to others not known as the immediate 
donors to the funds that have reared that temple of literature, — those 
whose time and wise counsel have been so freely given : to the architect, 
a worthy scion of this town, now grafted upon another stock, who so 
lovingly remembered his native town as to bestow the working plans for 
the building; to the contractors, who have so promptly and faithfully 
performed their part of the work; but to none of these are you under a 
deeper debt of gratitude than to the Building Committee. That com- 
mittee has labored incessantly, with energy and a devotion to the best 
interests of their constituency worthy of all praise. 

And now, ladies and gentlemen, that noble, that beautiful, and useful 
building is finished, and we trust will forever abide as the embodiment 
of the sentiments of the people of the present, and the proud heritage 
of all future generations. Yes, fellow-citizens, that pretty and ornate 
edifice is completed to the satisfaction of the Building Committee, the 
keys passed into their hands, and by them turned over to and accepted 


by the town ; now it is yours, — yours not to desecrate or destroy, 
but to conserve, protect, and perpetuate to the latest posterity as a 


A free public library must not, however, be interpreted as giving liberty 
to any one to take out books and retain them as long as they please, to 
mutilate or injure them so as to deprive others of their use or benefit. 
It simply means that the use of a book for a certain limited period is 
free of charge, but that each individual will be responsible for its safety 
while in his custody. With a generous hospitality, then, the library will 
be thrown open to the free use of all the inhabitants of the town, high 
or low, rich or poor, or of whatsoever religious denomination, and with- 
out regard to "race, color, or previous condition." All are invited to 
come, and in the most democratic way to partake, — to drink freely 
of the water from this fountain of knowledge. 

We cannot refrain from a word in reference to the great good tliis 
institution will do in a social point of view. There are, we suppose, 
in this as in other towns, many worthy persons who rarely meet and 
scarcely know each other. Under that hospitable roof all will meet on 
common ground, for a common purpose. All social, sectarian, and party 
feuds and differences will, we trust, there be forgotten. Those who 
read a great deal, and know the best authors and their works, will there 
have an opportunity of advising those less favored as to what books 
they had better read and what reject. There, then, on that very floor 
will grow up a mutual love and respect that never existed before. 
Certainly, a person who has read very few books, and those not always 
adapted to his needs, must feel very grateful to the literary persons he 
so freely meets, and from whom he receives such kind words of 
encouragement and sympathy. And, on the other hand, what a satis- 
faction it must be for a well-read person to have the opportunity, in a 
friendly way, of suggesting the reading of certain books! There is 
a young man, for instance, who is desirous of obtaining the best work 
on the cultivation of small fruits or the breeding and raising a certain 
kind of cattle or horses. He comes to the library, feeling sure he shall 
find something to aid him ; but, in looking through the catalogue, he 
discovers several books that treat of the matter under consideration, 
and, not having time to read them all, is puzzled about which one to 
take. Just at that critical moment enters Mr. B., who is perfectly 
familiar with the whole subject, and at once kindly helps the young 
man out of his dilemma. Is any one so cynical as to suppose that that 
simple act of kindness does not give Mr. B. a great deal of satisfaction, 
or that the young man does not love and respect him more, — nay, that 
a warm, personal friendship might not be the result of thai meeting? 
Let us fondly hope that many such instances will occur ; that young and 


old will there meet, and each impart something to the other, and the 
outcome will be many warm friendships. We feel sure that the com- 
mittee will see to it that the library shall embrace such books as both 
old and young may profitably read. We do not believe in cramming the 
shelves of a library with sensational novels, spread-eagle stories, or 
those based on " hair-breadth escapes i' the imminent deadly breach." 
Though they may be eagerly sought and read till their covers are worn 
out, they will produce no healthful effect. 

There is another view to be taken of that fine building, which I would 
like to just glance at in passing, and that is the pecuniary benefit to be 
derived from it. Any person in looking about to purchase a farm or 
other property would naturally make certain inquiries, such as to the 
condition of the roads, school-houses, churches, and other public build- 
ings. The quality of these will lead him to estimate the character of 
the people. And as he searches further, and discovers the esthetic taste 
displayed in laying out and beautifying your lovely Common and its 
environs, and then beholds one of the prettiest, most tasty, and ornate 
libraries in the country, with exceptionally low rates of taxation, — you 
will certainly have him for a citizen. He cannot resist so many tempta- 
tions. And he will draw others of equally good taste after him ; and so, 
out of your generosity, since "booms " are so fashionable, you may in 
this quiet town unwittingly have fallen into the fashionable circle, and 
produced in your own midst a great real estate "boom." You certainly 
have churches enough to suit the desire of the most fastidious, — too 
many, we fear, for penurious purses. But let the people who have pros- 
pered give freely of their means, and they will find no lack of good 
preaching. It has been wisely said that no man really prospers or 
amounts to anything until he begins to give away something. 

In this connection, I would trespass upon your patience by a few 
words in reference to economizing time. It is a great thing for any one, 
especially the young, to acquire a habit of husbanding time. How com- 
mon, I may say almost universal, it is for people, who have five or ten 
minutes' leisure, to sit in idleness and waste those precious moments! 
And worse, and more to be deplored, is the custom of assembling, in 
stormy weather, in stores, taverns, or on the street corners, to spend a 
whole forenoon in the cheapest kind of talk; bits of scandal, political 
probabilities, long and severe criticisms on the new minister, prospects 
of the present hay crop, and a thousand and one less important topics, 
none of which could be modified by their decisions, are discussed with a 
vehemence worthy of a better cause. " I pity an unlearned man on a 
rainy day," was a famous saying of Viscount Falkland. But such people 
are not apt to waste a great deal of time in reading, nor is it an easy task 
to educate them out of their prodigal habits. It seems to us, however, 
that, if the time thus foolishly squandered were appropriated to the 


reading of useful books, the tone of thought and conversation would be 
elevated, and the whole character of the neighborhood would in a few 
years be entirely changed. Many of our most learned and eminent men 
— Benjamin Franklin, Elihu Burritt, and Abraham Lincoln are familiar 
examples — have educated themselves in this way, simply by snatching 
the scraps of time as they flit along, and compelling them to do homage 
to their captors. These trifling accretions build up the character as the 
atoms do the world. 

One of the most learned and accomplished ladies I ever knew carried 
the practice of not only having a book near her hand in every part of the 
house where she could rest and recreate for a few moments, but also on 
or near the kitchen mantel-piece, where she could read a few lines while 
she was frying potatoes or watching the gridiron ; and yet no household 
duty was neglected. It is not so much the moment that is saved, as to 
acquire the habit of saving. Not in vain are the hours born, if the min- 
utes are carefully nursed ; or, as " Poor Richard " puts it, " Save the pen- 
nies, and the pounds will take care of themselves." Few men have ever 
become rich who have not been economical in small matters ; but there 
is a vast difference between economy and meanness. Young people 
must, however, in the course of nature have some amusements. There 
never was a greater mistake than for an austere individual of sixty 
summers to attempt to cramp and twist the mind of a lad of ten into the 
mold and fashion of his own. If the boy is an idiot, the prospect of 
success may be more hopeful. But, if he is a bright, intelligent, pro- 
gressive lad, failure will surely follow effort. It is this youthful effer- 
vescence that purifies and prepares him for future usefulness. And, 
therefore, it seems to us much better, under parental guidance, to allow 
children time for reasonable recreation, — social meetings, games, 
readings, debating or declamation clubs, and, above all, the drama. 

What more interesting or instructive exercise can be participated in 
by young people than a good moral play? We see no impropriety in 
half a dozen people of both sexes assembling for the purpose of read- 
ing, reciting, or acting a part or the whole of a play, even though the 
place of meeting should be called the " stage." Why, we almost forget 
that at a time before printing was invented, and free public libraries — 
such as the people of this town will enjoy — were dreamed of, many of 
the books of the Bible were taught in this way, and that cathedrals were 
converted into theatres for the purpose of educating the people in holy 
mysteries ! We know how bitterly the drama has been denounced, 
mostly, however, by ignorant persons who have never witnessed a good 
play. That theatres have been prostituted to purposes not intended by 
their founders can hardly be denied ; but so have churches, palaces, and 
school-houses. Must, therefore, all these be abolished ? 


" All the world's a stage, 
And all the men and women merely players: 
They have their exits and their entrances ; 
And one man in his time plays many parts." 

He may be : — 

"A poor player, 
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage, 
And then is heard no more." 

But whatever hold we have on life, as saint or censor, wise or otherwise, 
still each and all of us are members of that great dramatic troupe. An 
intelligent gentleman once said of Henry Ward Beecher, " He should 
take out a theatrical license, for his desk is a stage." Nor is Dr. Beecher 
the only person whose reputation as orator depends much upon his act- 
ing. I may truly say that, in my opinion, the time I have so pleasantly 
consumed in reading Shakspere's plays has been more profitable to me 
than any other reading, — always excepting the Bible. There is hardly 
a phase of human nature that is not in some way portrayed, and so deftly 
done as to cover all time. The language, too, is strikingly attractive. 
No maudlin expression, no commonplace talk, where dignity and refine- 
ment are required ; and no affectation, except in ridicule. The words 
used to express a thought are not only novel and unique, but seem to 
fall into and fit the place, as if framed for the purpose by the master 
hand of creation. Nor is the brilliancy of his imagination less admirable. 
How bewitching, how fascinating, are the pictures that are thrown up 
at every step, as in an artist's studio, one after another, the best pro- 
ductions of his brush are placed upon the wall, as if to bewilder and 
astonish the beholder ! But, in our wonder at the witchery of his words, 
we should not forget the magnitude of his vocabulary. While Bacon 
and the best modern authors have made use of only about four thousand 
words, the " Sweet Swan of Avon " had at his command more than twice 
that number. Why, then, do we marvel that the reader, as he proceeds, 
should feel : — 

" The glowing mind 
Disturbed, dehghted, raised, refined ".? 

We shall look hopefully forward to the time when the atmosphere is 
cleared of sectarian dust, there will be represented occasionally within 
the walls of yon noble building entertainments of a dramatic, literary, 
and educational character. 

We must be mindful, however, that our large cities are recruited to 
some extent from the country towns. It is from the farm that the supply 
of vigorous, intelligent young men is drawn, by which the character of 
our merchants, mechanics, and professional men is fashioned ; and we 
may add that this native material is to some extent the salvation of the 
cities. The gregarious, uneducated foreigner is found in the squalid 


corners of a city ; while, to offset this, we have the industrious, liberty- 
loving sons from the country. We doubt, in many instances, if these 
young people are happier or better for being transplanted ; but, some- 
how, they do take root there and prosper, and become some of the most 
esteemed and prominent citizens. How important, then, it becomes that 
their early education and training should be carefully attended to ! The 
Rev. Dr. Hale, in a recent article on "The Training of the American 
Citizen," says : " There is no reason why the average American voter, 
who grows up under American institutions, should not by the time he is 
of age, or certainly before he is thirty, have access to more books of 
value than Sully had at hand, or Burleigh or Raleigh or Sidney used 
than Richelieu or Mazarin had at command, or, speaking in general, any 
of the great statesmen in Europe in Richelieu's time or Mazarin's." I 
hardly suppose that any practical plan could be introduced into an 
agricultural district, whereby certain hours could be set apart for labor, 
study, amusement, and rest. There are persons within the reach of my 
voice, I suppose, who would fling up their hands in holy horror at the 
thought of allowing a boy half an hour each day for play, an hour for 
study, and an occasional evening for a debating or reading club, or any 
other amusement. But the fact is patent that there is too much work 
done, too much produced, in this country; and this is, to our mind, 
the strongest argument we have seen in favor of strikes, to have the 
number of hours for a day's work shortened. In reference to the condi- 
tion of labor. Sir John Lubbock remarks: " Free libraries and shorter 
hours in shops are two of the most pressing wants in London to-day." 
" God setteth the solitary in families " (Psalm Ixviii. 6). It is, then, to 
this God-ordained institution, — the family, — the great school of democ- 
racy, the nursery of freedom and equality, where each member is mutu- 
ally interested in every other, where the joys and sorrows, the blessings 
and misfortunes fall alike on all, we should look for a "happy home." 
Happiness and harmony do not, however, always reside there. Was 
there more deference and greater honor paid by children to their parents, 
— if they studied the wants and desires of those to whom they are 
indebted for so much, and with a cheerful good-will set about performing 
all that was reasonably required of them, — there would be less jarring, 
less friction, than sometimes occurs. Nor should parents so rigorously 
enforce the petty despotism they may have inherited from their great 
ancestor, the monkey, as to leave the impression on the child's mind 
that he has no rights which a parent is bound to respect. The old 
maxim, " Spare the rod, and spoil the child," was born of the same spirit 
as was the theory of God's wrath toward his children, for whom from 
the beginning — even before they were created — he prepared a place 
for everlasting punishment ! The two theories should be 'yoked together 
and driven — well, driven over the other side of the river. 


Could, then, any parent bestow upon a child about to depart from the 
old homestead, safer or more enduring gifts than good books, with the 
request that he make these his companions and guides ? How often 
does the parting word and the good book placed in his hand by a loving 
mother keep the boy from ruin, when in some distant city! But read- 
ing, to be profitable, must be systematic or with great discrimination. 
If some uniform plan of reading and study, especially in villages, could 
be introduced, — such, for instance as the " Chautauquan Circle," — it 
would produce grand results. In fact, we understand that system has 
already been tried here, with happy issue. There are, we believe, now 
in this country, pursuing this method, more than one hundred thousand 
persons. If a circle of twenty or a quarter of that number could be 
formed, and all go through the same course of reading, they would find 
it socially very pleasant; and then it would, as they casually meet each 
other, give them a theme for conversation or discussion, and tend to 
develop their best thoughts. 

We apprehend that residents of small towns believe that the large 
cities supply more abundant reading matter to the inhabitants than they 
get. This might prove true if any one person could read all of the five 
thousand new books that are annually published; but this Herculean 
task no man ever did or ever will perform. In fact, the relative number 
of books published that any one can possibly read is immeasurably small. 
There were in the Boston Public Library on the ist- of January last, 
according to their report, 479,421 volumes, which with a population of, 
say, 400,000, would, if the books were equally distributed to all the 
inhabitants, give to each, one volume and a small fraction. There are, 
as I understand, something over 3,000 volumes now belonging to the 
library of this town; and there are, or very soon will be, funds in the 
hands of the committee sufficient to purchase about as many more. 
Suppose, when this library is opened, it represents a reading capacity 
of 6,000 volumes. Were these books to be equally distributed among 
your 1,200 inhabitants, it would give to each one about five volumes, or 
about five times as many as the people of Boston would get. We are 
informed that there are only about 17,000 volumes in the Fitchburg 
library ; and, with a population of nearly as many thousand people, one 
may readily see that the relative reading facilities of the inhabitants of 
Harvard are more than four times greater than those of the city of 
Fitchburg. The total number of books taken out of the Boston Library 
in 1886 was 958,629, or a fraction over two volumes to each person, includ- 
ing, of course, children. We hope the record of this town will beat 
that. The average cost of books in the Boston Library has been about 

The National Library of Paris, the largest in the world, is said to 
contain about 3,000,000 volumes. The Arsenal has 350,000, the Maza- 
rine 300,000, and so on. Paris is said to have more public libraries than 


any town in the world. The first free library was established by M. 
Dardennes, 1878. But only 28,938 volumes were read during that 
year, while in 1885 the number had swollen to 1,031,167 volumes. 
France, next to America, has more public libraries than any other 
country; and Germany is ahead of England. The first library, of which 
we have any knowledge, was formed by an Egyptian king, the Osyman- 
dyas of Diodorus, and was called "the storehouse of medicine for the 

Assuming the National Library to be 3,000,000 and the other libraries 
1,000,000 volumes, and the population of Paris at 2,000,000, then the 
people of Harvard have relatively twice as many books as the Parisians- 
The British Museum in London, the largest library in England, contains 
less than 2,000,000 volumes. It will be easily observed that, were this 
world-renowned collection to be distributed among the 4,000,000 inhabi- 
tants, there would fall to the lot of each, less than half a volume. Just 
for a moment compare the reading facilities of the present day with 
those of my earlier boyhood, or sixty years ago. There was here a very 
small library, not, however, accessible to any other than shareholders. 
There were literally no books among farmers suitable for a boy to read. 
The library in my father's house, which I suppose was about the average, 
consisted of a Bible, Psalter, Town Officer, some pamphlets and reports, 
a few school books, and Farmer's Almanacks. This was the mental 
pabulum supplied to a family of children. Free public libraries were 
almost unknown ; a daily newspaper was a myth ; and all our periodical 
literature that now so boldly usurps the place and authority of a library 
had then upon its cheek the rose-tinted blush of budding youth. There 
were a few people in the town who had a limited number of books, and 
these were generously loaned to eager readers. One of these, William 
Lewis, who faithfully made and repaired boots and shoes, a sort of 
second John Pounds, — who will be remembered by some of the older 
inhabitants here as a bright, genial, gentlemanly man, — discovered our 
taste for reading, as well as the inadequate supply of books at our 
command, and kindly loaned us such as he had, — "Scottish Chiefs," 
" Thaddeus of Warsaw," " French Revolution," and a few others. The 
dear, good soul ! We shall cherish his sweet memory to the last day 
of our life. No such opportunity occurs to-day for active benevolence 
on the one hand, or gushing gratitude on the other. No such exigency 
can ever again occur. 

The library is finished, and, when it is thoroughly equipped, as we 
trust it soon will be, any one desiring a book on almost any subject has 
only to enter its portals, and his soul's desire is gratified. That building 
will stand, we trust, as the emblem of your highest hopes, your noblest 
aspiration, " to the last syllable of recorded time." Let no Vandal hand 


mar its beauty; let no sectarian fanaticism divert its aim or object; let 
no zealot's tongue defame its founders or its future ; and when time 
shall cease, and the earth be fused and burned to ashes, may the scroll 
of its history and usefulness be garnered and borne away on angel wings 
up to the Judgment-seat on High. 


More then fifty letters were written during our tour through Europe; 
a single example appeared in the Fitchburg {Massachusetts) Sentinel, 
of August z^, 1888. 

Below we give an extract from a letter written to a citizen of 
this city by an American friend, who is traveling in Europe. The 
letter is dated Sorrento, Italy, July 29, 1888. 

I come to this conclusion, that the two worst curses which Europe 
is to-day struggling under, are the church and the army — priests and 
soldiers. Just think of the taxes here and thank God that you are an 
American citizen. Forty-five per cent, of a man's income goes for taxes. 
All sales of property, even real estate, pay about ten per cent. tax. We 
supposed goods were cheap here, but we have not found it so. Labor 
is very low, but the taxes are so high that goods must be sold high. A 
woman gets sixteen cents for a day's work, hoeing, reaping, or haying; 
do you think she sees a piece of nice meat once a week ? Your fat 
priest, in his black gown, does. Is the degradation of woman a sign of 
moral elevation? Does Royalty require 1,200,000 soldiers, as in Ger- 
many, to support it 1 Who pays the bills ? Labor. Ponder these 
things, and again thank God, as I do daily, that our lot was not cast 

Yesterday we visited Pompeii. Leave Naples in the morning by rail, 
then take carriages. Pompeii was on elevated ground, or on a hill. 
Our conductor, Spadoni, is a man about forty years old, very learned 
and a good speaker, and has studied these things. I had no idea of the 
amount of work that has been done in excavating this buried city. In 
the year 79 the eruption of Vesuvius buried the city — which was a 
place of 25,000 or 30,000 inhabitants — so as to cover all the houses 
many feet deep, and it was lost sight of till 1748, when excavations 


began. The work is still going on, but slowly, for lack of funds ; but a 
large city is already discovered. The first fall of about three feet was 
ashes from the crater, then coarse sand and gravel. All this has to be 
removed, the streets laid bare and the houses cleaned out ; then every- 
thing is found just as it was left. People, horses, dogs, are found just 
as they were caught, and appear to have suffered great agony. Here 
are streets paved with square blocks of stone, with ruts worn by iron 
tired wheels ; floors of houses laid in mosaic, very nicely done ; stuc- 
coes on the walls and carved figures in marble ; statues and frescoes on 
the walls, with colors quite fresh, showing wreaths, animals, gladiators 
with green palms given by judge to victor, all in fine figure and color, 
better than we could do to-day. Here is the forum, with its open nave 
and covered aisles, supported by Doric columns, the podium, etc. And 
there is the theatre, much larger than any of ours, with orchestra, par- 
quet, auditorium, with seats raised one above another, and the "third 
row " as we call it, each having a different entrance. Back of the 
theatre is the ground for training gladiators, and the buildings where 
they lived with a semi-circle of marble columns still standing; the great 
baths, where hot and cold baths were had, even the great vats or basins 
where were swimming baths, and the rooms where the bathers were 
rubbed and oiled ; the heating apparatus, even down to the lead pipe 
that conveyed the water ; stores where goods were sold, and wine jars 
and stands where wine was kept, and all the appurtenances that belong 
to a first-class city. 

The old Romans were here and had sculpture, painting, and all that, 
and one to-day, in going through the streets, forgets that all this was 
done 1800 years ago. I could hardly realize that I was not walking 
through some modern city just after a great fire. It must have cost 
millions of dollars to excavate and clean out this buried city. Hercu- 
laneum is not so easily cleaned out, as that city was covered by lava 
which has to be blasted before removing. 

The road from Pompeii to Sorrento is very picturesque, cut along the 
side of the mountain, around the bay of Naples, where overhanging 
rocks threaten destruction to all passers. This is a dry place in summer; 
sometimes no rain falls for three months, and the road, 11 miles, was 
dusty and hot. 

As I sit here writing, guns are being fired for the celebration of St. 
Ann's Day. I look out across the bay, with Vesuvius smoking away, 
and sail boats flying about as in Boston. Vesuvius disappointed me. 
It looks more like a great coal-pit, which you have often seen burning, 
than like a huge volcano. On Tuesday the party are to be taken to the 
top of it, but it is a hard day's work, and I hardly think it will pay. The 
sun here is terribly burning, scalding, sizzling, but in a breezy place in 
the shade one may be very comfortable. Venice had no charms for me. 


and even Florence very few. Naples is a place of some commercial 
importance. Figs, olives, almonds, oranges, and lemons are abundant, 
as also grapes, and we have on our table, pears, peaches, plums, etc. 
We expect to start for home September 19. 

W. Hapgood. 


How A Raymond & Whitcomb Party is Conducted — Wonders 
OF Our own Country — A Ride to the Rockies. 

The report of a journey to the Pacific Coast was published in the 
Commercial Bulletin June 21 to July 12 inclusive (1890). 

Bidding adieu to dear friends who had assembled at the Fitchburg 
depot, Boston, to bestow a blessing or '■'■ban voyage^'''' at 8.30 a. m., 
May 2, we sped away through the heart of Massachusetts and the other 
States to Kansas City. The morning was lovely, the spring flowers were 
just putting forth their delicate petals, birds were singing merrily, and 
all nature seemed radiant with smiles to welcome the tourists. 

These Pullman cars are so long, well balanced, and run so steadily, 
that one may read, write, or sleep about as comfortably as in one's own 
house, and as the time passes very agreeably, one does not get weary or 
really appreciate the distance overcome. And then at the outset there 
are new acquaintances to be made, new topics to be introduced and 
courtesies exchanged, so that in a short time the no persons composing 
the party have resolved themselves into one united, harmonious family. 
Nor do the kindly offices and attachments thus created cease even at 
the end of the journey of 10,000 miles. We ran merrily on and at 2.33 
reached Hoosac Tunnel, and in seventeen minutes more saw the genial 
light from the westerly end of the "great bore." On Saturday, the 4th, 
we were at Kansas City, which has a population of 200,000, and with two 
exceptions, the most thrifty and flourishing of the many rapidly growing 
cities west of the Mississippi River, the two exceptions being St. Louis 
and San Francisco. Kansas has many advantages over some of her 
sister cities. Her citizens are liberal and enterprising, she has large 
facilities for river navigation, located in a fertile section, and is a great 
railroad centre. One of "The Big Four" (Armours) has a branch 
here that slaughters 5,000 hogs each day of ten hours. And then this, as 


well as all the other western cities, being recently built has the benefit of 
the wisdom and experience of all the older cities, — adopting the best 
and newest methods in laying out streets, building, lighting, patroling, 
etc. Most of the western cities have introduced the cable railroad 
system which works admirably for places of such high grade as Kansas 
City, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Tacoma, and others. 


On Monday morning. May 6th, we depart from Kansas City and push 
on through the great State of Kansas, 486 miles to the Colorado State 
line, passing through some of the finest farming lands we have yet seen. 
Immense herds of cattle, horses, sheep, and swine are seen joyously feed- 
ing along the line of the road. At length we reach the higher plains, 
and attain an altitude of about 7,000 feet. As we approach the Rocky 
Mountains the soil becomes poorer as though it had been washed by 
floods till naught was left but sand, gravel, and harder rocks. There are 
no timber lands, strictly speaking, in the Mississippi Valley, though lines 
of Cottonwood, a tree similar to Eastern poplar, follow the serpentine 
course of the rivers or bottom lands; but on the plains, very little vege- 
tation is produced, scarcely enough to sustain large flocks of ruminants. 

So little grass is grown on the sandy desert that, when the wind blows 
very hard — as it did on the 6th and 7th when we came from Kansas — 
it is next to impossible to remain out on account of the flying dust and 
sand. As we pass along, we observe numerous piles of bones, presumed 
to be the last remains of thousands of bisons that once roamed at large 
over the plains. We could not refrain from the thought that the poor 
creatures all died of starvation. 

We arrived at Pueblo on the 7th. The old town is a remnant of an 
old Spanish-Mexican village of huts, but the new town is full of Yankee 
enterprise and thrift, containing a population of several thousand, with 
banks, street cars, electric lights, elegant blocks of stores, etc. We tarry 
but a few hours, and pass on for Manitou Springs, some fifty miles dis- 
tant. This is another of the thrifty, newly hatched cities that spring up 
as it were, in a night, and become famous. Manitou has a great deal in 
its favor, the grandest of scenery, — being only twelve miles from the 
summit of Pike's Peak, which towers to the height of 14,134 feet, and 
also has a long line of other snow-capped peaks in full view. Then there 
are springs of both soda and iron waters, with excellent hotel accom- 
modations. Moreover, there is that lovely drive to the " Garden of the 
Gods," which no tourist should omit. 


The " Garden " is not populated with heathen deities or modern 
monsters, but has resident groups of grotesque figures which were wor- 


shipped by the native tribes as idols, and hence the name Manitou. 
They have received from white men significent names, as " The Gates," 
" Mushroom," " Sea Lion," etc. These figures seemed to have formed 
part of a mountain which being softer, was cut or washed away, leaving 
the harder substances as we find them, in columns, pyramids, queer 
boulders, giants, etc. 

The Gates are a sort of red sandstone slabs, rising to a height said to 
be 330 feet. And all these attractions, together with a most charming 
climate, makes Manitou a fashionable watering-place. More than 60,000 
people visited this " Saratoga of the West " last season. 

Leaving Manitou on Thursday, the 9th, we take a lateral track for 
Canon City, fifty-one miles distant, to see the Royal Gorge which the 
Arkansas River has cut through the solid mountain nearly half a mile 
deep. So nearly perpendicular are the sides of the Canon that the cars 
at one point run on a suspended bridge. The river is compressed into 
very narrow limits, but goes rushing and tearing on in its mad career. 

Returning to Pueblo we proceed to Cuchara Junction, fifty miles away, 
and take a narrow-gauge road for the Veta Pass and the Toltec Gorge. 
The Veta Pass has an elevation of 9,393 feet, and to construct a railroad 
over it required some pretty nice engineering. At one place it reaches 
a gradient of 237 feet to a mile, and at the famous •' Mule Shoe " the 
road has a curvation of thirty degrees in a hundred feet. We were over- 
taken by a snow storm, or rather we were mostly above one, when at the 
top of the mountain, and it produced a queer sensation, clear sky above, 
raging snow storm below. 


The Toltec Gorge is a deep cut by the Rio Grande which much 
resembles the Royal Gorge except that there we are at the bottom of the 
Caiion looking up, while here we are at the top of the mountain looking 
down. On the way up there are many deep cuts along the road bed, 
where we observe curious rock formations, granitic, basaltic, sedimentary, 
and volcanic, and then there are various deposits of silt, coarse sand, 
pebbles, and rocks which we know were broken and chafed into these 
■well-rounded forms by the action of water. There could be no mistake 
in the agent that performed the labor, nor could there be any as to the 
work being done at or below sea level. The more difficult problem was 
as to how the sand and pebbles, which were evidently the result of water 
drift, came away up here at an elevation of 8,000 or 10,000 feet above 
tide water. 

Without going into any lengthy discussion of the laws by which nature 
creates and distributes matter, or reforms or readjusts that already 
created, let us presume that fragments of rocks, in infinite numbers and 
size, are distributed along the seaboard, where they have been pounded 


and fretted by surging waves for countless ages, and ultimately drifted 
or driven on shore ; certain currents carrying certain specific gravities 
to one distance and certain others to other distances. 

We have seen at Lynn beach or Cape Cod, how a very strong current 
and heavy sea will throw up these well-rounded stones as large as a 
man's head, while the sand or silt will be carried many miles away and 
intermediate sizes and weights will reach intermediate distances. It 
will be observed that these water-drift deposits are in layers such as 
would be likely to result from any heavy gale of wind, rough sea, and 
high tide. Wind is a powerful agent in moving sand out of water as well 
in. We have sometimes imagined that the immense sand deposits of 
Cape Cod were pounded or beaten into such condition, anywhere along 
shore north of us to Labrador or even the Arctic regions. The tendency 
of drift would be towards the equator, and then in its slow and tedious 
journey meeting certain eddies, currents, or obstructions, would be 
dropped where the moving forces ceased. In the course of the ages 
these deposits accumulate and the sea is forced back hundreds of miles. 

Let us suppose that some great upheaval takes place, the sandy plain 
or beach containing the evidence of its formation, in its own bosom, now 
becomes the mountain summit, and the future engineer in excavating 
for some new scheme will discover just what we may see to-day in the 
Rocky Mountains or any other mountain range. A tunnel at the Gorge 
terminates the trip, and after an hour's scramble over the rugged rocks 
for minerals, flowers, or any little memento that may be taken home as a 
souvenir, the party resume their seats and are flying back to Cuchara 
via Alamosa. 


Before leaving, however, they all went to take a last look at the fine 
stone monument erected in memory of President James A. Garfield, by the 
National Association of Passenger and Ticket Agents, in 1881, only a few 
days after his lamented death. At El Moro we are once more back on 
to the main line of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe road, speeding along 
over the Raton Pass at an elevation of 7,688 feet, stopping at Las Vegas 
just long enough to get a glass'of hot soda spring water, and pushing on 
for Santa Fe, where we arrive the same evening. But at an elevation of 
7,000 or 8,000 feet the nights are cold, and ice made one-fourth of an inch 
thick when we were at Alamosa ; not much of a country for watermelons 
or leguminous plants. Nor does one feel well at such elevation. The 
head aches fearfully, respiration is difficult, all sorts of exercise irksome, 
a general loss of appetite ensues, blood rushes to the head, causing the 
nose to bleed, and often chills and fever supervene to annoy the traveler. 
Fortunately, we had several skilful physicians aboard, who generously 
volunteered their valued services, and the party were brought safely 
through. Sunday, the 12th, was spent in Santa Fe, some going to church 


or cathedral, some visiting the " Ramona School " for Indians, or to see 
"our boys in blue," three companies of which are stationed here, osten- 
sibly to overawe the Indians, but really to keep in subjection the ram- 
pant Spanish-Mexican element, which is known to be very combustible. 
The soldiers seemed to think there was more danger of " Greasers," — 
Spanish-Americans — than Indians. Several soldiers had been caught 
in the outskirts of the town and, it was alleged, murdered by greasers. 
That proud old Castilian blood does not brook restraint with good grace. 


Santa Fe is a queer, conglomerate place, partaking of both old and 
new elements. The old or Spanish part of the town has narrow, unpaved 
streets, low wood or adobe houses, mostly quite dingy, while the newer, 
the American part, has broad, well paved and lighted streets, with large 
blocks of brick stores and houses, and has a fresh, progressive, Yankee 
appearance. The Plaza is a park of perhaps half an acre of neglected 
ground, with monumental shaft erected to the memory of the city's 
heroes. Opposite is a block, originally of one story adobe houses, said 
to be at least 250 years old, and we did not doubt the truth of the state- 
ment. Governor Price occupied one of these palatial (?) residences, and 
we could not help remarking, that his big silver door plate was worth 
more than the house he lived in. The old Hidalgoes are very conserva- 
tive, and oppose all progress and improvements^ in architecture and 
agricultural implements, or in government, religion, or education. They 
seem never to have heard of Galileo, a steam plow, or dynamite gun, nor 
have they yet learned that " the world moves." Santa Fe is a place of 
about 8,000 inhabitants, comprising about all colors and nationalities. 
If all the cities and nations of the earth were to be destroyed, they 
could all be re-constructed out of this one. 

We resume our journey on Monday morning via Albuquerque out 0^ 
New Mexico, through Arizona to southern California; but the country 
is about as uninteresting as the most groveling heart could desire. 
High mountains are seen in the distance whose peaks are white with 
snow. A few sluggish streams are crossed, but even the great Colorado 
was no such river as we expected to see at the " Needles " where we 
crossed. The whole country from Pueblo, Colorado, to near Barstow, 
South California, a distance by the route we came, of over 1,400 miles, 
with few exceptions, is a sandy, barren waste ; doing good service in 
keeping the earth together, but very little for the comfort or sustenance 
of man, beast, or vegetable. In a few places there is a small quantity of 
coal obtained, and at Florence a very little petroleum produced. Gold 
mines are said to abound in the mountain districts, but we did not hear 
of their being worked profitably, and, moreover, we observed that most 
of the owners were willing to sell out. All useful vegetation seerr>s to 
be divorced from earth. 



There are no timber lands properly speaking, to be seen anywliere 
along the line of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe and Atlantic & 
Pacific roads. A few scattered, stunted, scraggy pines, cedars, or oaks 
may be seen, but none of any value. Any quantity of detested sage 
bush, plenty of the hateful cactus, and Spanish bayonet or dagger, but 
none of these are of the least use to any living being, but on the contrary 
are offensive, troublesome enemies. Occasionally one observes buffalo 
or bunch grass in small quantity, and a few other spears of nutritious 
grass sparsely scattered over some sections, but how the cattle get 
enough to live on, is a continual mystery. There are among the millions 
of cattle grazing over this vast area, very few that could be called large 
or fat. The most permanent feed is produced near some slough, creek, 
or river, but the grass there is not usually as sweet as on higher ground. 
The higher ground, however, produces next to nothing, and the cattle 
cannot feed many miles away from the base of water supply. To thrive, 
they must have water at least twice a day; and again, there are so 
many cattle and so little grass, many of them do really die of starvation. 
In a season of drought thousands are lost. At best they fare hard, and 
we regarded it a sin to turn them out where feed is so scarce, that many 
of them must die for want of it, They cannot digest sage bush, cactus 
is so full of needles as to make it impossible for them to gather it, and 
the Spanish bayonet is, as its name signifies, a cluster of bristling dag- 
gers, sufficient to protect it from any such assault. Without artificial 
irrigation, the whole section can furnish food for, or sustain but a very 
limited population, and it is still questionable whether sufficient water 
can be obtained to irrigate any considerable portion of the territory 
There certainly does not seem to be enough flowing upon the surface. 


As to the Indians, of whom we saw little, not much can be said. At 
many of the depots a few women and children are to be seen, but very 
few men. Whether the " braves " are out on the " war path " or quietly 
sleeping with their fathers, we know not. Some of the tribes, as the 
Pueblos and Mojaves, make various kinds of small wares ; pottery, curi- 
ously wrought moccasins, blankets, baskets, bows and arrows, and the 
like, which they offer for sale and in some places get up quite a brisk 
trade, but it is not possible to induce them to talk much. Ugh ! a shrug 
of the shoulders, or a stare as if looking into futurity, is about all. Hold 
up a dime or a quarter and they at once recognize its value. Tourists buy 
the articles merely as curiosities and not for any intrinsic worth. The 
frontier settlers have very little to fear from savages. They really have 
more to fear from white men. 

There are, we believe, only about 250,000 Indians, all told, scattered 
up and down the land, remnants of once powerful tribes, that can now 


easily be kept in subjection by the United States troops, within easy call, 
and then we are happy to say some of them are learning the arts of civil- 
ized life and cultivating small patches of land. Of course they are mere 
children handling agricultural tools, but by encouragement they may in 
time become good farmers and useful citizens. - Certainly humanity 
would seem to dictate more kindly treatment than they have hitherto 
received. Owning lands in severalty may work well for them. Educat- 
ing their children certainly will. We have destroyed the bison, the bear, 
the elk and deer upon which they once subsisted, we have driven them 
from their good lands, and in some instances given lands in exchange so 
sterile, that no man can wrench from the soil even a fair subsistence, 
we have broken our treaties, or faithlessly fulfilled them, cheated them 
all the way along the line from the Pequot to the Pyute, and it is about 
time that the people of this great and wealthy nation should rise up and 
demand for the poor, half-clad, half-starved creatures, in the name of our 
common Master, to say the least, a little show of decency towards those 
we have wronged and defrauded. Had our Government given them 
honestly what they agreed to, had they kept good faith with them, many 
retaliatory incursions and massacres would have been avoided. 


We met at Coolidge an elderly man who had been twenty-nine years 
in Arizona, and was at one time with Kit Carson. He owns 15,000 head 
of cattle, and 300 horses scattered over the plains. Wingate, a few miles 
distant, where aie stationed twelve companies of United States troops, 
is a good market for his beef, but many of his cattle are driven north, 
near Kansas City, to be fatted before going to Chicago for a market. 
This is the story of this whole region. There is very little rain-fall at 
any time of year, and no corps are raised except along the river bottoms 
which area is very limited. Here we saw Indians plowing with a good 
plow and oxen hitched by the horns. The same thing was seen at 
several other villages. The United States Government, we presume, 
furnished the yoke and plow, possibly the oxen. But they only cul- 
tivate very small patches. 

About five miles distance are what is called the Palisades, said to be 
200 feet above the plains. Great quantities of lava covered the valleys 
as it poured down from the mountains. High mountains, whose sum- 
mits are white with snow, were seen in the distance all along the road. 

We reach the Colorado and cross the long bridge into California at 
the " Needles," and here is a village of Mojaves, more like monkeys 
than any we had seen. The peculiar snap of the eyes, quick motions, 
and dark color all betray their origin. Here, as elsewhere, they assem- 
ble at the station and offer unique patterns of pottery, needle-work, etc. 


THE squaws' costumes. 

The women are barefoot, or have only a piece of leather strapped to 
the sole of the foot ; a cheap calico or stuff gown, a shawl to cover the 
head, and the papoose strapped to a board, slung over the back, will 
complete the picture. None of the Aborigines seem ever to have been 
educated to the sanitary or sanctifying influence of soap and water. 
Possibly that sin might be as fatal as the entrance to Blue-Beard's 
chamber. Presumably, however, none of them essayed either. 

The valley of the Colorado seems, at some time, to have been washed, 
as at Pueblo, by a rapid current of water which left behind it a plenti- 
ful supply of sand and gravel, but very little soil. Here also, where 
there are cuts, one observes the same condition of water drift that he 
did at Toltec Gorge and other places. And these deposits must have 
been made after the mountains had been elevated as far out of water as 
the mountains are higher than the valleys or plains. It seems hardly 
possible that the gravel beds are moraines or glacial deposits. The 
superincumbent mass of volcanic rocks and lava are of still more recent 

On the morning of the 15th of May we began to see evidences of a 
better country, deciduous trees, blossoming shrubs, roads, etc., and in 
half an hour more, so sudden was the change, we were in the midst of 
nice painted houses, farms and fat cattle, vineyards, semi-tropical fruits, 
figs, apricots, and orange groves where on the same tree was the luscious 
yellow fruitage and the fragrant blossom. It seemed like a dream of 
some fairy land, or the work of a master hand in fiction, and then such 
fields of barley ! As Burns expresses it, — 

" Now waving grain, wide o'er the plain. 
Delights the weary farmer." 

We had, as it were, leaped down from the elevated plains to the valleys 
beneath, from the arid desert to fruitful fields, from poverty and wretched- 
ness to wealth and happiness, from savage to civilized life, in a period 
so incredibly short that we could scarce believe our eyes, or in the 
words of Macbeth : — 

"Mine eyes are made the fools o' the other senses, 
Or else worth all the rest." 

And then mark the difference in climate between the sterile elevated 
plain and the fertile valley below. As we came over the desert they were 
just preparing the soil for the reception of seed, but when we descended 
to the lower levels we found them harvesting their barley and other 
cereals. Southern California is not a hay country and barley is raised to 
take its place. Then, as they have no rain from May to November, and 
no frost to oppose, the barley is sown early, say in January or February, 


in order that it may be so far advanced as not to be injured by the 
drought. It is then cut while in the milk, baled and sold as hay, and 
cattle and horses are said to thrive remarkably well on it. 

The most of the party had a hard time coming over the desert, living 
mostly on canned goods, and water saturated with various salts. We 
all rejoiced exceedingly at our release, and being once more in a land of 
plenty, and bracing, balmy breezes. We soon arrived at Barstow, where 
we were transferred to the Southern California Road, and were quickly 
moved to San Bernardino, the shire town of a county of that name, and 
one of the largest in the State, embracing an area of 23,472 square miles, 
or larger than four of the New England States. Nor were we long 
detained here, but moved on down the great San Gabriel valley to Pasa- 
dena, fifty-one miles, and within nine miles of the old city of Los Angeles. 
This valley is one of the richest fruit sections in this fruitful region, 
especially in grapes and oranges, and the climate is delightful. Great 
efforts have been put forth to make Pasadena a large city, but this is 
probably a work of longer time than its founders anticipated. As early 
as 1873 some settlers were attracted hither, but the greatest impetus was 
given in 1885, when the railroad was opened to the place which now has 
about 10,000 inhabitants. 


One of the chief attractions, for tourists and pleasure seekers at Pasa- 
dena, is the magnificent hotel, "The Raymond," one of the largest and 
most elegant structures in that section. It is located on the summit of a 
beautiful hill, of easy ascent, commanding a panoramic view of the San 
Gabriel Valley as well as the more distant one of the broad Pacific. The 
northern view is very grand, embracing the San Bernardino range, whose 
highest peak, "Old Gray Back," rises to an altitude of 11,000 feet, and 
is constantly mantled with snow. But the great " boom " that gave birth 
to the infant city, with its monster hotel, promised more than it per- 

From Pasadena we were driven to the Sierra Madre Villa,a sort of 
hotel on a large orangery, now somewhat neglected, and where we picked 
from a tree our first oranges. It is a lovely place at the foot of the 
mountain, overlooking a vast expanse of highly cultivated vineyards 
and orange groves, and a very desirable place for nervous, overworked 
people, who seek a quiet retreat from business, where are pure air, cool- 
ing mountain breezes, delightful landscapes, and seemingly all that heart 
could desire; and here we saw more feathered songsters than at any 
other place. 

We drive around by the great Baldwin plantation of 14,000 acres, 
where, in addition to extensive orange groves, is a grapery of 600 
acres, and a rye or barley field of 640 acres. Mr. Baldwin is well known 


as one of the Nob Hill millionaires of San Francisco, and carries on 
his immense estates without regard to cost. Then we visited the Rose 
winery, a ranch that has 800 acres of vines, and makes some of the finest 
wines in the country. We sampled some port fourteen years old and 
other wines that any European country would be proud to produce. 

At San Gabriel, an old Spanish mission and settlement, we halted, 
while those who desired to enter and inspect the antiquated style of 
architecture, paintings, and statuary, said to be about 300 years old, 
could do so. The earlier Jesuit missionaries, sent out to convert the 
Indians, were, no doubt, a temperate, abstemious class, but must have 
indulged freely in the light wines of the country. The large, well- 
dressed vineyards found at each of the missions is ample proof that 
they were plenteously endued with human wisdom ; but the place is 
now in a state of desuetude, and is better known as the "deserted 


We then visited the hotel, " The Raymond," and by the courtesy of 
the proprietor were shown over the house, which was not then open to 
visitors, and loaded with rarest flowers as we parted. It was now near 
the hour of five and we drove to " The Painter " for lunch. 

With a benediction to Pasadena and all its loveliness, we return to 
San Bernardino and thence proceed to the beautiful and enterprising 
town of Riverside, a place of about 8,000 inhabitants, who all seem to 
be alive. The streets are wide and kept in excellent order. Magnolia 
Avenue, 152 feet wide and twelve miles long, flanked on either side by 
rows of magnolia, pepper trees, eucalyptus, palms, and other ornamental 
trees, is one of the finest avenues in the world. The first house was 
erected in 1871, but the town did not expand rapidly till the canal was 
built to the Santa Anna river. Since that excellent system of irrigation 
was adopted its growth has been rapid and permanent. 

We have previously referred to the absolute necessity of some system 
of artificial irrigation in order to get from the soil what it is only too 
willing to yield forth. There are mountain ranges running nearly paral- 
lel to the coast of California or at right angles, as San Bernardino, from 
which, at no great distance, a sufficient supply of water may be obtained 
to irrigate the lower hills and valleys of the southern part of California, 
or, if the flow of surface water is insufficient, then artesian wells may be 
resorted to, and wind mills utilized for pumping. It takes an immense 
quantity of water to irrigate even one square mile, and to water the whole 
57,800 of southern California would be almost beyond the realm of 
human calculation. Still the lower lands of California are subject to less 
limitations than the higher deserts of Arizona and New Mexico. This 
whole matter is now undergoing investigation by our Government, and 


the report of the Commissioners on this vast undertaking will be looked 
forward to with great interest. 


Riverside has the finest, most productive and carefully cultivated 
orange and lemon groves it was our pleasure to look upon anywhere; 
nor are the grape, fig, walnut or apricot orchards surpassed by any sec- 
tion, either in extent or quality. The crop of olives was so large last 
year that it could not be disposed of, and had to be converted into oil. 
In the year 1888, there were shipped East from this place alone, 3,800 
carloads of oranges; while the product of the State is said to have 
reached 1,250,000 boxes. Apricots and peaches do not keep well to 
ship to so distant a market as New York, and therefore have to be desic- 
cated. New varieties of oranges as the " Seedless," " Washington 
Navel," etc., are being introduced, and these new varieties bring say, 
$2.75 per box, whereas the Native Seedlings bring $1.75 per box; an 
acre of land produces about $500 worth of oranges each year. One man 
had thirty-six acres of trees and sold the entire crop for $16,000. 

It must be borne in mind that these fruit-bearing lands are fearfully 
high, probably $1,000 an acre uncultivated, and then there is the 
expense for irrigating, labor, trees, and outfit, so that on the whole, the 
fruit grower in California may be no better off than the farmer in Massa- 
chusetts. We have elsewhere said that this was not a hay country. 
They raise barley and cut it green instead. They have, however, a very 
beautiful green herb, looking something like our clover, called alfalfa, 
much used in Spain, which produces many prodigious crops in a year. 
A case was reported where seven crops were cut from an acre, amount- 
ing in the aggregate to seventeen tons. Oats are almost unknown here, 
and potatoes nowhere have that fine flavor and white flaky appearance 
that the tuber from Aroostook or Nova Scotia does. 

It is claimed that this is the greatest fruit-growing centre in the world. 
But we must not, however, forget that "brag" is indigenous to the 
country. Meet a man almost anywhere from San Diego to Port Town- 
send and he will begin to boast of the advantages to be derived from 
investing in real estate, generally house lots, in his town. One is 
seriously impressed with the idea that every settler or speculator that 
went to California, at once fell into the very best place in the country, 
where one could suddenly become wealthy. This system of "booming " 
everything, new towns, mines, fruit growing, and the rest, has become 
not only contagious but chronic. The words " Syndicate " and " Boom " 
are almost indispensable in this section. 


We hardly see how they could get along without them. For instance, 
some great scheme, too large for one man to handle, such as the starting 


of a new town, is to be set on foot. Several kindred spirits club together 
and form a " Syndicate." A large tract of land is purchased, a gran- 
diloquent name is adopted, broad streets are laid out, with high-sounding 
titles, many large houses are built and very likely occupied by one of 
the syndicate or a friend, graveled walks constructed, grounds and 
streets decorated with all sorts of exotic and native plants, shrubs and 
trees, whose rapid growth in that genial climate will astonish the owner. 
The same fatherly care will be bestowed upon the comfort of visitors, 
lines of cars will be running, a lavish amount of electricity will be 
consumed, a large hotel built, and everything will assume the greatest 
possible activity and prosperity. 

In order to bring in a large number of people so as to make it look 
lively, cheap excursions, startling exhibitions, low prices, and other 
contrivances are introduced. 

A newspaper with an unscrupulous editor, if such can be found, must 
be started in the interest of the " Syndicate," and now the town being 
laid out in house lots of liberal dimensions, the "Syndicate" will turn 
the business of selling or disposing of the lots to the "boomers," who 
catch up the refrain, advertise, make noise, exaggerate, magnify results, 
and the work is begun. 

Speculators are attracted, and seeing large fortunes within their reach, 
buy beyond their means, giving a mortgage for the balance, expecting 
in a few months to realize 200 or 300 per cent, profit, which many at first 
did. But other schemes were started, the fickle "booming" goddess 
deserts the place, and takes swift wing for another. Prices fall, in fact 
no sales can be effected, the purchaser unable to meet his engagements, 
the property goes back into the hands of the mortgagee, and the specu- 
lator, who so recently was flushed with the hope of a fortune within 
his easy grasp, returns to his eastern home financially poor, but in 
experience rich. 


We next report at The Grand Hotel, Coronado (Coronal) Beach, San 
Diego. The hotel covers seven and one-half acres of ground, and is 
said to be the largest seashore house in the world. It certainly is large 
enough for the place. It has 750 rooms, and the dining room has a seat- 
ing capacity of 1,000 persons. The climate is just lovely, neither frost 
nor hot weather. The themometer ranges from about forty to seventy 
degrees, differing little from summer to winter ; the average being about 
sixty degrees. Fall of rain about ten inches near the seashore, but 
much more back in the mountains, which are mantled in snow. The 
bay of San Diego was discovered in 1542, and the town is the oldest in 
what was then upper California. 

The present city, four miles from the " old town," was commenced in 
1867, and now contains a population of 40,000 inhabitants. With the 


exception of San Francisco, it has the finest harbor on the coast, but 
unfortunately only twenty-two feet of water on the bar, though there is 
good anchorage for a distance of twelve miles. A large quantity of 
coal comes here from Australia. The Puget Sound coal is said to con- 
tain too much sulphur for blacksmiths' use. Much of the lumber used 
here comes from the Sound. The improvements on Coronado (crown) 
beach were commenced about three years ago, under the auspice-s of a 
'' Syndicate " known as the " Coronado Beach Co." Land to the amount 
of 1,1 10 acres was purchased and work on the hotel begun ; broad avenues 
and streets were laid out, forty thousand ornamental trees planted, and 
countless numbers of flowering shrubs whose perfume fills the air through 
the entire year. In fact so prolific is the growth of flowers, as to draw 
hither myriads of honey bees, and the production of honey has been one 
of the great industries of the place. San Diego County alone produced 
in i886 the enormous amount of 2,679,747 pounds of honey. 


Another more recently introduced industry has been established here, 
viz., the raising of ostriches, mainly for the graceful downy plumes they 
bear, which are sought for in nearly all parts of the globe as ornaments 
or insignia of office or nobility. Three white ostrich feathers are the 
well-known badge of the Prince of Wales. These feathers have from 
time immemorial been highly prized, and as the birds, which belong to 
the family Struthionidae, species, Struthio Camelus, were becoming 
scarce in Africa and Arabia, their native lands, the project of importing 
and propagating them here was attempted, and, as we understand, with 
results quite satisfactory to the projectors. In South Africa they have, 
to a considerable extent, been reared and found to be remunerative. 
Several years ago there were said to be 60,000 or 70,000 of the birds 
kept in confinement, simply for the growth of the plumes, which netted 
an annual income of $7,000,000. There are at San Diego only about 
a dozen adults and as many more of various ages, from the newly hatched 
fledgling — which are as large as a pullet — to the maturer growth. 

There are other ostrich ranches in southern California, at Fallbrook, 
Pasadena, etc. The family at Fallbrook consists of about seventy. 
The birds are valued at $1,000 to $i,2co each. They are enormous 
creatures, six to eight feet high, and weighing 200 to 300 pounds. The 
females are smaller than the males, and lay ten or twelve eggs, possibly 
as high as sixteen, one every other day, which are placed in the nest 
vertically, smallest end down. Under certain circumstances a bird may 
lay as many as fifty eggs in a year, which are quite large, measuring 
eighteen inches in circumference, and weighing from three to four 
pounds. The shells are one twelfth of an inch thick, and are used by the 
natives as water vessels. They feed on alfalfa, cabbage, corn, doura 


(Indian millet), etc., and each adult consumes about forty pounds of food 
daily. They will swallow almost anything : large stones, bits of brick, 
metals, coin, etc., all of which they are able to digest. One of the birds 
at San Diego is said to be thirty-two years old, but in their native land 
they are reputed to live to the advanced age of eighty to one hundred 
years. The period of incubation is forty-two days, the male performing 
that duty from 4 P. M. to 6 A. m., while his generous spouse assumes the 
delicate care of the prospective family the remaining part of the day. 

In Africa, however, the sun's heat is sufficient, and for hours during 
the middle of the day both parents forsake the nest, which is a mere pit, 
or hole scooped out of the sand. They are said to be moderately gre- 
garious. They also have the unenviable reputation of being as polyg- 
amous as the most astute Mormon, some of the males having as many 
as six or seven wives, all depositing their eggs in the same nest, and tak- 
ing turns at the sitting process. 

The male ostriches are quite pugnacious, being ever ready to exhibit 
their valor, or pursue an inferior about the grounds with majestic pace, 
said to reach in their normal condition a velocity of sixty miles an hour, 
but that high degree of speed cannot be maintained for a great length of 

They have but two toes, the inner and larger being armed with a hoof, 
while the smaller has an armature of a simple claw, if at all. The form 
of the foot is such as to enable them to deal heavy blows at an antago- 
nist, or even to knock a hole through a three-quarter-inch board. They 
keep their little rudimentary plume-covered wings constantly in motion, 
reminding one of the vibratory movements of the elephant's ears. 
Healthy adult birds produce fifty to sixty feathers at a plucking, which 
takes place every nine months or possibly a little oftener. The first 
plucking occurs when the youngsters arrive at the age of six months. 
Some of the feathers when bleached bring as high as from $3 to $5. 
This would give an average income from the birds of something over 
$200 each for the feathers alone. The flesh of the young birds is said 
to be quite palatable. 


The reason why the climate is so much more equable on the Pacific 
than Atlantic coast in the same latitude, is owing mostly to the Kurosiwo, 
a sort of Gulf Stream that sweeps across the Pacific from Japan, and 
which is estimated to be a mile deep and five hundred wide, the tempera- 
ture of which never varies more than three degrees from 56° Fahrenheit. 

The wind along the coast is usually from the west in summer, with 
perhaps a little more tendency to the southward in winter. Then again 
what little rain they have falls in the night-time, leaving the atmosphere 
dry and healthful, especially for consumptives, and hay-fever is almost 


unknown here. Invalids and pleasure seekers from San Francisco and 
other parts of the Union come here because the climate is so mild, and, 
taking the year through, said to be the most delightful in the world. 
And then the bathing is represented as very superior, though they gen- 
erally forget to mention the numerous stingarees that infest the water. 
The view of the Island of San Clemente to the westward forcibly reminds 
one of the view of Capri from Naples, though the climate of the latter is 
less salubrious. 

On the 2 1st of May, we departed from San Diego for Los Angeles. 
On the way up, we pass through a fine grazing country and observe large 
herds of tat cattle that would put to shame the little etreaked and pied 
creatures that good father Jacob tricked his uncle Labon out of. One 
ranch is said to have 6o,oqo head of cattle on it, and Colonel Whiting 
has a barley farm of 33,000 acres. He must ride a fleet horse in order 
to traverse it before lunch. Of course, where the plantations are so large, 
the houses are few and far between. 

Los Angeles is a large town of about 60,000 inhabitants, and growing 
steadily. It is a hilly place, but, with cable roads, elevations and distances 
are very readily overcome. One sees here, as in other large towns, beauti- 
ful cypress hedges, cut so as to represent a great variety of fancy figures; 
vases, cubes, globes, etc., and most of the fields that are fenced at all, 
are by hedge rows. Not remarkable for any special industry, but is rather 
a distributing centre. As we are to visit the Yosemite Valley, our itin- 
erary is abbreviated, in order to save time, and we move on for Santa 
Barbara, passing the celebrated Ramona Ranch, the scene of Helen 
Hunt Jackson's story by that name. The old house, the corn fields, 
oranges, grapes, olives, and the solemn interval, all seemed to have a 
sort of weird aspect. On the 23d of May, the thermometer at Santa 
Barbara indicated sixty degrees. We drive round by the old Catholic 
Mission, said to be 300 years old, where are some old paintings, but 
none are good. 

SANTA Barbara's boom. 

Santa Barbara is a fine healthy place, of about 8,000 inhabitants, and 
one of the most popular places of resort for northern and eastern people 
to be found among the many agreeable places in southern California, 
especially in winter. This is one of the places that has suffered by too 
much "booming." Farming lands advanced to such a price that they 
could not be worked, and city lots were sold during the excitement at 
prices that could not be sustained. Then came the shrinkage, when 
many persons were ruined. A friend of ours sold a lot of land to a 
small church before the "boom" had reached its height, for $2,000. 
They kept it a short time, and were offered $30,000 for it. He also sold 
a house lot for $5,000, but before the deed was made, the purchaser was 


offered $15,000, and finally sold it at that price. But neither lot would 
at the time we were there bring half those sums. Farming lands all 
around the town for miles were cut up into house lots, many of which 
were sold at high prices; but the boom ceased, and to-day they would 
hardly bring enough to pay for surveying and staking off. 

We went to see the great Magee grape vine which is claimed to be 
the largest vine in the world, but we find by comparison that it is about 
the same size of the one in Hampton Court, sixteen miles out of London, 
each being about fifteen inches in diameter; the latter, however, being 
in a colder climate has to be kept under glass and only bears about a 
ton of grapes, while its competitor here is in the full enjoyment of the 
warm, salubrious free air of California, and bears the enormous amount 
of four tons of grapes, if the stories told can be relied on. We did not 
learn the age of the American patriarch, but the Hampton monster was 
planted in 1768, and is 120 years old. 

Wood is very scarce in this section, and we saw box wagon loads of 
little twigs, cut a foot or less in length and hauled twenty miles, for $10 
a cord. Coal is about $12 a ton. Great quantities of pampas or plume 
grass were raised here last year, said to exceed in value $50,000, which 
was shipped to England and Germany. One beautiful wide main street, 
State Street, runs the length of the town to the water, but as there is no 
harbor very little commercial business is done. 


We leave Santa Barbara on the 25th for Barenda via Saugus Junction, 
Off the coast some twenty-five miles are a couple of islands, Santa Rosa 
and Santa Cruz, devoted to sheep raising ; one of them containing 60,000, 
the other, 40,000 sheep. The belt of land is only five or six miles wide 
from ocean to foot-hills, but the soil is deep and very productive. 
On the way from Saugus we again pass over a portion of the great 
Mojave Desert, where the mercury rises to eighty-eight degrees. The 
Desert here presents the same dismal and sterile appearance that it did 
in Arizona, and we find ourselves again surrounded by the savage sage 
bush, cactus, and Yucca palms, the latter forty feet high and bearing 
some kind of fruit; but none of these natural products of the desert 
are of value or particularly interesting, and our advent into Barenda 
created pleasant sensations. 

We are here transferred to the branch road for Raymond, twenty-two 
miles distant. Raymond is in asort of transition state, just emergingfrom 
the plains, not fully developed as some of the other mushroom cities of 
the West, having really but three important buildings, viz., the hotel, a 
plain one-story board building, a store, like unto the hotel, and a stable, 
as good as either. 

The western cities grow so rapidly we were in hopes on our return 


from the valley to find blocks of stores, paved streets, and electric lights 
in abundance ; but our disappointment was great when we found the only 
addition to the place was an enormous accumulation of dust, of which 
this section is famous. 

It was on a bright Sunday morning, when the party of eighteen tour- 
ists departed from the city of Raymond in those big mountain wagons 
or stages, and coursed along that steep and tortuous way up the moun- 
tains and over Grub Gulch, where is the Josephine gold and silver mine 
in "the full tide of successful operation." No solemn church bell here 
calls the traveler or laborer to repentance, or reminds him of the conse- 
crated day, and both man and machine are doing their " level best" to 
perform the task imposed upon them. The mine has a shaft 500 feet 
deep, the gold-bearing rock being raised by steam to a railroad, which 
conveys it to the top of the crushing mill hard by, where it falls beneath 
the stamps, the precious metals being separated by the usual processes, 
and carefully preserved, while the pulverized rock mingles with the 
slender rivulet that carries it away where it associates with kindred dust. 
The mine is said to yield $30 to the ton. By the courtesy of the pro- 
prietors we were permitted to examine the ponderous machinery by 
which the gold is stamped out of such obdurate material as quartz rock. 
The visit was quite remunerative to some of us novices. Our route lies 
for miles along the river valley, where runs the great trough, or chute, 
that carries the lumber from mountain heights to the valley where it 
reaches the Southern Pacific Railroad. The trough or chute has a 
regular incline, through which the water flows and floats the lumber 
down. About a dozen boards are bolted together, and then several of 
these stocks are fastened one to the other, and placed in the trough or 
chute, when the water is let in and the train started. If one stock gets 
stuck or stops, the others will pull or push it along, or by damming the 
canal so raise the water as to enable it to move forward. The canal or 
chute is fifty-seven miles long and its construction is said to have cost 


After a very pleasant but somewhat dusty drive of twenty-five miles, 
we reach Grant's Hotel, where are sulphur springs and lunch. The 
section from Raymond to within a few miles of Grant's is not a timber 
country, but has many scattered trees and much tangled thicket, most of 
which will, when cleared, cultivated, and irrigated, prove to be very pro- 
ductive. The road to Wahwona, winding its way over rugged moun- 
tions, densely covered by primeval forests for fourteen miles, is easily 
overcome by 6.30 p. m. The views from the Wahwona are charming, 
and then in addition to the fine hotel, Thos. Hill, Esq., the distinguished 
landscape painter, has a lovely studio with exhibition rooms, where one 


may spend an hour in a very enjoyable way among his elegant pictures 
of the falls, the mountains, the geysers, and about everything that is 
worth seeing in this region. He has many very fine skins of bears, wolves, 
foxes, etc., as also stuffed birds and animals which he has picked up 
from time to time of the Indians, and will sell at moderate prices. 
Both he and his daughter were very genial and agreeable, and it seemed 
to give them pleasure to entertain parties of tourists, as they did on the 
evening we were there. We shall ever remember their kindness to us. 
There is also a fine specimen of a black Alaska bear on exhibition 
here, and in the park a fountain and pool well stocked with nimble 
trout. Our stay was all too short in this delightful place, but on the 
following morning we move on for the Yosemite Valley over the summit 
divide at an elevation of about 7,000 feet. On the road from Wahwona 
to the valley, twenty-six miles, one sees the largest forest growths any- 
where met with before. Giant pines and cedars from two to six feet in 
diameter, and 200 to 300 feet tall, fully ripe for the woodman's axe and 
only waiting for a railroad or some other means of transportation to 
carry them out. Forest fires, started by carelessness or design, are 
making fearful havoc among these denizens of the forest, thousands of 
acres being burned and scarred in an unsightly manner. The bark of 
these trees is very thick, fibrous, and combustile, furnishing in the dry 
season excellent food for the flames. 


The high prices of agricultural products we should think would tempt 
farmers to settle away up here among the mountains. 

Barley is $4.00 per hundred pounds, and hay, which, as we have before 
remarked, is barley straw cut green so as to retain the kernels, when 
baled, brings $60 per ton. Cattle and horses are mostly driven out 
to Barenda to spend the winter. From the summit to the Yosemite 
the roads, while they are exceptionally good for such a rough, hilly 
country, are very crooked and fearfully steep in many places, so much so 
that passengers are liable to become dizzy or sea-sick. But our driver 
is cool and holds the " ribbons " with a firm hand, guiding with good 
judgment the noble animals that respond with alacrity to his wishes, and 
we are brought safely to " Inspiration Point," 5,371 feet above sea level, 
where we halt to gaze upon that grandest of views of the Yosemite 

Again we plunge down the precipitous mountain side, and shudder as 
we cast our eyes down the ragged and seemingly bottomless abyss. But 
somehow by hook or by crook, we are at length landed upon the plain 
below. Our nerves are quieter, our pulse assumes normal conditions, 
and with a long free breath we thank our stars that we are safely over. 
On the right hand as we enter the valley the beautiful little "Bridal 


Veil" drops down 860 feet with a smile to bid us "welcome," while on 
the opposite side of the gateway the grim monster "El Capitan " lifts 
his hoary head 3 300 feet heavenward, and with a frown seems to bid 
defiance to further progress. Still we proceed up the awe-inspiring 
valley. We pass on our right the " Cathedral Spires," "Sentinel," and 
" Glacier Point," 7,250 feet above sea level, or 3,250 above the floor of the 
valley. On our left are the " Three Brothers " — Eagle Peak being 3,830 
feet above the valley — "Washington Tower," " North Dome," etc. 


The wonderful Yosemite Falls have a descent of about 2,550 feet, and 
leaps at a single bound 1,503 feet. The valley is about eight miles long 
by one in width, and is about as level as a house floor. Looking further 
up the valley " Half Dome Rock " greets the eye, and, still further, those 
huge, snow-capped mountains, " Watkins " and " Clouds Rest," 9,912 feet 
high, which are the sources of the beautiful Merced River that threads 
its way through the valley and onward, ceaselessly foaming and chafing, 
over rocks, precipices, and cascades to its final junction with the grand 
San Joaquin. 

There are two hotels in the valley, " Barnard's " near the entrance and 
the "Stoneman House" about two miles further on and more recently 
built, to which we were driven. Near the Barnard is a house with a 
tree eight feet in diameter growing up through its roof. The house 
really grew up around the tree, but it presents a singular spectacle. In 
this region are two varieties of pines — the yellow and sugar pine — the 
latter has smoother bark and smaller needles. There are also large 
oaks, some right here on the floor of the valley, measuring three feet in 
diameter. The whole district is in the care and ownership of the State 
of California, and depredations of all sorts are strictly forbidden by the 
guardian in charge. 

How the valley came into its present condition is a mystery to every 
one, and each is liable to have a theory of his own. Some think the 
mountain was rent asunder by some mighty force, others that it is the 
result of glacial action, and still others, that the valley was a lake with 
dam at El Capitan which has been worn away by the agency of water, 
thus draining the lake and leaving the valley in its present condition. 
It seems to us that the Titanic force that lifted the mountains to their 
present height may have left the great fissure nearly as we find it to-day. 
If the walls of the valley which rise nearly perpendicularly from 6,000 to 
8,000 feet above tide water were once joined together, as they have the 
appearance of being, where then was the road way of the moraine mak- 
ing glaciers? 

Did they glide gibly along over the mountain peaks? Probably not. 
Before the mountains were created and projected against the sky, and 


the crevice which is now the valley was opened, there could have been 
no snow-clad summit or Merced River; but when the mountains rose 
into the region of perpetual snow, and the streams therefrom came rush- 
ing down its sides, bringing along with them the freshly made silt, gravel, 
and debris, they would naturally find the lowest gorge or crevice, and 
deposit there the pebbles and quicksands till it was filled to the level of 
its outlet or to the present floor of the valley. 

The fact that explorers find, some fifteen feet beneath the surface of 
the valley, quicksand and pebbles to an unknown depth, would seem to 
corroborate this hypothesis. We wish, however, to disclaim any geolog- 
ical erudition, and to acknowledge these remarks are based on simple 
observation. The wonderful valley and the majestic mountains are 
there, the high, light-colored granite walls seeming capable of resisting 
the energies of that ancient stone-cutter, " Time," for an indefinite 


On the 30th of May we were again packed into the mountain wagon 
for the return trip over those rugged spurs of the Sierras and reach 
Wahwona about one o'clock. After lunch we are conveyed in lighter 
wagons to the Mariposa Groves, some ten miles away, to see the "big 
trees " {Sequoia gigantea). The valley is about 2,500 feet above the level 
of the hotel, but is easily reached over the gradually ascending road 
through the heavy timber-lands. The number of Sequoia gigantea in 
the Lower Grove is about 275, and in the upper, a mile further on, about 
365, or 640 all told in the two. The largest tree, the " Grizzly Giant," is 
in the lower valley, and said to be thirty-two feet in diameter ; but the 
fire has burned a big hole in one side, and the surface near the ground is 
quite irregular. Most monster sights anywhere are apt to be magnified. 
Our curiosity led us to measure the " Giant," and according to our way 
of measuring it was but twenty-six feet in diameter. The tree is, how- 
ever, in its senility and not as vigorous as it was four or five thousand 
years ago. Most of the larger trees are named after some of our more 
distinguished countrymen, as " Grant," " Lincoln," " Longfellow," etc., 
the latter very appropriately, since the golden rays of the morning sun 
kiss it at a distance of 300 feet from the ground. 

The "Wahwona," Indian for "big tree," has an arch cut so that the 
big wagon filled with passengers is driven through it. These giant trees, 
while they excite our wonder and admiration, are really of no great value 
A man of our stature and strength cannot handle one, nor can it be run 
through any sawmill known to the present race. They seem to be rem- 
nants of some previous order of things, possibly that known as the car 
boniferous age, when the great coal measures were formed, or we might 
place them in the period of the great mastodons, Saurians, Dinornis,etc, 
They are nearly extinct, a few only being found at Calaveras, Santa Cruz 


and other localities. One of the Calaveras grove, called the " Keystone," 
reaches the great height of 325 feet. 


The Santa Cruz trees have smaller trunks, the largest measuring at 
the butt only about twenty feet in diameter, while it is claimed they 
reach as great a height as any of the family elsewhere. The "Giant" 
was said originally to have reached a height of 366 feet, but by a casu- 
alty lost about seventy feet of its proud crest, reducing it to its present 
rank of 296 feet. Nor do the trees anywhere seem to propagate their 
own species in sufficient numbers to keep up the stock. Very few small 
trees or young sprouts are seen, and it is only a question of time, when, 
like the buffalo and auk, the pied duck, and we may add the aborigines, 
will be numbered with things of the past. There are now only about 
thirty of the trees left in the Santa Cruz grove. 

Although the trees in this grove seem to be of the same species as 
at Mariposa, yet they are there recognized as " Semper Virens," ever 
green. The trees everywhere show signs of great age. It will be remem- 
bered by some of the elder persons present, that a section of one of the 
"big trees " was exhibited in ScoUay Square, Boston, some years ago, 
representing a growth of thirty-six hundred years. The concentric cir- 
cles, showing the annual growth of the cedars and pines, can be readily 
traced and counted, one half of the annual ring, or circle, being hard and 
flint-like, while the other half is soft and spongy. 

Returning to the very comfortable and beautifully located Wahwona 
among the mountains, we pass the night. The next morning, the 31st, 
we push on for Raymond over the same route that brought us hither. 
Here after shaking off large quantities of accumulated dust, and partak- 
ing of a scanty meal at the " Hotel " aforementioned, we find ourselves 
comfortably disposed in a Pullman sleeper, rushing on for San Francisco 
via Berenda. 

The section we traverse in going from Berenda to San Francisco lies 
along the valley formed by the Sierra Nevada and the Coast Range, 
embracing an extensive tract of fine wheat lands and extensive farms. 
To our way of thinking, the wheat was diminutive and the yield must 
be small to the acre, but the land is level and easily cultivated, and with 
modern improved tools and machinery, unbounded quantities can be 
produced without irrigation. 


On the 1st of June, at mid-day, we are ushered into the large, spacious, 
and comfortable Palace Hotel, said to be one of the largest as well as 
the most perfectly equipped hotels in the world. It covers an area of 
about three acres, is seven stories high, and cost the trifling sum of 


It will be remembered that this whole region, comprising California, 
New Mexico, and Utah, was ceded by Mexico to the United States, by 
the treaty known as the " Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo," on February 
2, 1848, for the sum of $15,000,000. Arizona and the territories north 
of the present boundary of Mexico was ceded later by the Gadsden 

The attempt of Texas, then a province of Mexico, to establish an 
independent republic, finally ended in a petition to be annexed to the 
United States. Pending hostilities between the two sections, Texas was 
by a joint resolution of both houses, admitted to the Union. The bill 
was signed by President Tyler in March, 1845. This act brought on a 
war with Mexico, in which she was defeated at nearly all points, and 
finally negotiations for peace were entered upon, resulting in the terms 
above referred to. The purchase was a most favorable one for the 
United States. A large part of the territory purchased was, in our 
school-boy days, known as *' The Great American Desert," and since, 
having traveled over it, we see no reason for a change of name. But 
this purchase brought to the United States the great State of California, 
seven hundred miles long, and containing 155,980 square miles, the 
largest State in the Union, excepting Texas. Southern California alone 
has an area in extent nearly as great as all New England, or of 57,800 
square miles ; and then the annex gave us just what we wanted to com- 
plete the round of products we consume. 

Up to within two or three years of the present time, we have been 
dependent upon foreign ports for our semi-tropical fruits and wines, the 
latter from France or Spain, olives and dried fruits from Italy, oranges 
and lemons from Sicily, figs from Smyrna, and so on. Now we have, or 
shall soon have, an abundance of all these, not only for our own use, but 
shall be able to reciprocate the favors hitherto so generously extended 
to us. So much wine is already produced in some sections as to render 
its conversion into brandy necessary for want of casks to put it in. And 
in regard to the raisin corp, the manager of the Hotel Del Monte 
informed us that he tried to purchase of Mr. Forsyth, of Fresno, — a 
large raisin producer, — what of the fruit he wanted for the house, about 
1,000 boxes, but he could not get a box. The entire corp was sold to 
go to France. This seemed like carrying coals to Newcastle ; but he 
explained that in France, where the grape raisin is grown, they are 
liable to have sudden showers. This injures the raisins. In southern 
California, no such liability exists, and consequently this is a better 
country for raisins than France. 


It SO happened that just before the Treaty was concluded, gold was 
discovered at the raceway of Sutters Mill. The news spread rapidly, 


and stalwart men from all parts of the country rushed to this new El 
Dorado in the West. All sorts of crafts were employed to convey 
passengers, thousands went overland by the plains, even attempts to fly 
through the air were seriously contemplated, so crazy were the victims 
of the fever to be among the first *o arrive. Probably no excitement in 
this country ever equalled it, and nothing anywhere, since the great 
" Crusades " in the twelfth century. Early in 1849, the gold hunters, in 
vast numbers, began to arrive at San Francisco ; a motley group of 
vessels could be seen moored off in the bay, almost deserted. The 
stories that were told, and from day to day magnified, reached the ears 
alike of passengers and crew, and all rushed for the mines. The need 
of food, shelter, and transportation was sore indeed. All sorts of con- 
trivances were restored to; tents, sheds, and board houses sprang up as 
by magic. Prices of material leaped away up into the region of the 
fabulous, lumber S300 a thousand, and brick a hundred; wages $10 a 
day ; all provisions were equally high ; onions were sold at a dollar a 

What odds did it make to a man who could dig a wheelbarrow load of 
gold in a day? It was the biggest "boom," probably, that California had 
ever witnessed, and lasted for many years. A great many were disap- 
pointed, many were ruined. Notwithstanding the fact that as early as 
1852, the mines had yielded of the precious metals the enormous value 
of $45,000,000, and for seven years following the average was over 
$40,000,000 per annum, the miners, as a rule, had little wealth. Then 
there was a great deal of fraud practised by designing men. Gold would 
be represented as abundant at a certain locality, and a stampede of 
nervous miners made for the place, but when they arrived the gold was 
not found. Expenses for traveling and living were so great that many 
were impoverished by these wicked misrepresentations. 

THE country's GROWTH. 

At first the gold was found on the surface, or by what was called 
"placer" mining, where the gold dust was washed out; but to-day the 
great mass of gold is found in quartz rock, which is crushed and disso- 
ciated by powerful and expensive machinery. In the course of time, the 
best fields were worked out and the miners scattered, some returning 
east, but many remained in the country and turned their attention to 
mercantile or mechanical business ; farming, lumbering, cattle raising, etc. 
A few of the miners became very rich. Wealth poured into San Fran- 
cisco, and other places which had a rapid and marvellous growth. 

But San Francisco getting an early start, and, withal, possessing one 
of the best harbors in the world, has outstripped all her sister cities on 
the Pacific coast. 


In 1849, when the first miners arrived from the East, there is said not 
to have been vk^hat was regarded a respectable-looking house in the 
place. There were only a few adobe huts and shanties. In just forty 
years from that date it has become one of the finest built cities in the 
United States, with a population of 350,000. The intelligent, industri- 
ous people that came from the East, helped to build this and the other 
cities, in fact they were the very people who planned and executed most 
of the successful enterprises, and it is to this great influx of educated 
American citizens, that the prosperity of California is due. 

Near the central part of San Francisco is a settlement of some thirty 
or forty Mongolians, called " China Town." Dupont street is the prin- 
cipal business street, though many others contiguous are infested by the 
" Heathern Chinee." They have their theatres. Joss Houses, gambling 
and opium dens, and one sees here the national traits and customs 
about as well as in the " Flowery Kingdom " itself. 

The men when they get work seem to be industrious and mind their 
own business; but they are a superstitious set, sticking tenaciously to 
the traditions and customs of their fathers. In fact, they think a great 
deal of their fatherland. Much of the food they eat is brought from 
China. Vegetables, meats, poultry, oysters, fish, etc., are desiccated and 
shipped on to them. They seem to feed on almost nothing, and then 
they live packed away in such little filthy rooms, in some cases two or 
three stories underground, it is a wonder how they do exist. When one 
dies his body must be sent home, or his soul will be traveling back and 
forth till it is, when it will be at rest. 


Presumably there are about 80,000 males and 2,000 females in the 
country all told. The reason why no more are wanted here is that if the 
millions that could be spared from China were to come here, it would 
compel all other nationalities to live as they do, or to work for the same 
wages. No American, we presume, wants to see labor in this country 
reduced to the same level it is in China. 

There is much of interest to the tourist in San Francisco to be seen. 
One goes to the Cliff House to see the seals — sea lions — and there 
observes the great monsters, said to weigh a ton, disporting themselves 
in the water or basking in the sun high up on the rocks. It is amusing 
to see these great creatures wriggling their way up the steep cliffs and 
then leap from some high point down again into the liquid element. 
There are hundreds of them, and judging by their fierce growls harmony 
does not always exist on the " Seal Rocks." Their voices resemble 
some of the older members of the porcine family, and others, probably 
the youngsters, bark like dogs. 


There seems to be a sort of joint occupancy of the two little islands 
by the sea lions and cormorants. So plentiful are the fishes in the bay 
that all they have to do is just skip down from the rocks, dive, bring up 
a fish, and return to their perch for the repast. Near the Cliff House is 
the Sutro Garden, where is the finest collection of statuary we have seen 
anywhere west of the Rockies. The California Pioneers' Association 
Building is a point of great interest to miners. It was liberally endowed 
by James Lick, of Lick Observatory fame, by a bequest of $1,000,000. 

San Francisco was originally a sandy, dusty, uncomfortable place, and 
many of the " Sand Lots " of the redoubtable Denis Kearney still remain. 
Pine and other trees have been planted to prevent the dust from being 
blown over the city. Still it is a very dusty place. "Nob Hill" is 
known as the residence of the millionaire miners — Stanford, Fair, Flood, 
Hopkins, Crocker, and the rest. The steep hills descended to the 
water's edge originally, but the bay has been filled, so that now most of 
the business part of the town is built on made land. There are two or 
three miles of wharves. 


On the 5th of June we take cars for the ancient Mexican-looking town 
of Vera Cruz, and visit a large farm having 325 milch cows. Straw- 
berries, cherries, raspberries, blackberries, all remarkably large and fine 
looking, are abundant here, but like most of the fresh fruits in the 
country, are not as palatable and luscious as their less pretentious con- 
geners on the Atlantic Coast. 

Arrive at the Hotel del Monte, Monterey, on the evening of June 6th, 
and this to our mind is par excellence the finest hotel west of the 
Rockies, though not the largest. If one is seeking pleasure and real 
solid comfort, let him repair to the Hotel del Monte at once, where all 
that art and nature can do to make the place lovely is done. About 
7,000 acres of land, 300 of which are under cultivation, with some of the 
most beautiful and ingenious landscape gardening and floral decoration 
we have ever seen in this or any other country; and then there is such 
a nice drive of eighteen miles around by the shore and Point Labos 
(Seal, Sp.), where one sees those monsters the sea lions, and hears their 
hoarse, hog-like growl, just as at the " Cliffs " in San Francisco. The real 
seals are here also, and on the way we pass Cypress Point where 
grow a species of cypress, Professor Asa Gray says the oldest trees 
in the world, and found nowhere else ; and the Monterey pines are also 
peculiar to this locality. 

We came round by the old town settled about 1770 by Jesuits, who 
built a mission school and fort. The brave General Fremont, one night 
in 1846, brought up some big guns and placed them on high ground 
back of the fort, which compelled its surrender and with it the town, 
thus ending Mexican rule. It is a place of some 3,000 inhabitants. 


The hotel runs like clock work — no friction ; but there is a vigilant eye 
that keeps everything in place and on time. The house accommodates 
about i,ooo people, in the most genial, courteous, and homelike style. 
This is one of the coldest places we have been in, the mercury register- 
ing sixty to sixty-five degrees, and the people sit out on the great piazza 
in wraps. 


We return to San Francisco and attend the Chinese Theatre. White 
people sit on the stage at one side of the actors, and the orchestra on 
the back part of the stage. No drop scene, no female actors, men 
change voice, don female attire, and personate the sex. Women occupy 
the gallery on one side and the men literally pack the rest of the house. 
The plays are generally of a historic character and quite long, lasting 
twenty or thirty days, i. e. equivalent to a new play every night for thirty 
nights, and we thought it quite creditable to their mental capacity. 

Departing on the 20th, we cross the Sacramento River to Benicia on 
the ferry-boat, which is 425 feet long by 100 wide, and said to be the 
largest ferry-boat in the world. It carries twenty-four Pullman or forty- 
eight freight cars, and runs through immense marshes to Sacramento, 
the capital of the State. The new State House is a grand stone build- 
ing, of Corinthian order, with a tall, graceful dome. In the rotunda is 
a group of marble statuary, done in Florence, weighing twelve tons. 
The subject is Columbus before Isabella ; the queen offering to pawn 
her jewels, to enable him to proceed on the voyage, which she holds in 
her hands. The legislature with liberal hand endowed its capital with 
forty acres of land for a house lot. 

And now we go over the new railroad away up the Sacramento River, 
by the old "placer" gold diggings, around sharp curves and steep 
grades, reaching an elevation of 3,555 feet, past Mount Shasta only 
eight miles, which towers to a height of 14,442 feet, and never dispenses 
with his white coat. The river here is small relatively, and is mostly 
fed by melted snow from the adjacent pinnacles, though the large spring 
is shown that is claimed to be its head water and source. The water 
goes tumbling, foaming, and tearing along down its narrow, rocky chan- 
nel, contributing of its power to move the wheels that turn out those 
piles of lumber at Shasta, Sissons,* and other available points. On the 
13th of June we met at the latter place, Sissons, the great circus of the 
Barritt, Sells & Co., where the elephants and other animals seemed to 
really smile at the novel spectacle of an exhibition in the wilderness amid 
"rough quarries, rocks, and hills, whose head touch heaven." And then 
to see the men, women, and children, from the remote as well as the 
nearer settlements hurriedly assembling, all dressed in their holiday 
attire, full of excitement, was a pretty sight to behold. 



To get around Mount Shasta we go up, up, to an altitude of 4,130 feet, 
and then run along for a hundred miles through a sterile, sandy desert 
that reminds one of the Mojave. We cross the Siskiyou Range, the 
Klamath River, and through the Siskiyou Tunnel and over the Rogue 
River Valley, where we again see good farming land and flourishing 
settlements. Our route lies along the valley between the Sierra Nevada 
and Shasta Mountains, to Ashland, where we enter the State of Oregon. 
The engineers who carried the road through these rough, gigantic 
mountains and volcanic rocks, displayed wonderful skill, and are entitled 
to the gratitude of all tourists. 

We reach Salem, capital of the State, a place of 7,000 inhabitants, with 
an Indian school, etc., a flat, damp place, and not in the midst of a fertile 
district. The Willamette River now becomes our guide, and we reach 
Portland, a distance from San Francisco of 739 miles, about noon, June 
14th, This is one of the older towns that has become wealthy, mostly 
out of the salmon fisheries and lumbering, and has gone to seed. It is 
said to be of 60,000 population, with nineteen persons rated at over a 
million dollars each. There are also about 4,000 Chinese here, but more 
scattered than in San Francisco. Fruits and berries are small and poor, 
and even as far north as this the potato, when cooked, is black, pasty, 
and unsavory. Nor are there any good hotels in the place, though one 
is in prospect. 

In coming over the Siskiyou Mountains we were forcibly struck with 
the indubitable evidence of recent volcanic action. 

On the 17th of June we take cars for a trip up the Columbia River to 
Dalles City, eighty-eight miles. 

Many fine views are had from the cars, among them the "Multnomah 
Falls," "Castle Rock," "Pillars of Hercules," etc. We found the Co- 
lumbia a much larger river than we had expected. Just below the Great 
Dalles the river has cut a narrow gorge through the basalt rock, where it 
is compressed into a width of 100 yards for nearly two miles, and at one 
place said to be only sixty feet. On the day of our arrival there was a 
fresh breeze blowing that drifted the sand, as it would on Cape Cod or 
any desert, so much so as to cover the rails and render the passage of 
three or four miles from Umatilla dangerous, and we were deprived the 
pleasure of seeing the salmon catching and the natural wonders. 


The next morning we take steamer down river to the cascades, forty- 
five miles. A narrow-gauge road carries us six miles around to the 
lower cascades, when we again embark for the return trip, sixty-five miles 
to Portland. As seen from the boat the scenery is most gorgeous. 


There are settlements along the river banks, but the valley is generally 
quite narrow, and the principal industry is sheep raising. The sheep 
are driven by a shepherd out among the mountains to graze, where he 
has a camp and dogs to care for them. He may have charge of 1,500 
sheep, and is visited once or more each week to be supplied with food 
and necessaries. 

The method of catching and canning salmon proved quite interesting. 
At this season of the year, the fish will not take a fly or bait, and other 
means of capture have to be restored to ; and even though they readily 
rose to a fly, this method of catching them, while it would afford 
unbounded joy to the angler, could hardly furnish a sufficient supply for 
the canneries. A few are taken in nets or seines, but the greater part 
are caught in a curious or ingeniously contrived boat. The boat is a sort 
of scow or enlarged flat boat, something like a stern-wheel river steamer, 
which is anchored by the river bank in swift water, the stern drifting 
down stream. The wheel has three or four paddles lined with wire 
netting, and as the salmon come rushing along up stream they meet the 
stern of the boat and the wheel, with the wire netting being kept in 
motion by the swift current, scoops up the fish, drops them into a trough 
down which they hop and slide into the boat out of sight. It is a sort 
of automatic machine that does not even require a man to tend it. 
When the boat is full, it is run down to the cannery, where it is emptied 
and then set again. But this destructive method of catching is rapidly 
depleting the salmon and ruining the canning business, or driving it to 
the more northern rivers and inlets. 


We visited the Warren Canning Company's establishment, a few 
miles below the Cascades, which claims to can one tenth of all the sal- 
mon canned on the river. The industry has, however, depreciated from 
629,400 cases, in 1883, valued at $3,147,000, to 356,000 cases, in 1887, and 
about 250,000 in 1888. The year 1889 has been a dry one, and the river 
being low, the catch will be likely to fall far below that of 1888. In 1888, 
seventeen packing-houses in Alaska canned about 400,000 cases of four 
dozen or forty-eight one-pound cans to each case. Formerly, most of 
the salmon taken on the Columbia River were carried to Astoria to be 
canned, but in later years the business moved further up the river. 
There are three kinds of salmon recognized on the Columbia River; 
chinooks, blue-backs, and steel-heads. The latter are of small account. 
The blue-backs are not so fat as the chinooks, and only weigh seven or 
eight pounds, but no distinction is made in the cannery. The chinook 
is the regular sabno salar and reaches a weight of seventy-five pounds, 
though the average weight is about twenty pounds, while the Alaska 
salmon averages only about six pounds. 


The Warren Company occupies a large building, employing 150 China- 
men for about six weeks. The cans are made in the factory. The pro- 
cess of canning represents a curious division of labor. First, head and 
tail are cut off, then entrails removed, one stroke of a gang of knives 
cuts the body into junks of the length of the cans, then washed, packed, 
pressed, cans soldered, punctured, steam boiled, cooled, puncture 
soldered, varnished, labeled, packed in boxes of four dozen each, shipped 
to market, and each process is by a different set of men, who pass the 
work along from one to the other. 

Sturgeon {Acipenser sturio) are also caught in the river and near the 
Cascades, twelve feet long and weighting 400 to 500 pounds. The stur- 
geon and the gar-fish according to paleontologists, belong to the earlier 
icthyic creations, dating back to the old red sandstone and oolitic systems, 
and are remnants of the ganoids or fishes with bony plated armor. 


We pass Fort Vancouver, where are stationed United States troops, 
and is also a place of some importance, being a sort of depot for military 
stores. Most of the village has, however, been destroyed by fire since 
we were there. Mounts St. Helens 9,750, Adam 9,570, and Hood 1 1,025, 
are seen from this point on the river. As we go through the fine timber 
section from Portland to Tacoma, 145 miles by night, of course we see 
very little of the country ; nor do we tarry long at Tacoma, but embark 
at once on board steamer for Victoria via Seattle and Port Townsend. 
Seattle was in ashes and we did not land. The fire destroyed the busi- 
ness part of the town, which was a narrow strip at the foot of the ter- 
raced hill, reclaimed from the Sound. It will not be easy to extend the 
land or piles far, as the shore is very abrupt, running down to a depth of 
200 or 300 feet of water. Of course, this gives no safe anchorage, and 
the place is therefore considered a poor harbor. Tacoma is about the 
same ; Port Townsend is regarded as much better. All the three towns 
are new and fresh, and seem to be vying with each other to see which 
shall have the more rapid growth. 

The trip to Victoria is a delightful one, barring a liability to turbulent 
waves ; the landscape is beautiful, long reaches of forest, high moun- 
tains, to say " Olympus high " is no figure of speech, for Mount Olympus, 
with his crags and peaks, clothed in the white garment of winter, is in 
full view. Victoria, like everything English, is of slow growth and great 
durability. It is a place of about 12,000 inhabitants, but a resident there 
made a remark that if it belonged to the United States, it would be as 
big as San Francisco, 350,000. We could hardly credit the remark, and 
yet so far as it went, it was in evidence that annexation would not be 
objectionable. Still the people are in some sense our kindred, and very 
hospitable to strangers. There is here a large dry dock and naval depot. 


but no navy yard or fort. The gentlemanly proprietor of the Clarence 
Hotel, where we were quartered, accompanied us in our inspection tour, 
and very kindly explained points of interest. 


The dry dock is 400 feet long, fifty-six wide, and twenty-six deep, incap- 
able of taking in the largest ships of the British Navy, of to-day, though 
quite ample for all twenty years ago. The coal used here is from the 
Dinsmore mines. About thirty-nine years ago there was no house here 
except the Hudson Bay Fur Co. By the Isothermal map, Victoria is 200 
miles further south than New York, though geographically about seven 
and one half degrees, or four hundred and fifty miles north of it. We 
have already explained the cause of this. 

Leaving Victoria on June 21st, we proceed to Port Townsend, stopping 
at Ironville to get water and see them smelt iron ore. Port Townsend 
is a lively place of about 2,000 inhabitants, and as she is in the centre of 
a splendid lumbering section, and has a good harbor, will be likely to 
make rapid strides in wealth and population. We just touch at the ill- 
fated Seattle — which, by the way, is being rapidly rebuilt — and push 
on for Tacoma. This place has been visited by the " booming goddess " 
from the south — in fact, one might presume this to be her permanent 
residence, with emissaries flitting about and coquetting with other favor- 
able localities. A year ago it was claimed they had a population of 
12,000. Now it is confidently asserted the place contains more than 
30,000. More than 300 houses and stores were in process of con- 

So rapid was the growth that time had not been given to remove the 
big stumps in many of the yards of nice houses. From the water's edge 
to the top of the hill, or to J Street, a rise of some 300 feet, seemingly 
almost impossible to climb, are solid blocks of nice houses, but as the 
supply of brick is not equal to the demand, many are of wood. Prices 
of land are fearfully inflated. House lots from $2,000 to J3,ooo each. 
About all the business that one sees that could pay, is lumbering. On 
every hand, up and down the Sound, are the finest Douglass pines and 
firs we ever saw; great trees four feet in diameter and 200 feet tall, with 
not a limb except at the top. It is no difficult matter to get timber or 
boards a hundred feet long and entirely free from knots. They run for 
large logs two circular saws, one above the other. One mill here is said 
to saw 450,000 feet of lumber or inch boards in twenty-four hours. This 
whole section is the lumberman's paradise. 


The Puyallup River empties into the harbor, where it is thought, by 
dredging, good anchorage may be obtained. An Indian school is located 


at the mouth of the Puyallup, in a large building, much of the carpen- 
ter work having been done by the Indians, and they were acknowledged 
by the contractor, to be among the most reliable mechanics he employed. 
They seem to be pleased that their children can be educated, and with 
education the possibilities of a high civilization are within their reach. 
It will beget a desire for a home, and the nomandic savage nature will in 
a few generations be entirely unknown. 

On the 25th of June, we take our departure for Livingston, on the 
Northern Pacific Railroad, over a rough mountainous country, 904 miles. 
Most of those fine timber lands west of the Cascade Mountains are 
sandy and sterile, but after we cross the mountains we enter upon the 
Yakima Valley and run along the Palouse country, where are hundreds 
of miles of excellent wheat land and other farming facilities, with a most 
desirable climate. Spokane Falls had a population of about 25,000, but 
since we were there a disastrous fire swept away the most of the business 
part of the city. 

Passing through the Territory of Idaho, we enter the great (now) State 
of Montana, 143,776 square miles. There is much fine scenery along the 
line of the Northern Pacific, but we have had such infinite variety as to 
defy description. A great part of this immense stretch of territory is 
covered by timber, which is being rapidly devoured by forest fires that 
are fearfully destructive. These fires no doubt are sometimes accidental, 
but, it is feared, they are not always so. The fall of snow is quite large 
in the Rockies, in some seasons amounting to twelve or fifteen feet, 


We pass Lake Pend d'Oreille, sixty miles long by twenty-six wide, 
which floats several steamers. Then we run through the Flathead 
Indian Reservation, sixty-four miles, of about the poorest land that 
"Lo," the poor Indian, ever saw. There is no game for the Red Men to 
capture. Agriculture on such gravelly soil must ever be a failure, and 
if in his ignorance, Lo commits any depredation, troops are sent to up 
slaughter him, on the ground, we suppose, that there are "no good 
Indians except dead Indians." There was a case of this sort on the 
very day we passed the Reservation. A horse had been stolen. Of 
course it was laid to the Flatheads. 

Some trouble in making an arrest ensued, and a company of Uncle 
Sam's colored boys were sent up to quell any riotous proceedings. It 
is the strong arm on the one side, the weak and defenceless on the other, 
but we felt all the time the shame of being a member of the strong party 
to oppress the weak. Educate them, teach them the use of tools, train 
them to habits of industry and economy, deal justly with them, and there 
will be no need of colored troops to annihilate them. We pass the 
great Park, the snow-crowned peaks of Mt, Powill, the junction of the 


three rivers, Gallatin, Jefferson, and Madison that form the Missouri, 
and are at Livingston. Here we leave the Northern Pacific and take 
branch for Cinnabar, fifty-one miles, and thence by stage to Mammoth 
Hot Springs, Yellowstone Park. 

There are, we believe, no established monuments to mark the line of 
boundary of the Park. This Park, sixty-five by fifty-five miles, set aside 
by Act of Congress, 1872, as a National Park, is in the northwest corner 
of Wyoming, and is nearly as large as the two States of Rhode Island 
and Delaware. The Park is hemmed in by high mountain ranges, 10,000 
or 11,000 feet high. There are several boiling springs known as 
the " Mammoth," which, for countless ages, must have poured forth 
these hot mineral waters, as the terraced hills of solid deposits, 
mostly carbonate of lime, amply verify. A good hotel is here at the 
entrance of the Park, said Park being under the guardianship, in sum- 
mer, of about 125 United States troops, who have headquarters at this 
place. There is a good government road to the upper Geyser, fifty miles 
southerly, and to the Grand Canon of the Yellowstone about ten miles 
from the Norris. There is also a road to the Yellowstone Lake, sixteen 
miles from the Canon, but as there is no hotel or other accommodations, 
tourists do not generally make the trip. 


From Mammoth Hot Springs to the Norris basin is eighteen miles, 
to the Lower Geyser twenty-two miles more, and to the Upper Geyser 
ten miles. Each of these basins has peculiarities of its own. Many 
of the geysers send up jets or columns of hot water to various heights 
and at intermittent periods. " Old Faithful," at the upper basin, ejects 
a colurnti 100 feet into the air precisely at every sixty-five minutes. At 
the Norris, the " Growler " sounds as if a dozen steam engines were 
blowing off steam at once, and the Mud Geyser spouts mud and water 
every ten minutes. These basins, it must be borne in mind, are between 
7,000 and 8,000 feet above tide water. The Norris is 7,760. In the 
Lower Geyser basin alone. Doctor Hayden reports no less than 693 
springs, and to describe each would require a large volume. The paint 
pots represent a bubbling mass of pasty mud, of various colors ready 
for the painter's brush. 

The "Excelsior" is said to be the largest geyser in the world, throw- 
ing an immense stream of water and lavatic stones to the height of 200 
or 300 feet, and steam to 1,000 feet. "Hell's Half Acre " is another 
expressive name that represents several phases of possible torment. 
Prismatic Lake is a sheet of several acres of hot water. At the Upper 
Geyser Basin are enumerated 440 springs, with fancy names, as " Castle," 
" Beehive," " Grant," " Grotto," etc., in all more than 2,000 springs in 
the park all differing from each other. The whole Rocky Mountain 


region has the very strongest evidence of having at remote periods held 
within its bosom a vast amount of volcanic energy, and all along the 
park valley and away up the mountain sides one sees the puffing geyser 
or extinct basin. The Obsidian Cliffs, a mountain of glass, attracts 
much attention. 


The road had to be cut along the base of the cliffs, which was found 
to be a very difficult as well as expensive undertaking. The mountain 
of glass is some 200 feet high and one third of a mile long. The 
Obsidian very much resembles the glass of which cheap junk bottles 
are made, and is so hard that steel drills would have no effect upon it 
and to cut the road through it, great fires were built on it, and when 
thoroughly heated, cold water was dashed on, which cracked and 
crumbled it so that it could be removed. The discovery of the art of 
glass making is hardly known to us, but it was known here, possibly 
millions of years ago, or certainly in prehistoric times. 

At every angle the traveler sees something new or something he has 
never seen before. Even the forest growth differs from that of any 
other section, being small trees, six inches in diameter, very tall, and 
close together. Some of the rivers are so impregnated with minerals that 
no fish can live in them. Truly, it is a "wonderland," and then the 
short trip to the Yellowstone River from Norris, ten miles, is full of 
novelties. The Yellowstone is a long river, rising in Yellowstone Lake, 
and emptying into the Missouri. It received its name from the various 
sulphurous and metallic tints of the rock formations through which it 
has cut its way for miles to the depth of nearly 2,000 feet. 

Cold nights are the rule here at this elevation. Ice has been made 
in the water-pitchers on the 3d of July so thick as to be with difficulty 
broken. But we return to the Mammoth Hot Springs, where we cele- 
brate the 4th of July with the traditional small boy and his fire-crackers, 
the military band furnishing the music. At Livingston we purchase 
some mementoes, as we are not allowed to take any from the Park. 

We take comfortable Pullman palace cars, pursuing our journey 
onward towards Minneapolis, a distance of 1,021 miles, or 1,925 miles 
from Tacoma; and if we add 1,300 as the distance from Minneapolis to 
Boston, we have a grand total of 3,434 miles across the continent, which 
we suppose not far from the real distance. 

We run along east through many villages and towns, but the whole 
section averages low in fertility, offering no great inducements to set- 
tlers, and the "bad lands" are decidedly bad, so furrowed and cut up 
by gulches and channels, or over high, laval rocks, as to be of little 
value. There is good productive land in Minnesota, and Minneapolis 
is one of the most thriving centres in the West. The country west of 


the Missouri for hundreds of miles is timberless and must be used only 
for grazing, and even the farming land alone, east of Bismarck, seems to 
produce light crops of wheat. Near Bismarck is the great Dalrymple 
wheat farm of 75,000 acres. At Brainerd we cross the great Father of 
Waters, which here is so small a stream as to lose its identity, not as 
large apparently as the Yellowstone. 


We arrive at Minneapolis the 6th, and visit the Pillsbury flouring mill 
" A," which is claimed to be the largest in the world, turning out 7,000 
barrels of flour daily, and consuming annually 9,500,000 bushels of wheat. 

There are about twenty other flouring mills in the city, with a capacity 
of 30,000 barrels of flour daily. The Falls of St. Anthony are utilized 
for motive-power, which at low-water mark equals 130,000 horse-power. 
There are also nineteen saw mills, which are said to cut 300,000,000 feet 
of lumber annually. Great rivalry exists between Minneapolis and St. 
Paul as to which shall become the largest city. The former claims a 
population of 150,000, while she unwillingly concedes to her rival so 
great a number. Minneapolis has the advantage of a splendid water- 
power for manufacturing purposes, while St. Paul has the prestige of 
being the capital of the great State of Minnesota, and is also at the 
head of the river navigation which connects it with New Orleans and 
other commercial ports, no inconsiderable benefit to the growth of any 
city. They are, however, both splendidly built cities, of which any 
citizen may be justly proud. 

The Falls of Minnehaha, immortalized by Longfellow in his poem 
entitled "Hiawatha," is some three miles distant from Minneapolis, 
but at the time we were there the stream was not of such magnitude as 
to inspire our highest enthusiasm. On the 8th we had an excursion, 
seventeen miles by rail, to the beautiful lake Minnetonka. 


This State is marvellously well supplied with lakes, having over 7,000 
within her borders, with an area of 4,160 square miles. Minnetonka is 
located within the " Big Woods," and its 300 miles of shore line is dotted 
with spacious hotels, and pretty steamers are plying to all points. It 
offers to the citizen a delightful resort during the summer months. The 
party returns to the city, but without stopping any length of time pro- 
ceeds to St. Paul. 

The 9th is spent in sight-seeing, including a visit to the State House, 
and a drive to Fort Snelling. The evening shades find the party on 
board a comfortable Pullman train moving eastward via Chicago, Port 
Huron, Niagara, etc., arriving in Boston on the 12th of July, without an 
accident that the management could in any way be held responsible for. 


If any one wishesto get correct impressions of the magnitude of this 
country, he had better at once travel over it. " Seeing is believing." No 
description, however truthful, no mere stroke of the pen, be it ever so 
skilfully manipulated, can convey any sort of an idea of its immense 
resources. Rich in nearly all the useful metals, and, since the purchase 
of Cahfornia, embraces a climate and soil producing about everything 
that the human heart could desire. No people in the world should be so 
contented and happy as the residents of these United States of America. 

There are no 60,000,000 of people anywhere on earth so well fed, 
clothed, and housed, enjoying such perfect freedom, having as much 
elbow room as they do in this country. 

W. Hapgood. 


The following letter was the result of observations made during a tour 
to the Pacific Coast in 1889. 

[/Vowz Forest and Stream. '\ 

In a recent trip to the Pacific coast not a buffalo, elk, deer, mountain 
sheep, goat, bear, panther, nor lion (except in captivity), not even a prairie 
hen nor quail iyOrtyx virginiamis) was seen. We regarded this as quite 
singular, since we passed over sections once the home of all theseanimals. 
Forty years ago grouse were plentiful, even around Chicago, and we 
bagged our first prairie chicken (about that time) within the present 
limits of that city. We had confidently expected to see game in cross- 
ing the plains or along the river bottoms, and especially in the Yellowstone 
Park, where all animals are exceptionally exempt from fear of man. The 
squirrels and small" birds seem to know they are protected by Uncle 
Sam, and will almost come and take food out of one's hand. But the 
large animals kept well out of sight. One of the tourists claimed to have 
seen a deer in the Park, another a mountain sheep near Pueblo, a third 
a bear in Firehole River. We did see at the Lower Geyser Basin beaver 
working and feeding on the river. They come out of their house, which 
looked like a big pile of logs and driftwood, at even tide, swim around, 
dive and pull up grass and roots, then get upon a low stone and munch 
as undisturbed as if the dozen pair of tourists' eyes that were fixed upon 
them were not there. Any one who has seen musquash playing, feeding, 
building nests, and attending to domestic affairs around in our waters. 


has seen in miniature the far-famed beaver in his home, for in many of 
their ways and habits they are almost exactly alike. 

Coming out of the Yosemite Valley, near the Grub Gulch silver mine, 
we saw a real coyote, a mean-looking pirate, every inch the cunning 
thief he is reputed to be. He fearlessly stood up on the top of a knoll, 
withm easy gunshot, and coolly exhibited himself as the stage stopped; 
he then trotted on with nonchalance. The leer of those eyes and the 
smart, erect ears indicated a desire to dine on one of the lambs in a 
near pasture. 

In the same neighborhood we observed several California quail ; but 
their habits are not gamy. They do not lie well to a dog, but run on the 
ground, hop on to a rock or low-spreading tree, and run along the 
branches or step from one to another, acting more like barnyard fowl 
than wild game. We should think they would afford a sportsman or his 
dog very little satisfaction. In fact, this was the report of the gunners 
in that section. Nor do they fail to find the most inaccessible coverts, 
among chapparal, cactus, manzanito, and the meanest tangled vines, 
rendering pursuit of cripples almost impossible, and even finding dead 
quail quite difficult. Hard by were two or three mountain quail {Ore- 
ortyx pictus, Baird), but these, too, took to their heels and were instantly 
out of sight in the thicket. One may occasionally see, in forest ranges, 
gray and red squirrels. They have in the Park the queerest little striped 
squirrel, with a short tail, a little darker color than ours, and about 
half as large as our chipmunk. In fact, the fauna and flora of the Pacific 
side of the Rockies differ from the Atlantic. For instance, take the 
bluejay, kingfisher, brant, and most of the woodpeckers. Even the crow, 
lark, and blackbird, so common everywhere, appear different. The crow 
seems smaller and less enterprising, the lark is also smaller and has a 
different note, and the blackbird appears like a cross between /ifrr«- 
gineus and quiscalus. They have many species that we do not, and vice 
versa. The cormorant and the pelican, so common there, are almost 
unknown with us. Gulls numerous — no pun intended — and seem to 
differentiate our own, but terns we do not remember having seen. Nor 
did we see a hawk that looked like a New England species. The swal- 
lows, swifts, robins, bluebirds, solitary sandpipers, turtle doves, and a 
few other specimens, if not identical, very much resemble our own. 
No ruffed grouse or woodcock in that section. Near the celebrated 
Ramona ranch we observed a beautiful white heron, and at Buenaven- 
tura were flocks of large shore birds, probably curlew, though the dis- 
tance and motion of the cars rendered it impossible to determine. 
Everywhere from New Mexico to southern California one sees those 
filthy, lazy fellows, turkey buzzards, lying almost motionless on outspread 
wings. It really seems as if they were asleep and had no movement of 
a pinion for nearly half an hour. Is he inflated with gas? Touch him 


and see. One experiment will satisfy you. But certainly he is a mascot. 
Both these and the mockers are identical with those of the southern 
Atlantic States. The ground squirrel resembles one of our very fat 
gray squirrels, with a short tail and white ring about his neck, and the 
little perky prairie dog, so common everywhere in southern California, 
would deceive almost any one into the belief that he is a mere stub. 

One may sit the livelong day at the Cliff House, in San Francisco, 
and be amused by the sea lions, disporting themselves on the "Seal 
Rocks." Great monsters they are, the largest ones reported to reach a 
weight of at least 3,000 pounds. It is laughable to see the huge creatures 
wriggling their way slowly up on to the rocks, thirty feet from the water, 
looking dark brown or seal color as they emerge from the water, but 
after basking in the sun and becoming dry, assuming a sort of grayish 
drab. And then the struggle to get back to the water is a queer exhibi- 
tion of their awkwardness, but they will leap many feet from a precipice 
to the liquid element. They growl fearfully at each other for place on 
the rocky islets, and the sound is much like that of a big hog, though 
they do not seem to bite. Some of them bark like a dog, reminding one 
of a hound in pursuit of a fox. Mixed up with the seals were immense 
numbers of cormorants. They are lazy creatures ; all they seem to do is 
to just skip down to the water, dive, bring up a fish and return to their 
rocky perch and devour it. The sea lions generously concede the right 
of joint occupancy, and the two divergent families get on harmoniously 
together. The same thing may be seen at Monterey and other places. 
That the sea lions, cormorants, pelicans, and other predaceous species 
lead such an idle life, is abundant proof of the myriads of small fish 
inhabiting those waters. 

But the fishes of the Pacific differ as widely from the Atlantic as do 
the other animals. A codfish from the Pacific Coast would hardly be 
recognized as a congener of the fish at Cape Cod by the same name. 
And so of the smelt and other species ; but we hardly think the West- 
ern waters produce as fine fish as the Eastern. They seem to lack that 
fine flavor, that edible quality that makes the fish of the Atlantic in 
request all over the world. Barracuda and salmon, when fresh and in 
good condition, are very fine, but the mountain trout and other fish do 
not compare with ours. Most of the mountain streams are fed by 
melting snow, and this may be less favorable to fine flavor, than the 
pure spring water flowing from hillsides in New England. Nor do the 
trout of the far West bear the same markings. 

We had some trifling experience in trout fishing during our tour — 
at the Yosemite Valley, Chamber's Creek, Lake Pend d'Oreille and on 
the Yellowstone River. Our first attempt was in the Yosemite. The 
valley is some eight miles long by one and a half wide, and is walled 


in by mountains whose almost perpendicular sides reach an altitude 
of three to four thousand feet above the valley, or seven to eight thou- 
sand above tidewater. Through this valley flows the Merced River, 
whose source is in the snow-capped mountains that environ it. These 
elevated streams come rushing along and plunge down into the valley. 
One, the Yosemite, leaps at a single bound 1,502 feet, and the pretty 
little " Bridal Veil " exhibits a length of 860 feet. Great stories were 
told for the amusement of tourists, about the size of trout in the Merced 
reaching iive or six pounds. We had seen some small trout caught in 
the river, and desired to try our hand at the large ones. On the 29th 
of May, rambling about the valley, we met a Digger Indian with some 
thirty small trout on a withe. The Indian is the principal fisherman in 
that section, and it is from him that the hotels draw their supply. Fish- 
ing tackle and bait are not easily obtained. We tried to negotiate with 
"Lo" for the use of his pole, a mere sapling sprout seven or eight feet 
long; but " Indian no talk much,"' and we found it difficult for the "high 
contracting parties" to arrive at a definite arrangement. Finally it was 
agreed that a trial should be made. He had no flies, but a few worms, 
which he carried in a rudely constructed bag made of long grass, 
through which the worms would crawl as fast or faster than he could use 
them. A cheap hook and line completed the outfit, and with this simple 
gear we essayed our first mountain trout. After about a half hour of 
patient, and at times discouraging, effort, a bit of a "gnaw " was felt. A 
nervous jerk of the pole — and see the big fellow jumping in the sand on 
the river's bank. He was immediately released from the hook and taken 
to the hotel by his captor, washed, weighed, and an accurate sketch 
made. Over the portrait are these significant words : " Length, j% in. ; 
weight, 2% oz." The trout caught at Chamber's Creek, which we 
should call a small river, twelve miles from Tacoma, Wash., were all 
small and were at once returned to their native element. These, with 
the small ones taken in the Yellowstone River, were identical with the 
one caught in the Yosemite, but the large ones were not. 

On our return home over the Rockies via Northern Pacific Railroad, 
we were detained several hours for repairs to a burned trestle near the 
great Lake Fend d'Oreille. The lake is some sixty miles long by twenty- 
six miles wide, and has the reputation of being well stocked with trout 
running up to six or eight pounds. Our desire to capture one of these 
large trout became much inflated, and as we had ample time we secured 
a boatman, boat, and tackle, and set out with buoyant heart, thanking 
our stars that at last fortune had so smiled upon us as to offer this 
rarest of opportunities. We cast here and there, along the shore, in the 
cove, around the point, in deep water and shoal water, tried different 
flies, small fish, grasshopper, and frog for lure, but not a rise. It took 
four hours for our ardor to cool, when a signal from the train summoned 


our return; we cheerfully responded, leaving our bension for Lake Pend 
d'Oreille and its big blotched denizens. 

Our next and last effort in the way of trout fishing was on the Yellow- 
stone River above the Upper Falls. Most of the streams in the Park 
are so impregnated with mineral matter as to destroy any fish that might 
enter there, and the hotels are supplied from the Yellowstone. Through 
the courtesy of the landlord of the " Norris " we were shown into the 
ice house where were two large boxes of the beauties from one half to 
one and a half pounds. On arriving at the Grand Canon Hotel we at 
once secured a rod and tackle, with a son of W., of Hyde Park, as a 
companion, and taking a peep at the Upper Falls, hurried on for a dash 
at the big trout. Now the goal of our ambition was reached. We 
should certainly be rewarded for all our toils and disappointments. We 
made casts at intervals along up river for about two miles, but did not 
get a rise. Downcast and disappointed we started for the hotel. It 
was mortifying to be obliged to return "skunked." On the way down 
river we espied a point of rocks which had escaped observation on the 
way up. It was getting late and our youthful companion began to 
clamor for dinner, but generously waited for us to make a last effort to 
retrieve the day. A few casts were made, and lo ! floundering on the 
greensward in silvery sheen, lies the symmetrical twelve and a half 
inch beauty. A few more casts, and another of fourteen and a half 
inches in length lies a fit companion to the first. Another of seven and 
three-quarter inches is landed, and our joyous steps are quickened for 
our hotel and dinner. 

The next day, July 2, we accompanied the party to the Grand Canon 
and Lower Falls, which are among the marvels of this wonderland. 
The river, which discharges a large volume of water, has cut its way 
for miles through the soft rock to the Lower Falls, or even to the Upper 
Falls, leaving cliffs some 2,000 feet high. Some parts of the rock 
formation is much harder than others, and these, having resisted the 
erosive current, are left in various shapes, some in columns, as if hewn 
out by human hand, several hundred feet high. On the top of one of 
these columns a bald eagle had built her nest, just below Prospect Point. 
Some of the tourists became anxious to see more of our national bird. 
We screamed ; she responded shrilly. Another yell and response, and 
the majestic creature stood up, spread her huge wings, and from her 
eyry floated gracefully away up and down the canon, apparently 
determined to resist any attack or defend her young to the last extremity. 
She was soon joined by her consort, who flitted about as if in search of 
some intruder, and after some twenty minutes, passing up and down the 
canon many times, now high, now low, the female, which seemed the 
larger of the two, hovered over the nest, and finally dropped into it as 
gently as a snowflake. Everything about the caiion is on such a grand 


scale that objects look small. While the alar extent of the bald eagle 
is about eight feet, this one did not appear over one third that size, but 
we were 500 feet above her and probably half to three-quarters of a mile 
distant. From Inspiration Point, lower down river, another nest was 
witnessed, that of a golden eagle. On a similar column, on Gardner 
River, as we came out from the Mammoth Hot Springs, we saw still 
another. Nature seems kindly to have reserved these pyramids for the 
noble birds. In the afternoon we again tried for large trout without 
success, except in a single instance. We took several small ones, seven 
or eight inches in length, and of the seven captured three fell to the fly 
of young Whiting, and we cannot help thinking the small ones are of 
a different species from the large ones, though the natives persist in 
calling them all "mountain trout." But the large ones have no lateral 
red lines, have square tails, and almost entire absence of the black 
blotches. The small ones seem to be a true rainbow, while the others 
do not, and the little ones are constantly breaking water at eventide for 
insects, while the large ones do not seem to feed at top. Large trout 
are said to be abundant in Yellowstone Lake, some sixteen miles away, 
but as they are reported at this season of the year to be infested with 
\?orms, no one cares to go for them. 

We hardly know where the line between the speckled trout of the 
East and the blotched trout of the West is drawn. We could not say 
those of the Pacific slope have black spots and those inhabiting the 
waters that empty into the Atlantic have red spots. The Snake River 
and the Yellowstone both rise in the immediate vicinity, and the trout of 
each have the same markings, and yet one empties into the Pacific and 
the other into the Atlantic via the Gulf of Mexico. In Minneapolis 
we saw the real speckled trout {Salmo fontinalis), which were said to 
have been taken in Canada. 

Buffalo shooting was, no doubt, to the man who could perpetrate such 
inhuman slaughter, very exciting. The number of animals destroyed 
about fifteen years ago, in many cases simply for their skins and horns, 
is truly astonishing. "Col. R. I. Dodge," — we quote from Dafoe in 
Popular Science Monthly, — "author of the ' Plains of the Great West,' 
estimates that in the three years ending with 1874, no less than 5,500,000 
buffaloes were slaughtered." Let those, however, who mourn the loss 
of the rich, light, warm robe when out sleigh-riding on a cold winter day, 
be consoled by this bit of information, that through the experiments of 
Mr. C. L. Bedson, near Winnipeg, Manitoba, a better robe has been 
produced by crossing the buffalo with the Galloway or polled Angus 
cattle, and that Mr. C. J. Jones, of Garden City, is continuing the work 
so nobly begun by Mr. Bedson. We trust others may be induced to 
embark in an enterprise which not only promises financial success, but 
bridges over the chasm made by the loss of the buffalo. 'Again, let us 


consider that the millions of domestic cattle now feeding upon the old 
buffalo ranges, are worth, to a beef-eating community, immeasurably 
more than the displaced buffaloes. There is, undoubtedly, a matter of 
sentiment about these noble animals which prompts a desire for their 
pr^ervation. The Yellowstone Park is now specially set apart for this 
and kindred purposes. Still it is found to be very difficult to keep the 
buffalo on the Park and the poachers off; not generally Indians, but 
white renegades. The two troops now stationed there in summer can- 
not patrol a tract of wilderness sixty-five miles long by fifty-five wide, or 
over 3,000 miles of territory. In winter there seems to be very little 
protection of any sort to the animals, and it was estimated when we were 
there this summer that not more than 200 or 300 were resident there. If 
our government means to preserve the buffalo and other animals in the 
Park, so that future generations may look upon them, more stringent 
measures must be resorted to before it is too late. We see no other way 
of preventing the animals from getting off the Park and being killed than 
by running a palisade fence entirely around it. It would cost next to 
nothing except for labor. There is abundance of the finest timber in the 
world for such paling right on the ground. The thick growth of pines is 
perfectly wonderful ; not large enough for lumber, but trees from four to 
eight inches in diameter, about as thick as they can stand, and running 
up fifty to seventy feet without a limb, except the clump at the top. Let 
these be cut in poles twelve or fifteen feet long and set close together in 
the ground, where that can be done, or spiked together with lateral 
supports. As the trees are cut along the boundary line a road could be 
cheaply made, so that patrolmen could pass around the Park to guard 
the property; or tourists, that are coming here every year by thousands 
from all parts of the world to see the marvellous works of nature, could 
utilize it as a popular driveway. Many species of animals from foreign 
lands might be introduced, in fact there is hardly a limit to the variety 
that could be successfully introduced or kept there, and then this country 
would possess a zoological garden as much superior to that of any other 
country as it is nobler, grander, and more prosperous than any other. It 
would fitly symbolize the progressive spirit of our people. The cost 
would be comparatively trifling. Is any man's soul so dry that he would 
not cheerfully pay a contribution of one or two cents for each member of 
his family to gratify the national pride.? 

W. Hapgood. 



Many letters were written to friends while on our transcontinental 
trip, one of which afflicted the readers of the Fitchbtirg Sentinel 
of futie 19, 1890. Here it is: — 

Monterey, Cal., June 9. 

My Dear T. — In traveling, one always sees novel, strange and 
marvellous sights; different people have different ways of doing the 
same thing, as, for instance, at Santa Fe oxen pull by the horns, and 
people live in adobe houses ; at Mojave, the women wear sandals, and 
at Chinatown they chew betel leaves and smoke opium in place of 

Kansas City is about the most enterprising city we have passed 
through; is modern built and growing rapidly. They claim 200,000 
population, with 50,000 on the other side of the river. Pueblo is a 
growing place, and Manitou Springs is called the " Saratoga of the 
West." It is a pretty place, with grand scenery. Santa Fe has a 
marvellous mixture of old and new. The old Spanish town has narrow 
streets, low adobe houses, and a foreign look. Governor Price occupies 
one of these adobe houses, said to be 250 years old, and I remarked 
that his big silver door plate was worth more than all the rest of the 
house. Two companies of United States troops are stationed here, 
ostensibly to check Indian raids, but really to overawe the " greasers " — 
native Mexicans — whom the soldiers told us they had more fears of 
than Indians. The old Spanish-Mexicans, with that proud Castilian 
blood that is in their veins, being a conquered race, naturally hate their 
conquerers, and would gladly wreak vengeance on their representative 
— the soldier. But there is a better, a more progressive element 
springing up here, as well as elsewhere among these old Spanish towns. 
The progressive American system, if not already, soon will be dominant. 
Nice, new brick buildings are springing up, streets are laid out wider, 
and modern improvements are introduced. 

And now we are to cross the great desert ! This elevated, arid, deso- 
late country, where nothing of value grows except by irrigation, where 
water enough does not flow to moisten a tenth part of the soil; where 
respiration is difficult, and headaches common. It does not look as 
though for a thousand miles these elevated plains could ever become 
settled. Cattle, as poor as crows, are occasionally seen all along the 
line, struggling on the plain for the last spear of grass or any other nour- 


ishing vegetable, or clinging tremulously to some steep acclivity where 
might possibly sprout something that would sustain life. 

But as we come down from the Mojave Desert on to the rich, level 
prairies of the coast, the transition is marvellous ; one can scarcely 
believe his own eyes. At night, when we retire in our comfortable 
vestibuled Pullman palace car, the poor Indian, now only a scattering 
remnant of once powerful tribes, was plowing and preparing the soil for 
the reception of seed (May 15), representing the early days of spring. 

This morning, before 7 o'clock, we have passed over the trestle bridge, 
through the tunnel, and are landed, as it were, in the midst of summer, 
surrounded by orange groves, graperies, figs, olives, apricots, in the 
harvest season of waving grain, with fine houses, cattle, roads, fences, 
and all the evidences of wealth and comfortable homes. We have 
descended from the high arid desert to the lower arable plains — from 
savage to civilized life — from poverty to affluence of wealth, and all this 
has been accomplished in a few hours ! I must not take the space to 
recount the blasting influence of wild speculation in many of the towns 
and cities on the Pacific slope. This has been spasmodic and periodi- 
cal, now here, now there, but the" booming" malaria has sooner or 
later touched them all. It began southward and worked northward, 
culminating at Tacoma and Seattle, now so sadly laid in ruins. It strikes 
us that it is a sort of regular business. A few wealthy, or would-be 
wealthy men, get together, form what in modern phrase is called a " syn- 
dicate," buy a large tract of land, lay out streets with grandiloquent 
names, construct cable roads, build some large houses, with decorated 
gardens, rear a magnificent hotel, and then with a masterly hand 
and brilliant advertisements, the town is inaugurated; the house lots are 
for sale, the "boom" has commenced. The growth of the place is 
unprecedented. House lots have in price doubled, trebled, quadrupled, 
in an infinitely short space of time ! House lots anywhere are a fortune. 
They even went so crazy in Pasadena as to assume that in a few years 
the place would be as big as the city of New York ! Many an Eastern 
man will be sad when I inform you that many of these fine houses, with 
orange trees in full fruitage, graveled walks and lovely fragrant flowers, 
have also a small post in a prominent place, with a small bit of board 
attached to the upper end, upon which is in plain characters printed: 
" For Sale." 

But this bit of land called Southern California, which came so cheaply 
into our possession, was a fine annex. The land is mostly very fertile, 
especially in fruits. We have for generations been obliged to send 
to Spain for our raisins, Italy for almonds and olives, Sicily for 
oranges, Smyrna for our figs, and La Belle France, for our wines, and 
having little trade with those countries, had to send bills exchanged in 
payment. Now we are, or soon shall be, not only able to supply these 


luxuries of the best quality in abundance, but shall be able to reciprocate 
the kindly favors so cheerfully extended to us for some centuries. 
Barley is the principal grain grown in the southern part, is cut green as 
a substitute for hay, which does not flourish here, and is fed to horses 
in this condition or is regularly harvested, crushed, and fed to them, and 
they are said to thrive on it and do good work. It is not a lumber country, 
but a good deal of redwood lumber is made at Santa Cruz and other 
places, and both northern pine and redwood are brought here and sold 
in the rough for $20 to $28 per thousand. 

There is an immense quantity of lumber in the neighborhood of the 
Yosemite Valley, if it can ever be reached. For fifty miles, up and 
down, are some of the finest yellow and sugar pines I ever saw, three 
to six feet in diameter and 200 feet high. The " big trees " in Mariposa 
are the wonder of the world, too big to be of any value simply because 
they cannot be handled. What can man do with a monster thirty-two 
feet in diameter ? Were they near a water course they might be floated 
to a sawmill, but over a mountain road fifty miles away, they are of no 
value. Further down the valley is a chute or race-way fifty-seven miles 
long, constructed at a cost of over $200,000, for the purpose of floating 
out lumber. The Yosemite Valley presents one of the wonderful works 
of nature which about 4,000 people are willing annually to brave over 
a rough road sixty-five miles by coach to see. After climbing "rough 
quarries, rocks and hills whose heads touch heaven," one arrives at 
" Inspiration Point," from which he gets a good view of the valley, the 
mountains, and falls. The valley is level, about eight miles long by one 
and a half wide, is walled in by mountains whose granite heads rise 
almost perpendicularly to the height of 3,000 or 4,000 feet above the 
valley or 7,000 to 8,000 above the sea level. The Yosemite River 
dashes down 3,300 feet over the precipice, and at a single bound leaps 
down 1,502 feet, and looks like an immense white horse tail. The 
"Bridal Veil" has a fall of 860 feet. The "Sentinel," "Ribbon," and 
other falls have a greater height. 

While at San Francisco we visited Chinatown at night, the only time 
to study Chinese character and habits. They are a very superstitious 
set, have many gods, in fact, any man who has done a generous, noble 
or heroic deed, may afterwards be set up and worshipped. Their Joss 
houses contain many of these gods in human form, with long beards, 
in a niche or temple surrounded by gaudy decorations. No public meet- 
ings are held, but each individual goes in for a trade with his idol upon 
his own terms. Incense or Joss sticks are kept constantly burning. 
They have "good" and "bad "devils, but, of course, the good are pro- 
pitiated more than the bad. But the cellars and dens where they live 
and smoke opium are filthy and disgusting beyond description. If any 

"M. IbapciooD an? bis pointer, /iRarft. 


man would come out here and see the condition of things, he would be 
ashamed to go East and say he wished to reduce American labor to this 

Monterey is one of the towns that has a fine, large hotel — one of the 
finest on the Pacific coast. The atmosphere is remarkably even, both 
summer and winter. The mercury rarely rises above 70° or falls to the 
freezing point. For the few days we have been here it has been 60° in 
the morning and 65'' to 70° during the warmest part of the day. The 
old town is about one and a quarter miles distant, and one is shown 
the old fortification thrown up in the night time by General Fremont 
in 1846, which compelled the surrender of the fort and the town. 

We are to leave this place on Monday, for San Francisco, and from 
that place northward on Wednesday. 

W. Hapgood. 


[From Shooting- and Fishingy Chrislmas Number, iSq3.\ 

Looking backward fifty years ! How dim and misty the view ! How- 
faint the lines become, and how difficult to follow ! In attempting to 
retrace our steps over once trod fields and trust to memory as our guide, 
we shall be liable to overlook much that would be interesting, and omit 
much that should be recorded. To glean the golden grain and reject 
the tares is no easy task. Events that greatly impressed us as impor- 
tant, and were deeply stamped upon the memory fifty years ago, have 
faded into utter insignificance ; while others of less moment linger, as 
if "to the manor born." And then some events that transpired fifty 
years ago seem fresher in memory than others that happened within a 
much less interval; for instance, we remember precisely where we were 
when we first beheld a gun with percussion locks, while we do not 
recollect when or where we first saw a hammerless gun. Any errors 
we may make in this brief review must be attributed to a deficient 
memory rather than to an attempt to deceive, for, above all things, we 
abhor a literary fraud. 

In no department of letters has greater advances been made than 
in our 



Early in the present century the subject of American ornithology 
attracted the attention of naturalists, and works of value began to be 
published. The great work of Audubon's, " American Birds " — which 
cost the author the better part of a lifetime of labor and anxiety — was 
finished about 1838. Up to about this time few books with nomenclature 
and characterization adapted to this country had been published, and 
most of them were by foreign authors, whose language was better 
adapted to the birds of their own than to this country. The mammalia 
of America had been neglected even more than our feathered tribes. 
The students of our fauna, thus handicapped, struggled on resolutely 
reconstructing and reforming out of such material as was at hand, until 
an entire revolution in this branch of science has been wrought. We 
presume no country in the world to-day has its fauna better delineated 
than our own. The young student of the present time can hardly 
realize the difficulties one encountered in the earlier part of the present 
century in obtaining satisfactory scientific knowledge as to the habits, 
character, range, habitat, or even the adopted names, so as to identify 
any particular species ; in fact, the best authors of that day had adopted 
no uniform nomenclature, and were constantly combating each other on 
propriety or priority. Mark the difference in our ornithological works 
to-day! Every one of our native birds — about 1,000 — is scientifically 
described, named, classified, not by one author, but by scores, more or 
less worthy the gratitude not alone of sportsmen, but of the whole 
American people. In addition to the standard works on ornithology, 
we have an immense periodical literature and sportsmen's papers broad- 
cast throughout the length and breadth of the land probably superior 
to that of any other country on the globe. 


In order to make the present generation of sportsmen understand the 
marvellous improvements that have been made in firearms, we must go 
back somewhat beyond the half-century limit assigned us. The inven- 
tion of the compound which we call gunpowder, was invented by the 
Chinese, as we are told, about a. d. 600. The process of graining was 
not discovered for many years after. This gave birth to the desire for 
some sort of implement whereby the expansive force of the explosion 
could be applied to projectiles. The bamboo tube was tried, but found 
not to have strength enough to resist the pressure. Experiments with 
an iron tube met better success. The tube was plugged, the vent created, 
and lo ! we have a gun barrel. All those beautiful, laminated, steel gun 
barrels which we see so common to-day around us, are the offspring of 
this invention. From generation to generation through the centuries 
improvements have been made. The method of igniting the explosive 


in the tube was curious, and shows by what slow processes the present 
system was evolved. One of the early methods was to tie the tube to a 
log, and then, with a coal of fire, ignite the powder. Further on, the 
tube, or gun barrel, was fastened to a lighter piece of wood, that could 
be held by one man and touched off by another. Later came a contriv- 
ance for holding a fuse, and still later the match-lock was invented. 
Following these was the flint-lock, the percussion cap, and electric spark. 
All the guns in use in our younger days were of the flint-lock pattern. 
The flint-lock was an ingenious contrivance for applying the flint and 
steel to igniting the powder in the flash pan. The flint and steel was 
almost the only method of producing fire known to the people of that 
period. Every household had its flint, steel, and tinder box. The old 
flint-lock had its mainspring, tumbler, dog, and sear-spring. The ham- 
mer held the flint, and, being cocked, when the trigger was pressed, fell 
with great force upon the steel anvil, which covered the flash pan, 
throwing it back, and forcing the fire along down its surface to the 
powder in the pan, which it ignited, and, the flame being pressed through 
the vent, exploded the charge in the gun. All this process occupied 
a very brief period of time, during which the gun must be held 
steadily to point. This slow process of combustion, together with the 
extreme length of the gun, rendered it almost useless for wing shooting 
in tall cover; but the earlier settlers had no other. Most of the guns in 
use down to and during the first quarter of the present century were 
such as were brought out by immigrants, and of a very miscellaneous 

Confronted by a savage foe, as the first settlers were, the need of arms 
for defence, and for procuring food, was most urgent. In this pressing 
emergency, a few ingenious mechanics — here and there one — under- 
took to manufacture by hand one or more guns. Ammunition was 
scarce and procured with great dilficulty, and to economize in this 
respect, these guns were mostly made of small caliber — 20, or even 
smaller. Some of these home-made guns were very neat and wonderful 
specimens of artistic design and workmanship. We can hardly under- 
stand how, with the means at hand, such beautiful examples were pro- 
duced. It must be remembered that there was not in the whole country, 
in that era, what would be called to-day a set of mechanic's tools, or any 
sort of tool, ready made, for sale. If a carpenter, or other mechanic, 
wanted an ax, hammer, chisel, or other tool, he must make it himself, or 
rely upon the skill of the village blacksmith for it. 

The few men that were led by genius or curiosity to attempt making a 
gun were, by the same forces, taught to make their own tools for the 
enterprise. We are in possession of one of these heirlooms that fell to 
us from our ancestor, and as it is a fine specimen, in excellent preserva- 
tion, a brief description of it may not be unprofitable or uninteresting to 


the younger readers of Shooting and Fishing. The barrel is forty-eight 
inches long, and the breech sixteen inches, or a total length of sixty-four 
inches. Some of the guns of that era were much longer. Then there is 
a bayonet over a foot long, which forces us to the conclusion that the 
arm was intended for warlike purposes, as well as for the peaceful pur- 
suits of a sportsman. The stock is of cherry, and extends the entire 
length of the barrel, except a space of about three inches for fixing the 
bayonet. All the trimmings, the quills, trigger, and breech guards, the 
tablet for date and name, and the long muzzle sight, are of brass. It 
has iron ramrod, as most guns had at that date, especially if intended for 
bullets. Of course there was a bullet mold, and leather pouch, or bag, 
for carrying ammunition, "priming wire and brush, and two spare flints," 
as the statute required. The pouch, which was a curiosity in model 
we regret to say, mysteriously disappeared. 

This gun, during the lifetime of its owner, hung high up on its sacred 
hooks, out of the reach of the children, and must not be handled by any 
one except on very special occasions, such as when a rapacious hawk 
attempted surreptitiously to purloin a chicken, or a felicitous crow 
presumed on a premature harvest of the corn, for the gun was ever 
loaded ready for such like intrepid intruders, and marvellous stories are 
told of the great distances at which an enemy had been made to "bite the 
dust." In the field, among squirrels and partridges, it was said to have 
had no superior. It was customary in those days to make turkey and 
chicken shoots, about Thanksgiving time, open to all. The fowl would 
be set up on a stump or stone, at twenty rods for ball, and twelve for 
shot, and this little twenty-three gauge gun, made by Phinheas Sawyer, in 
Harvard, Massachusetts, in the year 1777, was sure to win for its owner 
a full share of the booty. We well remember, in our youthful days, 
when the governor was absent, how rapidly our sporting proclivities 
developed, and we stealthily mounted a chair, took the forbidden arm 
from its hooks, and with the worm on the end of the iron ramrod, drew 
the tow wad and emptied out the shot, knowing, by sad experience, that 
so heavy a charge would be more likely to lay us upon the ground 
than the sparrow or chipmunk aimed at. 

In those days there was among the boys great scarcity of money, 
and we had to practise some pretty nice strategic movements in order 
to secure the necessary funds to carry on the season's campaign. Trap- 
ping and snaring were resorted to, and occasionally a rabbit or 
musquash pelt would fall to the treasury department, or some good 
friend would drop a penny into the slot of the banking house to cheer 
the heart of its owner. So hard pressed were some of the boys for 
shot, that sheet lead, or junks of lead beaten into sheets, would be cut 
into strips, and these in turn into square bits, as substitutes for shot, 


and at short range were quite effectual and more satisfactory than peas 
or pebbles, both of which were at times used. 

The primitive contrivances for carrying ammunition were not only 
curious but amusing. The powder horns, which were so universally 
used, were of great antiquity, and served their purpose through many 
wars. They were of a great variety of shapes, colors, and workmanship ; 
some were plain, in the rough, while others were selected with great 
care for their clearness, boiled until quite soft, and then shaved and 
scraped down very thin so that the owner could at any moment see 
through the transparent horn how much powder he had on hand, which 
might be of the highest importance to him. The outside of some of 
the horns was decorated with artistic figures carved upon them, such 
as birds, beasts, landscapes, Indians, and the like. These curiously 
wrought powder horns had the large end closed by a carved wood 
stopper, and the small or service end, by a small stopper of the same 
material. In some families they were prized highly, and handed down 
from father to son through many generations. By some they were 
regarded and kept with that veneration the Alaskan does his sacred 
totem pole. Shot was also carried in horns, in the absence of a leather 
pouch, and, when neither was at hand, loosely in the pocket. No 
charger but the hand was known in those days, and the amount of 
ammunition served was regulated by the eye according to the size of gun 
and game, more, of course, for a bear or deer than for a partridge or 

The legislature was annually convoked on the last Wednesday in May, 
which was then called election day, and this, especially with the boys, 
became a sort of holiday. It was customary for the lads in a neighbor- 
hood to assemble at an appointed time and place for a grand hunt. 
They would organize by the choice of captains, and these high and 
distinguished officers were to select alternately from the assembly such 
as had a reputation as hunters, and at the end of the day the judges 
were to decide which party was victorious. All sorts and sizes of guns 
were brought into service, and nearly all the birds and animals that were 
met might be killed. 

As each bird and animal had a fixed value, small birds for instance 
counting one, while the largest would count eight or more, it was easy 
for the judges to determine which was the defeated side. Usually there 
was no penalty attached to the defeat, but the mortification was grievous 
and lasted through the year. The impecunious condition of the youth 
did not allow of a sumptuous dinner at the hotel in token of the victory 
of 'lection day, but the good mothers, rejoicing with their sons that they 
could have one day of freedom from toil in the year, would provide 
'lection cake and pumpkin pies, and' possibly lemonade, for the great 
occasion, and this terminated the boys' holiday. If we contrast those 


frugal days with the present luxurious style of living, we shall be 
forcibly struck by the result of the two methods. It is certain that 
many of those boys trained in the school of adversity did find that 
those rigid rules of economy, born of a necessity, were of great service 
in after life, carrying them through a business career that ended in 
wealth and honor. 

The growing sentiment of the people was, however, opposed to this 
wholesale slaughter of the beautiful song birds for mere amusement, 
and efforts were made for its suppression. The farmers discovered 
that destruction of the insectivorous birds meant destruction of certain 
crops. These birds were their friends and allies, keeping the trees and 
vines free from their enemies — the moths and larvae — and they must 
not be destroyed. The day for convening the General Court was in 
1 83 1 changed from the last Wednesday in May to the first Wednesday 
in January, and the boys 'lection holiday, with all its iniquities, gradually, 
after many years, became extinct, and the little birds rejoiced. So 
strong had public opinion become in regard to the usefulness of our 
feathered tribes, that, with few exceptions, they are now protected by 
stringent laws, which, we are happy to believe, are pretty generally 
observed. In this we think we see more clearly than ever that evolution 
is taking place in morals as well as in mechanics. 

There was a class of guns in general use in this country down to 
about 1850, or to the time that lighter and better began to be made 
wholly or in part by machinery. These old guns were known as 
" King's arms," and were such as had been taken from the British 
during the wars of the Revolution and of 1812, or perhaps some were 
left here by the royalists during the first-named war as they precipitously 
departed for Nova Scotia and other places. These guns were long, 
single barrel, heavy flint-lock things, twelve gauge, and weighing about 
twelve pounds. The youthful sportsman of to-day would be surprised, 
if he should meet one of these veterans in the field, to think that any- 
thing could be killed with one of the clumsy arms. But they were quite 
popular; in fact, about the best guns in use for ducks and large game, 
especially for ducks and geese shot from a boat or shore battery. As 
the open hand was the usual charger, and as the gun was large and 
strong, about a handful of powder would be turned in for a goose or 
duck at long range, and in most cases they proved quite destructive. 
These guns, together with the smaller bores, were many of them altered 
to percussion locks by introducing a tube in place of the flash pan and 
the hammer to strike the cap. Even down to the present day these guns 
may be seen in use along shore or in remote rural districts. 

About 1830 there was a fashion for bell muzzle guns, and a few were 
imported. Some of these guns had elliptical mouths, which it was 
thought would spread the shot horizontally and devastate the greater 


part of a flock. At first it was believed that the bell muzzle had less 
recoil, but after a while the opinion that they would scatter more and 
had less penetration gained ground ; the fad was finally abandoned. 
No innovation has made a greater revolution in firearms than the 
discovery of the 


The new mode of detonation, invented and patented by Mr. Forsyth 
in 1807, was tardily introduced into this country, and was not adopted 
in the British army till 1840. About 1830, or a little earlier, the 
old method began, very reluctantly, to yield to the new ; but its progress 
was slow, and was not in general use before 1840 or down to 1850. 
About this time new guns began to be manufactured wholly or in part by 
machinery. Many of the old flint guns had been transformed, and all 
the new ones adopted the new invention. The single barrel was dis- 
placed by the double barrel, and all of them were made much shorter and 
larger caliber. As late as i860 most of the guns in use here were 
imported. It is cheering to us to see what raJDid strides manufacturing 
has made in this country during the past forty or fifty years, and we 
think gun making is fully abreast with any other department. The gun 
has undergone an entire revolution — the barrels, the stock, the locks. 
The entire mechanism is, by the ingenuity of our mechanics, so much 
improved as to render the old style almost useless. Many of the new 
improvements in firearms are the result of the invention of the percussion 
cap. The improvements in ammunition are no less astonishing than in 
guns, but what would a shell be worth without the percussion cap.? 
Would all those delicate and curious contrivances called locks, ever 
have been invented but for the percussion cap ? We have often been 
led to consider — if invention lives, as we have no reason to believe it 
will not — what will be the condition of firearms at the end of another 
century? Or, perhaps it were more sensible to ask, if it is presumed 
there will at that period be any game left, or any use for sporting guns ? 
We confess the future is to us all a mystery. 

Contrast the gunner of a half century or more ago, starting out in the 
morning for a day's hunt, with his long, single-barrel gun, powder horn, 
and shot belt slung across his shoulders, a spare flint in his bag, with 
screw driver to transfer the same, his pockets filled with tow, oakum, a 
hornet's nest, or paper for wadding, a heavy ramrod for pressing the wad 
solid home, with the gunner of to-day in his neat duck suit, the pockets 
well bestowed with loaded shell, and his double-barreled breechloader so 
daintily appointed. Can any one be too thankful that he was born late in 
the nineteenth century ? The first-named gunner may, without a dog, 
get more game than the second with his fine blood setter, simply from 
the fact of the greater abundance of game. If the gunner of the olden 
time had a dog at all, it was likely to be a spaniel. The cocker spaniel 


was at that period very popular, and deservedly so. He was of a most 
cheerful and amiable disposition, capable, and willing to endure any 
hardships for his master; nimble, intelligent, and fond of hunting; a 
good watchdog, patient with children, and when woodcock and partridge 
were plentiful, a most useful animal in the field, especially when trained 
to hunt close or not range too wide. They have good noses, and one 
could tell by his actions when he struck a scent as readily as when a 
setter came to point, and when birds were so plentiful that the dog 
would flush fifty or more in a day, it mattered little if some did escape. 
Woodcock, in those days, were found more in low bush cover than at 
present, and when one was flushed and missed, he was not pursued if he 
flew back. It was a greater loss of time to pursue than to find a fresh 
bird. The spaniel was peculiarly adapted to cornfield shooting. When 
woodcock were everywhere abundant they would, as soon as the corn 
was large enough to afford cover, or say about the middle of August, 
betake themselves to a wet corner of the field where worms, upon which 
the festive woodcock feeds, were supposed to abound. It was fun to see 
the little spaniel dash in among them, and compel them to take wing; 
and it was more fun for the gunner, posted on a stump or other com- 
manding position, to down them as they sprung. When the open season 
for these birds commenced on the 4th of July, cornfield shooting in 
summer was regarded as affording as fine sport as could be obtained in 
this country. As the birds from year to year grew scarcer and scarcer, 
cornfield shooting died out. We have for the past five or ten years 
scarcely seen a woodcock in a cornfield. The younger set of sportsmen 
of to-day very likely never knew that they resorted thither, nor will they 
be likely, knowing as they do, the reputation of gunners for veracity, 
believe the stories told by Frank Forester, when he used to visit 
Warwick Woodlands, and shoot seventy-five woodcock in a day, or 
"Cale" Loring and Colonel Emery kill ninety-nine in a day and a half 
at Salem, N. H. But the decimation of the woodcock necessitated a 
change in the breed of hunting dogs. A more careful and precise 
worker must be found. The Clumber spaniel, of which Prince Albert's 
pack was at one time composed, was hardly satisfactory in our rough 
cover, and our gunners settled down on setters and pointers. The 
former we reckon as the most popular. Nowadays, if a couple of gun" 
ners, with these high-bred dogs, go out and spring six woodcock, six 
birds are expected to be found in bag at night, if they shoot over 
a pair of well-trained dogs. We have found, of late years, however, 
that even as many as six of the birds cannot be flushed every day, 
and hunting in this vicinity has become more like day labor than sport. 
And so it was with grouse. When they were abundant, and not dis- 
turbed, the little spaniel would dash in among the covies, and as they 
rose he would give tongue, which would generally bring them to bay 


upon the first tree, where the long, single-barrel gun could sometimes be 
discharged and reloaded several times, so unsophisticated were the birds. 
But as the work of annihilation went on, the spaniel became useless, 
and the birds, what few were left, became shy, and now they are so 
wary as not always to be counted on lying to point. Many of them now, 
on hearing the approach of the gunner, take wing for safety out of reach 
of the gun. We believe this is a rule with Bonasa uvtbellus. In a 
wilderness, under normal conditions, when flushed, they at once light on 
a tree, but after being hunted and shot at, they prefer to trust to their 
wings for safety. In fact, this holds good with most of the feathered 
tribes, but less so with the woodcock than some of the others. Many 
years ago, snipe shooting used to be a favorite amusement; but for a 
good many years we have scarcely seen a scolopax Wilsonii. After a 
cold snap in October, one may strike a flight and secure a few ; but they 
are about as uncertain a bird to find as flies. 

Fifty years ago wild pigeons {Ectopistes migratorius) were too numer- 
ous to delineate, and could be shot sitting upon a dry stub of a tree in 
or near almost any piece of woodland. During the migrating season in 
September immense flocks were seen wending their way to the south- 
west in the eastern part of Massachusetts. They were easily baited, and 
thousands of dozens were caught that way in nets. It was quite an 
industry at one time, and was recognized and protected by our Legis- 
lature. They used to breed all over New England. While they are 
not entirely exterminated, they have become so scarce that we have not 
seen one in this State for five or six years, and very few in California or 
the West. 

The same painful decrease in numbers has taken place with the swim- 
ming birds. In Worcester County, where we resided fifty or more years 
since, many gaggles of these cuneiform flyers would be seen during 
their autumn migrations, and the same thing occurred in the spring 
when they were going north to breed. When the Pilgrims and other 
early settlers arrived here, they found geese bred all over the continent, 
but as population increased, the birds retreated further north to rear 
their little families. But so rare have they become that residents in 
that county for several years have seen very few, and we do not presume 
there is to-day one {Anser canadensis) where there were fifty at the time 
referred to. 

Of all the duck species visiting our waters, the black duck {Anas 
obscura) has been the sportsman's first choice. They are gastronomically 
excellent; they arrive early and stay late — in fact, are found along our 
seaboard all winter. Formerly they bred all around us, and even now, 
in some sequestered nook, nests may be occasionally found. In the 
earlier times, during September and October, the gunners could find 
these ducks in almost any of the small ponds throughout the Com- 


monwealth, and it was a favorite sport. Now, however, they have 
become so scarce that very few persons care to waste time hunting them. 
The young ducks reared in fresh water, and never having visited the 
salt marshes, are very delicious, quite different from those reared and 
fed along our friths and estuaries on "wrinkles " and other marine mol- 
lusks. These ducks have been ruthlessly slaughtered along the coast in 
midwinter, when they were so poor as to be almost worthless for food, 
and we contend that if they are of value to our people, they should be 
protected during the winter months, or from the middle of December or 
I St of January to the following September. When our bays and har- 
bors are frozen over, except in a few spring holes or feeding places on 
the marshes or flats, and the birds are obliged to resort to these for food 
and water in a half-starved condition, any one can see that if a gunner is 
disposed to take advantage of the desperate situation of the ducks, and 
lie by these feeding places, he may slaughter the poor creatures indefi. 
nitely or until they are exterminated ; and this has for some years, in 
certain localities, been the condition of things. Great destruction of the 
ducks has taken place on the plashes or feeding places, at eventide, by 
using wood decoys, or bunches of seaweed mounted on short sticks ; 
and these bits of seaweed prove to be quite good lures in the twilight, 
or darkness, as the birds come in to feed. Here, also, is the superiority 
of the improved breechloader made manifest. ' The gunner using the 
breechloader, may sit secreted in his blind all the evening and shoot 
unexposed, whereas, the man with muzzleloader must rise every time he 
shoots, and reload, and in earlier days, with no other chargers than his 
hand, he was liable to overload, the charge being an " unknown quantity," 
exposing those at either end of the gun to possible damage ; and then, 
while standing up to load, the ducks would not return, but settle down 
in the distance to the business of the evening. The modern gun is also 
immeasurably superior to the ancient in shore-bird shooting. If a flock 
of birds being attracted by the decoys, approaches the blind, and many 
are swept down by the first discharge, a call note from the stand lures 
them back, while the concealed gunner slips in a couple more cartridges 
and pours these into the returning flock ; and this may be repeated several 
times with some species until the flock is annihilated, or the remnant 
departs for other feeding grounds. How is it with the muzzleloader? 
He must stand up and expose himself while charging his gun, and, before 
he can be seated, the birds that rose at the sound of his gun have caught 
sight of him, and retreated a long distance to other feeding places, where 
they may remain for hours, and he loses the day in waiting for them to 

In brant shooting the breechloader is eminently more destructive than 
the muzzleloader. When a shot is fired by the latter, and cripples are 
made, they must be gathered at once or they will escape to deep water 


by swimming, whereas, with a breechloader no time is lost, as the pur- 
suer slips in a couple of loaded shells, and is soon in the midst of the 
fleeing birds, blazing away, right and left, and none are likely to escape. 
But this style of rapid loading and firing is fatal to the business of 
replenishing the stock of live decoys. While the brant is one of the 
most edible of our aquatic birds, it is about the only one that can 
numerically hold its own against the improved breechloader and other 
skilful inventions for its destruction. They are entirely exempt from 
human harm in their boreal breeding places, and, as they rarely touch 
our shores on their passage southward, where, until quite recently, very 
few have been killed, it is the opinion of some of the best judges that 
they are fully as numerous now as they were fifty years ago. 

We do not regard coot as a very desirable fowl for the table ; but by 
the skilful manipulation of the cook they may be so disguised as to 
lose identity, and usually a "mess" of coot excites the conflicting opin- 
ions in a family for a month. Undesirable as these birds are for food, 
their numbers are steadily diminishing. Fifty years since they were not 
shot over decoys as at present. We are informed by an old coot shooter 
at Cape Ann that in his early days no decoys were used, but that the 
birds were so plentiful that a boat or string of boats could lay off, and, 
with flint-lock, single-barrel guns they could get all they wanted. He 
estimates that there is not now one coot where there were fifty when he 
first began to shoot, or say fifty years ago. It was found that they were 
easy birds to decoy, could be toled in by bladders painted black, or 
almost any object having the semblance of ducks. Later on, all the 
contrivances for their destruction were improved, — guns, ammunition, 
decoys, boats, — and it does seem that, unless protected by statute, they, 
as well as their betters, will ere long be numbered with the dinornis, the 
dodo, the pied duck, and others of our noble and valued birds. 

The introduction of new species is one of the schemes proposed for 
replenishing our depleted covers, and this, while it is very generous 
on the part of our sportsmen who had undertaken the experiment, the 
newly introduced species should have not only the protection of law, but 
also the co-operation and support of the people at large. It was from no 
sordid or selfish motive the enterprise was embarked in, but simply from 
philanthropic motives. He who should permanently stock our forests 
with turkeys, grouse, bob-white, or any exotic game bird, should be 
classed with him who made two spears of grass grow where but one 
grew before. 

It is not so very many years since the great fever for colonizing the 
European quail in this country prevailed, and thousands of these little 
Coturnix communis were imported for that purpose and set free ; but, 
far as we know, the whole scheme was a failure. From some cause, still 


unknown, they all perished. The importation and planting of the 
Chinese pheasant, on the Pacific coast, is thought to be eminently 
successful. In the course of time these birds may spread over the 
country, and, if not too pugnacious, prove a blessing to future genera- 
tions of sportsmen. 

We see no reason why the sharp-tail grouse, recently planted here, 
may not thrive in the mountains of New England. If we should be so 
fortunate as to naturalize them, it would, in some degree, compensate for 
the growing scarcity of our native partridge. 

The prairie hen, once plentiful here, has now more serious obstacles 
to contend with than when on its native heath. If they were extermi- 
nated during the reign of the flint-lock, how are they to survive the 
breechloader.? Still we are hopeful that successful efforts will be made 
to bring exotic species here, and that some of them will thrive and give 
to future generations of sportsmen, a taste of the invigorating exercise 
and pleasure we have so abundantly enjoyed. No bodily exertion is 
more conducive to health than field sports. Even the shock caused by 
the discharge of a gun is said to be healthful. A ramble in the pure air 
and sunlight, over mountain and plain, in quest of game, certainly is. The 
younger class of gunners are apt to complain that most of the best 
covers are posted, and that shooting is not free as of yore. This is 
undoubtedly most true, but it all grew out of a necessity, resulting from 
the recklessness of the gunners themselves. If they had always been 
careful not to break down fences, trample upon grass or grain, or do 
other damage, there would be no necessity for posting. It is in self- 
defence — not from innate meanness — that the farmer posts his land. 
Nor is the gunner alone responsible for these restrictions. There is a 
worse set to contend with — a class that pretend to be sportsmen, but 
are really thieves, ready to take to bag, nuts, fruit, melons, and any sort 
of plunder they can lug home, and perhaps more on Sundays than any 
other day. It is said that locks and bolts are unnecessary in Mohammedan 
countries to protect property. We have often wished some philanthropic 
individual would import a cargo of Mohammedan morality, and dispose of 
the entire invoice to selfish gunners, fruit thieves, and pot hunters. 

W. Hapgood. 


With a Brief Sketch of the Monomoy Branting Club. 

It was our custom for many years, at the close of each season, 
to report to some sporting journal the result of the shooting at 
the Monomoy Branting Club. Some of these papers under their 
respective dates, are introduced here for the benefit of such 
readers as are interested in that kind of literature. The cuts 
illustrate various features of brant shooting and camp life at 
Chatham, all perfectly familiar to those who have visited that 

[Forest and Stream, April 7, /55/.] 

Brant shooting is a peculiar kind of sport that but few have indulged 
in. There are many obstacles in the way. The haunts of the birds are 
few and isolated, their feeding grounds limited, their sojourn brief; nor 
can any degree of success be achieved without the proper appliances, such 
as a house to live in, boats, boxes, bars, live decoys, and a skilful hand to 
manipulate them. When, however, all these are attained no spring shoot- 
ing on the coast of New England, gives greater satisfaction or better 
rewards the energy and skill of the sportsman. The birds are large, 
numerous, and, gastronomically, have no superiors. This little goose 
must not, however, be confounded with the brant of the West. In some 
of the States almost anything in the shape of a goose is called " brant." 
Our bird — Anserbernicla, Avidohon,B ernicla brenia, Stephens — weighs 
about three and a half pounds. But they are not distributed universally 
along the Atlantic shores as are Canada geese, black ducks, coot, and 
other aquatic birds. At the easterly end of Massachusetts is the nice, 
old-fashioned town of Chatham, and some three miles away to the south- 
ward of this is the island of Monomoy, a mere belt of sand running still 
further southward, about six miles. Almost the whole of Cape Cod 
is composed of a granulated, silicious sand, which has great mobility 
in wind or water. Monomoy shares the common heritage of the cape 
and her sister isles. Had Rip Van Winkle fallen asleep on Cape Cod 
in place of Kaatskill, he would, on waking, have found the harbor, 
channels, and islands metamorphosed as thoroughly as the people. Not 
many years since the bar or island, of which we are speaking, had a ship 
channel between it and another similar bar, Nanset, through which the 
commerce of the town was carried on. Subsequently a shifting current 



filled the channel with this movable sand, connected the bars, and closed 
the entrance to the inner harbor. Still later, during a severe easterly 
storm, a crevasse near the town was made in the outer bar, which has 
since so widened as to allow the tide to ebb and flow through it. This 
change of current has not only chafed and fretted away the hill upon 
which stood the government lighthouse, compelling its removal, but also 
washed away the wharves, filled the channel, and ruined the remnant 
of commerce that was left to the unfortunate town. What strikes one 
as most singular at this place is, that at a depth of some fifty feet below 
the foundation of said lighthouse, where the hill has been cut away by 
the action of water, the stumps of large trees, quite unlike any forest 
growth of the present day in the vicinity, are exposed to view. Over- 
lying these stumps is a stratum of clay which has the appearance of 
being hardened into rock by the pressure of the superincumbent mass 
of sand or some other cause. Similar instances of large stumps still 
remaining in salt marshes occur at Hingham and other places along the 
coast. Of course, these large trees did not grow in salt water. Whether 
the erosive waves have destroyed the barriers that warded these denizens 
of the forest, or the whole coast is more depressed than formerly, we leave 
to the researches of the archaeologists to determine. 

Facing eastward from Monomoy one sees the broad Atlantic where 
" they on the trading flood ply, stemming nightly toward the pole." It 
is no uncommon occurrence for a fleet of a hundred sail to be seen at 
anchor, or struggling against wind or tide to reach a port, and many 
a gallant ship has been wrested from her course by the storm king, and 
tossed upon the beach as a mere toy. After an easterly gale one of 
the objects of intense interest to tourists is the matchless grandeur 
of the spectacle of " hills of seas Olympus high " that dash themselves in 
thunder upon this sand bar, again and again to be absorbed in the 
bosom of the refluent wave. On the westerly side of the island, stretch- 
ing up and down some miles, is what is called "Chatham Great Flats," 
over which the water flows, varying from two feet to almost nothing 
according as it is full or neap tide. Adjoining these flats on the 
southerly or westerly side is deep, blue water, where grows an immense 
quantity of common eel grass {Zostera marina), upon which the brant 
feed; and this is the great feeding ground for these birds on Cape Cod. 
So attractive is this locality that thousands of these little Anserince 
assemble here every spring to " feed and batten " preparatory to the 
long journey via Prince Edward's Island to their breeding grounds at 
or near the North Pole. It will be understood the marine vegetable 
that proves so savory a morsel to the brant grows in water five or six 
feet deep at high tide, and as these birds are not divers, they can only 
feed at low or nearly low tide. Then as the flood tide drives them from 

BRANT SHOOTING, 1881. 469 

their feeding grounds, particularly when it is breezy, the birds become 
uneasy and scatter about in little "pods " or flocks, evidently seeking 
other feeding grounds or more comfortable quarters where they can 
rest till the tide ebbs so they can return to the feast. It is during this 
period — from about half flood to half ebb tide — that the brant are 
flitting about over the flats and are liable to catch sight of and be lured 
to the decoys; and it is during these four or five hours each day that 
the shooting is done. The time for the brant to arrive from the South 
in spring varies considerably ; in fact, none of the swimming birds — 
Natatores — are as punctual on time as are the waders or Grallatores. 
A warm, forward spring brings along the brant in considerable numbers 
by the ist of March ; whereas, a backward season will hardly make good 
shooting before the end of that month, and by the 25th of April so few 
remain as to offer the sportsman no inducement to pursue them further, 
though it is quite probable a few straggling flocks may be seen as late 
as the 1st or even the loth of May. During this period they are con- 
stantly coming and going, especially when the wind is to the southward 
and westward. It will be readily observed that the shooting season at 
best only extends over a period of four or five weeks. They rarely 
stop at this place in autumn on their way South, and if they do are not 
fat or fit for table use. The birds on arriving in the spring enter the 
bay from the West in flocks or gaggles — varying from a few individuals 
up to several hundred — at no great distance from the mainland, some- 
times passing directly over, not deigning to stop even though their food 
is abundantly spread out before them, and thousands of their less 
suspicious brethren are feeding there, while other flocks will gradually 
lower themselves down, swing round once or twice, then plunge into the 
liquid element. All the migratory birds that follow the coast line must, 
of necessity, pass this point both spring and fall. Sometimes they lift 
and go over Nanset Bar or Monomoy Island, and sometimes they pass 
around the southerly end of the island, Cape Malabar; but the great 
mass rise to a safe altitude, strike a "bee line " east by north, and pass 
directly over this strip of land. We have often remarked that the leader 
of each flock must have a pocket compass placed in the top of his head, 
so unerringly do they steer. The flocks of brant on arriving, departing, 
or passing over are quite irregular in shape — now in column, now in 
line, now one end or the other folding upon the centre, now are in a 
bunch, then again in line, and as the little dark specks disappear away 
down the dim, distant eastern horizon, they are more likely to hold the 
latter position than any other. Of all the multitudinous millions we 
have seen during the last quarter century not a single flock was ever for 
any length of time in cuneiform or V shape as are Canada geese. We 
do not pretend to say how they fly in other latitudes or under other 


circumstances. Doctor Kane and other good authorities have spoken of 
their flight as being cuneiform in shape in high northern latitudes. 
This may hold true at Wellington Channel or Renssalaer Bay, but does 
not accord with our observations at Cape Cod. One would naturally 
suppose, on seeing these birds constantly feeding at any locality along 
shore, it would be easy enough to kill them. There are many such 
places up and down our coast, but for reasons very few birds can be 
killed. At the mouth of Bass River many brant linger and feed through 
the entire season; but there are no "flats," no points where boxes can 
be planted and successfully worked; the water is too deep, the shore 
too bluff, and the brant feed only at low tide. A box might be placed 
on the feeding ground, and operated for a short time during each low 
tide, but the depth of water in the immediate vicinity would prevent the 
recovery of cripples, an important item in brant shooting, and, more- 
over, all our experience teaches us that shooting at these birds on their 
feeding ground soon drives them to other quarters, from which they 
would never return. The same conclusion was arrived at on examining 
the harbor of Nantucket. It will be found even at Chatham that before 
any shooting can be done a vast amount of hard work is to be per- 
formed. The feeding grounds and flats are so far from the town that 
living there is not practicable, and a shanty or house must be built on 
the island. Boxes are to be made, pens constructed for holding the 
live decoys, and a well dug for fresh water. This "well" arrangement 
is a curiosity to the uninitiated. The island where the shanty is located 
is not over 200 yards wide, but of undulating surface, i. e., composed of 
little hillocks and valleys or basins. If a hole three feet deep be dug in 
one of these basins and a common flour barrel inserted, it will on the 
flood tide partially fill with pure, soft water, and will continue to rise 
and fall with each tide. The reason of this is that rain falls upon this 
porous sand and percolates till it reaches salt water, which, being of 
greater specific gravity, holds or buoys up the fresh water. If, how- 
ever, one digs a little further down he will pass through the fresh water 
stratum, and arrive at bog mud, showing conclusively that this sand has 
been driven from the beach by the wind, and deposited on this ancient 
marsh. Other liquids may be indulged in at the shanty, but an abun- 
dant supply of fresh, potable water will be found indispensable to health 
and comfort. 

Various contrivances have, from time to time, been introduced for 
slaughtering these wary winged wanderers, but none have succeeded 
so well as shooting from boxes buried in the sand. It would really 
seem to one not acquainted with their peculiarities that those immense 
flocks could be approached by a sail boat within range, but again and 
again has this been tried and as often failed. A well trimmed " float," 

BRANT SHOOTING, 1881. 471 

in the hands of a skilful manager, was tried with no better success. 
For several years one club used that abomination of all true sportsmen, 
a "floating battery." This was anchored on or near the feeding ground, 
and for a short time met with moderate success ; but the birds, with their 
keen black eyes, soon discovered the cheat and kept aloof. 

The bay is miles wide, and a stiff breeze or squall lashes the flood 
into such turbulent waves as to endanger the life of the occupant of 
said nuisance, and it was a wise move when they concluded to abandon 
the battery and return to the old method of shooting from boxes. 
About the same time the battery was in use, some twelve years ago, 
wood decoys were introduced, but to our mind these are of doubtful 
utility. A large lot of wood decoys will undoubtedly attract the 
attention of a passing flock, but they rarely light with them, and if 
perchance they were deceived into such impropriety, the deception 
would soon be discovered, and so hasty a retreat made as barely to give 
the gunner a snap shot at a single bird. Nor are they very likely to 
swim up and mingle freely with dead bits of wood, however ingeniously 
carved or skilfully painted. It is true that sometimes a flock of brant, 
that otherwise would not think of coming near the bar, will fly up and 
scale round a lot of wood decoys; but such flocks, scattered by doubt 
and fear, offer very little satisfaction to the sportsman, nor will any 
great shot ever be made in this way. Once fired at on the wing, they 
will not return, but if allowed to alight in the water and swim up to the 
decoys a much larger number will be killed, and then the same flock 
will afterward visit the bar and repeat this several times on the same 
day. They do not seem to be frightened out of their wits when fired 
at on the bar, or near the live decoys, as they do on the wing or near 
wood decoys. Still, if two or three clubs are operating at the same 
time near each other, the one having most wood decoys, other things 
being equal, will get the most wing shots. But our boxes are not yet 
planted, and this is a job no one man can perform. A water-tight box 
large enough to accommodate three persons must be about six feet long, 
three and a half wide, and two and a half deep. One half of this is 
buried in the flats ; the other is hid by sand being wheeled and piled up 
around it. Nor is this all; a bar twenty or thirty yards long, and two 
feet high, must be made and maintained for the decoys to run out on 
and for the wild ones to assemble upon. The sand must be taken at 
low tide from some little distance so as to leave the flats and bar 
moderately smooth and natural. 

There is an enormous tendency in this Cape Cod sand to a dead level. 
Three hundred wheelbarrow loads may be to-day piled up to form a 
bar, which a high tide and wind will to-morrow send back to its normal 
condition of adherent " dead level." Early in the season, before the 


bars are consolidated, every high wind and tide does more or less damage 
to the bars, which must be repaired before the box can be used, as no 
brant will come near when it is in sight. Almost every newcomer volun- 
teers a plan for preserving the bars, such as bags of sand, brush or stone 
deposits, piles driven around, concrete and canvas coverings. Some of 
these have been tried. As to the bag speculation, the first high tide dis- 
solved the copartnership existing between the sand outside and inside the 
bags, leaving a splendid " scare-crow "behind, and the brush and stone 
experiment ended even more disastrously. The concrete covering stood 
up a little longer, but finally succumbed to the relentless finger of winter. 
The frost seemed to soften and disintegrate the mass, which yielded to 
the erosive agency of the waves, and it gradually disappeared. In the 
spring of 1877 a brilliant idea entered the head of one of the newly 
formed clubs. The bar was built, a trench dug around it, canvas (an 
old sail) hauled over, the edges tucked into the trench and covered to 
hold in place, a hole cut for the box, and the border nailed to it. This 
at first was thought to work admirably. The brant, it was said, were 
not afraid of it. It would hold the sand in place and save an enormous 
amount of wear and tear of wheelbarrows and muscles. So highly was 
this scheme commended that the Monomoy Branting Club adopted it at 
their North bar the following season, but not with so satisfactory results. 
The sand will move under the canvas, from one side of the bar to the 
other, by pressure of wind and water, leaving an uneven and unsightly 
pile for a bar not at all comparable with the natural sand bar ; in fact, the 
Monomoy Branting Club became so disgusted with it, that during the 
latter part of the season of 1880, after it had been badly torn by a storm, 
it was removed altogether. 

Another desideratum in branting is live decoys. No visionary 
enthusiast need lay the flattering unction to his soul, that without these, 
or with wood decoys alone, he will meet any degree of success. Decoys 
are usually obtained in the course of shooting by being slightly wounded 
in the wing, when a phalanx is amputated, and the bird is added to the 
gaggle. The little captives will, when placed in the pen with the old 
ones, commence eating corn, their usual diet while in captivity, and 
although they probably never before saw a kernel of corn, they thrive 
well on this simple bill of fare. Presumably, in their normal condition, 
they never see fresh water, and yet in bondage this is their only 
beverage. Nor do they seem to suffer by the change. Another pecul- 
iarity about them in captivity is that they have no sexual intercourse, 
lay no eggs, exhibit no incubating desire, are cold, dignified, and reserved, 
especially toward other fowl, nor do they ever become fully domesticated. 

All through the earlier history of branting at this place, and up to within 
about eighteen years of the present time, the business was carried 

BRANT SHOOTING, 1881. 473 

on by 'longshoremen, who associated themselves together for con- 
venience, in unorganized clubs, of from three to six persons. In 1862 a 
club called the Monomoy Branting Club, consisting of four resident and 
fourteen non-resident members, vi^as organized. A little later another 
club was formed, and still later a third, but neither of these have been 
as successful as the first, probably from the fact that the most available 
shooting points were occupied before they entered the field. Of all the 
immense flats we have previously described not more than four or five 
points are worth occupying, and from a single one of these — the " Mud- 
hole " — about as many brant have been killed as from all the others 
combined. This point has been for nearly half a century occupied by 
one family, father and sons, until their interest was merged in the Mono- 
moy Branting Club. Fifty years ago, when flint-lock guns were in use, 
the boxes were partly covered over to prevent the diving fowl from 
catching sight of the flash, and thus escaping, as is well known to the 
older readers of Forest and Stream^ they would do. 

The guns were run out through embrasures, and this method necessi- 
tated the order, "Ready! — one, two — fire!" It was discovered, how- 
ever, when the birds were with the decoys they were not so easily 
frightened, and all this roofing-in arrangement was dispensed with, 
more particularly after the invention of percussion caps. As we have 
been connected with the Monomoy Branting Club from its birth — nay, 
more, acted as accoucheur upon that occasion, our remarks hence- 
forward will have reference more especially to the doings of that 

In forming the club it was arranged that the non-resident members — 
persons living in Boston or vicinity — should build and furnish a shanty, 
provide boats, boxes, and the necessary tools for carrying forward the 
enterprise, while the resident members — whose homes were at Chat- 
ham — should make and keep in repair the bars, do boating, cooking, 
taking care of the decoys, and generally looking after the welfare and 
interest of the non-residents. We are happy to add that the plan has 
worked admirably and to the entire satisfaction of both "the high con- 
tracting parties." It is for the time being a sort of copartnership, the 
non-residents paying a stipulated sum for board and privileges, sharing 
equally with the residents in all the game killed. This plan knits the 
two wings together, makes their interests identical, each willing to labor 
for the other, each sharing the other's failures and successes. So ad- 
mirably has this scheme worked, that we believe it might be profitably 
introduced into large mercantile, manufacturing, mechanical, or mining 
operations. Here labor becomes interested in capital and vice versa, and 
by this union of interests the happiest results would follow — profits would 
be increased, greater harmony prevail, and those disastrous outcrops 


of a foreign growth — "strikes" — would be avoided. A shanty or 
house, 12 X i6 feet, was built and furnished. This, however, was found, 
a few years later, to be too small for the convenience of the members 
and invited guests, and it was enlarged to double its original capacity, 
giving ample room for reading, sleeping, dining, cooking, storage, etc. 
If any one wishes to see the very personification of comfort, happiness, 
freedom, let him look into this shanty when it is in the "full tide of suc- 
cessful operation," where are eight or ten jolly "boys," each one brim- 
ful of fun, with a week before them of the best shooting New England 
affords, and say, if, in the whole wide world, a counterpart to the picture 
can be found. 

Here the lawyer quits the bar of justice for the bar of sand, his cause 
is " Clams vs. Clients," wherein the former are sure to win. The mer- 
chant, weary of watching the market, and the rise and fall of commodities, 
mounts the unfailing " tide that, taken at its flood, leads on to fortune." 
The doctor smiles as he reflects upon the midnight ride, the bedside 
agony, the fatal end ! The minister turns his back upon dogmas and 
doctrines, " far from mortal cares retreating," and participates cheerfully 
in the life of a sportsman. The entire freedom from all ordinary cares, 
the pure, bracing sea air, the cheerful companionship, the total change 
of currents of thought, diet, and exercise — all the surroundings seem to 
conspire to improve one's health, strengthen his mind, elevate his soul, 
fortify him against the assaults of any foe, and send him back to his home 
a healthier, happier, and, we trust, a better man. 

We will now suppose the shanty to be in perfect running order, three 
boxes — the " Mudhole," "North Bar," and "Gravel" — generously 
bestowed in their respective bars, and fifteen live decoys in the pen at 
the sunny side of the shanty ready for use. Boxes have been planted 
at " Inner Point," "Sedge Hummock," and other places, but the plant 
proving unprofitable was relinquished. The shooting capacity of the 
three boxes is at best but nine. The North Bar is quite low and over- 
flows on each excessively high tide, while the Gravel is quite high and 
entirely useless on an extremely low tide, so that the box room is hardly 
more than six, while the shanty readily accommodates twelve persons. 
As the club consists of eighteen members, all told, with about as many 
more invited guests, it is necessary to group them into weekly parties of 
four or five non-residents, with the four residents, making a party at the 
shanty all the season of eight or nine, and this is really the working force 
of the club. Another peculiarity of the club is that the weekly parties 
rotate, i. <?., the party that is at the shanty this year, the first week in 
April, takes the second week next year, and so on through the round of 

We would like here to introduce to the reader the resident members 

BRANT SHOOTING, 1881. 475 

of the club by their names, as familiarily known at the shanty in 1880 — 
" Alonzo," " George," " Washy," and " Reno." Mr. David B. Nye, now 
of Poplar Branch, Currituck Sound, North Carolina, was one of the four 
original resident members, but other business drew him thence, and in 
1870 he withdrew altogether. Reno did not become identified with the 
club until 1875. But, see ! — here comes our boat booming along down 
the channel with H. M., W. S., and the Doctor, in charge of Alonzo and 
George. Now she drops her anchor, and her passengers and baggage 
are transferred to the dory to be landed. But even here is a difficulty to 
be overcome. The water is so shoal as not to allow a dory to reach the 
dry beach, and long boots are in request. But there is the Doctor with 
his short top boots, as usual ! He can indulge in a "poose-back " ride. 
Well, 'tis ever so where " wishes are horses," and they all scamper away 
for the dear old shanty, which seems to stretch out its arms to bid them 
welcome. Now, all that big pile of impedimenta is to be " toted " a distance 
of 1 50 yards ; and what a heap of " traps " these Nimrods do carry ! Well, 
here they are, at the end of a tedious nine hours' ride by rail, stage, and 
boat, with no interruption save the hour beguiled at Chatham, by one of 
Alonzo's incomparable clam chowders. How eagerly the newcomers 
inspect everything pertaining to the shanty ! With what freedom they 
criticise, compare, commend this or that arrangement ! Beds are now over- 
hauled, aired, and re-made with clean, fresh linen ; boxes and barrels are 
opened, trunks and baskets unpacked, clothing hung up on appropriate 
hooks, boots bestowed in proper places, guns mounted upon the rests, 
and everything is changed in the twinkling of an evening sunbeam into 
one of the most cosey, home-like places imaginable. But, hold ! the 
gods, both ancient and modern, must be propitiated. H. (who has a 
reputation in that line) is requested to produce one of his popular 
lemonades. Of course nothing stronger is indulged in — oh, no! 
Sportsmen never do overstep the bounds. Well, if one half the bless- 
ings bequeathed this commingling of soul and sentiment be realized, 
the President of the United States of America will never die, the 
country will ever be at peace, nor will poverty or disease ever again 
invade her borders. Dhudeens are filled, and as the smoky wavelets 
curl and crinkle among the rafters, the fried potatoes are crisp upon the 
range and the coffee aroma wings its way to welcoming nostrils. If the 
devil furnishes cooks, why, certainly the gods must furnish cookables. 
Abstinence produces appetite, and yet all were filled. Then come those 
pleasant games at cards, exciting topics of conversation, predictions for 
the morrow's shooting. No ! the morrow is " the Sabbath day of the 
Lord." Ojshade of the Pilgrims! this hallowed hour shall not here — 
almost in sight of that shrine where first they knelt in supplication on 
this Continent — be desecrated! No solemn church bell summons 


sinners to repentance here ; and yet the day is pleasantly and profitably 
spent in making music, watching the immense flocks of brant that 
arrive and depart, and in various ways holding sweet converse with 
Nature and Nature's God. As the day has been calm, the bars are in 
good condition, and the prospects are favorable that Monday morning 
will usher in a week of grand sport. It will be high tide at 7.15 A. m., 
and the boxes must be occupied by 5.00 o'clock. The alarm-clock, 
which acts as a sort of reveille, is set at 4.00 o'clock and brings every 
man to his feet. A hasty repast is improvised, while each gunner 
adorns himself with his coarse, heavy wool clothing, oil suit, long boots, 
and wool mittens. Three decoys are placed in each basket, and it is 
astonishing with what precision the residents will seize the particular 
birds that are to be worked on the same line, as there is no perceptible 
difference in the size, plumage, or voice of the sexes. The boxes are 
distant from the shanty as follows : " North bar" about a mile, " Mud- 
hole " half a mile, and " Gravel," one third of a mile. As the " North 
bar" is lowest, the tide, of course, reaches it first; and as the distance 
from the shanty is greater, Reno, who is as constant at the box as the 
North Star to the Pole, must start first. He takes with him S. and H. 
The high tide of the previous night had filled the box which must be 
bailed out ere it can be entered. The decoys are then fettered and 
allowed to run out upon the bar, and as the water is making around us, 
they rush down for a morning bath which they seem to enjoy exceed- 
ingly. Washy, who has for some years managed the "Mudhole," is 
accompanied by M. and the doctor, while George with W. occupies the 
" Gravel." The parties had scarcely got well braced, when a small 
"pod "of brant came flitting along toward the "North bar," and four 
out of seven were knocked down by S. and H. and gathered. "What 
is that black spot, away down there to the southwest.?" asks Reno, 
after gazing steadily for a few moments in that direction. " It looks 
like a large flock of brant," he continues, the spot still holding his eager 
eyes. "Yes; it is a flock of brant, and they are heading for us," he 
adds. As the flock comes on and on, nearer and nearer, " Yes," he ex- 
claims, " they are making directly for us. Now they turn ! There — 
there they go, right in for the ' Mudhole,' " his face elongating at the 
sight. "Now," says S, "they have all lighted within two hundred yards 
of the box, and as the tide is still flowing, they will be likely to swim in 
and give the boys a splendid shot." Sure enough, they soon catch sight 
of the decoys on the bar and commence swimming for that point. Only 
one head is now seen above the bar. The resident who manages the 
decoys keeps his eyes steadily above the edge of the box to observe 
what transpires and report to his companions who crouch down out of 
sight, especially when birds are approaching. As the brant assemble 

BRANT SHOOTING, 1881. 477 

upon and around the bar the observer will notice three heads, and he 
understands the leader has signified to his associates that now is the 
best time to shoot, and they must very gently raise their heads so as to 
look out for the most desirable groups to shoot at and yet not cross the 
fire of the others. The order is now presumed to be given: "Ready! — 
one, two — fire!" The first discharge should be simultaneous, the 
second at will. Then the box is suddenly vacated, and such a splashing 
and dashing after cripples, which are captured first, and afterward on 
the way in the dead birds are picked up. "A big shot," says H. "About 
a dozen," mutters Reno, who is never sanguine. "More," says S. "Can 
tell better when we arrive at the shanty," continues Reno. At this 
moment several sea ducks {Somateria tnollissima) come puffing along, 
and attempt to pass the "North bar," when, quick as thought, the three 
guns were aimed, and three ?)iollissitna were floating on the flood, while 
a fourth was struck hard but managed to escape. "Those sea ducks 
will carry off an enormous lot of shot," remarks S. "Yes," says Reno; 
"but if you only had another empty shell in your Boyd & Tyler we 
might count four in the box." As the tide flows over the flats a great 
many small fish are attracted hither in search of food, and these in turn 
draw after them many sheldrake. Three of these came near the "North 
bar," and were reminded of their proximity by "Old Cherokee." One 
was gathered and one escaped with a broken wing. 'Tis useless chas- 
ing wounded sheldrake in water two feet deep. Twenty shells may be 
fired and the bird still live. 

The tide is fast making over the bar, now "boring" up, now falling off 
again. "Shall we be driven?" asks H. "If it continues to blow hard, 
we probably shall," responds Reno. Again it "bores," and a wavelet 
enters the box. The decoys are now unfettered and placed in the 
basket. Another wave forces the party to mount the top of the bar. 
Here is the dread alternative either to retreat to the shanty or stand on 
the bar for a long hour till the tide ebbs so they can re-enter. As the 
road lies between the Mudhole and Gravel, and as no shooting can be 
done at either during the passage, it is decided to stand it out. Usually 
on being driven when the Gravel is untenanted they "fleet" thither. 
At high tide, when the wind blows fresh, the birds are skipping about 
pretty lively, and some very good shots are likely to be made. A flock 
of about twenty brant drew near the Mudhole, and was greeted by a 
salute of six guns, and seven dead were left to be gathered, besides one 
"wing-tip," which gave Washy a hard pull to overhaul. 

As soon as the tide ebbed so that the north- box could be bailed out 
the party re-enter, put out decoys and proceed to business ; nor were 
they long idle. " Is that a little black cloud or flock of birds away down 
there toward Harwich Point?" asks H. Reno, although remarkably 


vigilant, is not particularly long sighted, and did not at first take in the 
situation, but after a while the little spot, as it moved slowly along 
apparently close to the water, attracted his eye. " Oh, yes ; I see," and 
the little dark cloud grew bigger and bigger as nearer and nearer it 
came. " Yes, it is a large flock of brant coming right for our bar," 
giving the decoy line a jerk at the same time. On, on they come. 
" Down, down," he cries, and two of the heads disappear. " They are 
now very near," he continues. " There, they swing around ; now we 
have them; they are all in the water." The two heads, after a few 
minutes of awful suspense, are slowly raised and two pair of astonished 
eyes behold 150 brant, not as many yards away, swimming hither and 
thither, coquetting and playing together entirely innocent of any danger. 
Gradually they work their way along to the southward of the box, 
spreading about, some quite near and others more remote. At length 
they come together very handsomely within forty yards of the box. 
"Now is our time," whispers Reno. "Are you ready?" he nervously 
continues. An affirmative response is made, and he gives the order, 
"Put over! One, two — fire!" Bang! bang! go the six barrels, 
splash, splash, go the three pair of long boots. The dead and wounded 
are gathered with all possible dispatch, and but for one cripple the 
work would have been quickly done. This one, however, gave Reno a 
fearful jaunt. Away went our blackfooted hero, paddling for dear life, 
toward the North Pole, and away went Reno in pursuit. The pursuer 
had not the benefit of a long pair of legs, though he had excellent 
pluck, while the pursued was blessed with a splendid pair for the work 
before him. Now the brant seemed to gain on his pursuer, and now 
Reno on the object of his pursuit. S. and H. watched with breathless 
anxiety this little episode incident to branting. These birds are not 
divers, but stand up bravely till their pursuer is quite near, when they 
plunge in and swim under water; but they make slow progress and are 
then easily captured. Placing his bird under his arm he slowly returns. 
"Big shot," says S. "How many?" inquires Reno, as he jumps into 
the box and puts the decoy in the basket. " Twenty-three," instantly 
rejoin both S. and H., "and one cripple which makes twenty-four, and 
this beats any shot of the season," he rejoins, at the same time seating 
himself and commencing to fill his pipe. After such a big shot a great 
many wise remarks are volunteered, a great many suggestions made 
which are to apply to the future, but the future always brings with it an 
enormous amount of variability. As this conversation was vehemently 
progressing, a flock of seven brant came up behind the box, caught 
sight of the decoys, swung round twice ; but as the tide was nearly off 
the flats, and as they rarely light except in water, it was thought best 
to "give it to them." Four fell dead while a fifth dropped too wide out 

BRANT SHOOTING, 1881. 479 

to be recovered. This was the last shot, and as the other parties had 
long since gone in, Reno concluded to "take up." The dead birds are 
tied in bunches, and thrown over their shoulders or across the guns, and 
amid mutual congratulations the party proudly sets out for the shanty. 

Only four shots were fired at the "Gravel." At first a flock of nine 
brant came and alighted near the point of the bar, and as they 
"bunched up" five of them were murdered in cold blood. Then a 
pair whirled round over the bar apparently reconnoitering, but this 
temerity cost them their lives. The third shot was at a big loon 
{Colymbiis glacialis), by George, and he was handsomely knocked down 
at eighty-three yards. A lone sheldrake closed the morning's work 
and the party retired. As soon as Reno entered the shanty he asks, 
"How many did you get. Washy, at that first shot?" — "Seventeen 
and two decoys," was the cool reply. " I hardly thought you got as 
many," rejoins Reno. "Ought to have had thirty," growls Washy, 
"and we should if I could have kept the Doctor down." And they all 
gathered around the breakfast table as full of chatter and merriment as 
a pack of monkeys. "What does the morning's work foot up?" asks 
H., as the record must be entered in the journal. "Well, here it is: 
Mudhole, 27; North Bar, 32; Gravel, 7; a grand total of 66 brant! The 
evening tide is worthless, and there will be no more shooting till Tues- 
day morning. That night a fresh breeze sprang up from southwest, 
bringing along a great many brant, and, moreover, doing some damage 
to the bars, but there is no time in the morning for "sand rolling," and 
they must be hastily patched up for the nonce. 

Tuesday morning all hands up at 4 o'clock, lunch, and start for the 
boxes in the following order: First, Reno with W. and the Doctor for 
the North Bar. Next, Washy at his old haunt, the Mudhole, with M. 
and H. as companions, and last George and S. occupy the Gravel. 

Alonzo, who is an excellent cook, runs the shanty, and did not our 
modesty forbid, we would like to describe one of his bird stews; and then 
his quahaug fritters, clam chowders, and cuisine generally have a 
reputation among gunners all over Cape Cod; but we must not waste 
precious time over such trifles. 

As the birds enter the bay mostly from the westward the boxes all 
face that point of the compass. Scarcely had the last party put out the 
decoys, deposited the basket in the box, and comfortably seated them- 
selves, when a flock of about seventy-five brant came pushing their way 
along up from the southward, and lighted in the dark water near the 

" Will they swim up with the tide ? " asks M. 

"Fine chance for them — it is flowing rapidly," Washy answered, as 
the brant were playing, chasing each other, and picking up floating 


Now they turn and head for the bar, now sag away again. How 
exciting, how disheartening, are these moments to the occupants of the 
box ! Did the reader ever lie in a box or blind with a hundred ducks or 
geese swimming in for his decoys — now surging and falling away, now 
nearer and again more distant.-' Well, if he be a nervous man, it is 
doubtful if he do not shake his gun-barrels out of the stock, and were it 
not for the steadiness of the veteran guide, who handles the decoys and 
attempts to keep the neophyte steady, he would be as likely to fire in 
the air or at the string of decoys as anywhere ; nor would he be the first 
one who has done this same thing. Again the birds set toward the box. 
"Down, down!" cries Washy, and he alone is "the observed of all 
observers." On again they come, swimming hither and thither, within 
a hundred yards of three throbbing hearts. Now, again they halt, 
then retreat, as though they were suspicious all was not right. At last 
one old "honker" starts for the live decoys, which have to be occa- 
sionally jerked by the check-cord to make them " show wing." 

"Yes," says Washy, "he is coming right on to the point of the bar, 
and the whole flock are following ! " 

At this juncture of affairs another flock of about forty sprang up from 
the westward, shimmered along, swung round, and alighted with the 
main body. " R-ronk, r-ronk," ring a hundred voices ; " ruk-ruk " as 
many more — and such tumult and confusion ! The two concealed 
individuals imagine all sorts of things — possibly they are let down at 
the very front gate of Babel, or on board an emigrant ship, or in an 
auction store. The guide quickly conveys the cheering intelligence 
that many of them are so far on the bar as to get " toe-hold " and the 
others are in moderate proximity. These birds are quite vigilant, and 
any sudden movement would instantly send them beyond the possibility 
of a hope of recovery. 

" Raise your heads slowly," says Washy, and the two heads are 
gradually elevated to a level of the third, when lo ! the bar is dark as 
Erebus with the waving mass. A few moments of nervous consulta- 
tion as to the best group for each to fire at and the guide whispers, 
" Get ready." Just at this moment the birds spread suddenly about 
and frustrate the plans, producing dreadful uncertainty for a few 
seconds, but they soon " bunched up " again and the word was given : 
" Put over ! Ready ! Fire ! " The smoke of six guns wreathes its way 
heavenward; out jump the two — splash! splash! — away they go ! 
Washy takes a breech-loader along with him to knock over any wing- 
tipped birds that cannot otherwise be gathered. One "old honker," 
with just a little bit of the muscle of the carpus pricked by a stray 
pellet, is pulling foot for the dark, deep water, off Harding's Beach. 
No non-resident would undertake to chase a strong- bird half a mile, and 

BRANT SHOOTING, 1881. 481 

if he did he would not overtake it. The motion of the waves over the 
white sand brings on a dizziness to one not accustomed to this work, 
and makes him feel every moment as though he was about to " topple 
over headlong." Far different is it with the guide or leader who has 
spent his whole life upon the water. Away goes our little winged hero, 
following closely is our stalwart guide. Further on and further still 
they go, almost out of sight. On the way out Washy had gathered two 
or three dead birds, which he still held in his hand, and when within 
about a rod of the live bird he throws one of the dead to frighten the 
living, who will then dive and turn two or three somersaults in a 
bewildered condition, so that his pursuer can rush forward and capture 
him. In the meantime the dead and wounded had been gathered, the 
bar smoothed off ready for another crack at them. 

"How many?" asks Washy, as he stops to take breath. 

" Nineteen and two decoyS — twenty-one, all told," quickly responds H. 

" Well done," says Washy, and it seemed to give him a " heap " of 
comfort as he placed that decoy in the basket. 

"But, look you," says M.; "there go nine right up for the North 

" Precisely ! " ejaculates Washy, hardly yet recovered from his long 
tramp. Puff, puff, away out in the dim distance rises the smoke, and 
the flock is reduced to four. Not much time elapsed before a brace of 
black ducks {Anas obsaira, Gme.) were seen swimming in for the 
" Gravel." The guns were brought to bear, and in a few minutes they 
were quietly reposing on the bottom of the box. The brant had for 
some time been feeding in the channel between Monomoy and Nanset. 
The regular feeding ground extends from near the Mudhole to the 
inner point, a distance of two miles. In passing from one to the other, 
as they do on each tide, feeding in the channel at high tide, and at 
Inner Point at low tide, they are very likely to receive a salute as they 
pass in review before the boxes. A shot from the Gravel started a 
large flock from the inner harbor, and as they lifted and moved 
majestically along westward, it was like a huge black cloud, so thick 
and dark. On it moved toward the Gravel, and strange to say, notwith- 
standing the water was quite shoal, and in some places nearly off the 
flats, they all dumped down a little distance from the bar. Some 
were within gunshot of the box. What was to be done? A thousand 
brant, all within i8o yards of the two well charged guns. As the tide 
was fast leaving the flats, and the birds could walk around anywhere, 
and moreover as they began to stretch up their necks, and show signs 
of suspicion, it was thought best to fire as soon as they should come 
together and offer a favorable opportunity for a good shot. This they 
soon did, and George gave the order, and the two guns belched forth fire 


and smoke. Easy task to gather up the thirteen dead birds that lay 
upon the water. Scarcely was the shot made on the gravel when Washy's 
eye seemed to be riveted to the western horizon. After a few minutes, as 
if almost doubting the correctness of his own eyes, he says : " There 
is a flock of sea ducks coming this way, I think. No; they are brant," 
he continues, with much straining of the visual organs. After a few 
moments' pause he bursts out again, " I declare they are Soinaieria 
mollissima, coming right straight for the box." 

" They look to me more like brant," says M. 

"No," remarks Washy; "don't you see how steadily they fly, and so 
close to the water ? " 

On they came till within about eighty yards of the box, when their 
keen eyes caught sight of some movement — most likely the nervous 
motion of cocking the guns and getting ready for their reception. They 
all suddenly wheeled to the southward, with as much precision and 
regularity as a file of soldiers. A grand fusillade of six guns ensued, 
but only one bird was left to remind the gunners of the wariness of these 
sea rovers. 

Chatham is not a great place for Canada geese {Anser canadensis, 
Vieill.), but early in the spring they are liable to become weather-bound, 
and get quite plentiful in the bay and harbor. A large flock had been thus 
detained, several of which had been killed, and when the flocks departed 
for their more northern summer homes, a wounded companion was left 

As the party sat discussing the disappointments of the last fusillade, 
the habits and peculiarities of eider ducks, the advantages of chilled 
over soft shot, and various other matters, that crippled goose came 
swimming along, and finally walked up on to the bar, looked disdain- 
fully down upon his little congeners, then proudly strutted around as 
much as to say, " Here I am, large as life, and monarch of all I survey." 
There seems to be a natural antagonism between the species, and as our 
little decoys ran from the monster toward the box, as if for protection, 
and as his gooseship could be of no earthly use, his reign — like that of 
many earthly tyrants — was suddenly terminated by the regicide M., 
who in this instance held in his hands one of the improved Fox guns. 
The tide was now ebbing fast, and George had taken up his decoys and 
retired. A pair of brant came down by the North Bar directly for 
the Mudhole, and as they approached seemed to slack up, as if to 
inspect the works or be introduced to the decoys, and as they drew close 
together were both let down by the unerring aim of Washy, with a single 
gun. Then a lone brant was dispatched by M. A single sheldrake by 
" Old Cherokee," which, as the tide was off the flats, was easily gathered 
and this ended the morning's sport at this bar. We might explain 

BRANT SHOOTING, 1881. 483 

that " Old Cherokee " is a twelve-pound, muzzle-loader Schaeffer gun, 
seven gauge, and takes as an easy charge seven drams of powder and 
two and a half ounces shot, and as H., the owner, is an old gentleman, 
of conservative tendencies, and as " Old Cherokee " has served him so 
faithfully for many years, they will probably continue their friendly 
companionship as long as the owner lives. 

It is not considered wise to shoot at passing fowl when brant are any- 
where near; but, still, the boys will occasionally forget themselves, and 
knock over a black duck, loon, old squaw, coot, sheldrake, or even a 
gull, still such "vermin "is not counted at the shanty as belonging to the 
day's work. The tide is quite low, but Reno still sticks to the North 
bar, and he had the good fortune of bagging three brant out of a passing 
flock of six. The party also subtracted two from a flock of seven coot, 
and this ended the day. As the parties rendezvous at the shanty, oil 
suits, long boots, and heavy clothing give place to light jackets and 
slippers, guns are oiled and put in the places assigned, mutual congratu- 
lations are exchanged, and the birds are hung around on the building. 
It was a sight that would gratify the eyes of all sportsmen, epicures, and 
bon vivants, as these birds when properly cooked are toothsome, and 
fully equal to the best canvasback ducks. " How many are there alto- 
gether ?" inquires the Doctor, as if he wished to make a diagnosis of the 
case, and was studying "quantities." "Sixty-six for Monday and 
forty-five for Tuesday; loi brant as a grand total for the two days," 
responds H., and a jollier party never sat down to one of Alonzo's "gull 
stews." Startle not, gentle reader, when we tell you that for a real Cape 
Cod stew, a gray gull is superior to any other fowl. Did'st ever eat a 
Cape Cod stew? It is not, I believe, mentioned by ancient anthors, as 
among the " seven wonders of the world," probably because language 
failed to do it justice. We had as lief undertake to describe Edwin 
Forrest as Metamora or Raphael's method of producing his Sistine 
Madonna. As long as memory lasts it will turn with pleasure to those 
halcyon days among the brant and bird stews. 

The wind, which at early morn was southwest, a little later veered to 
westward, blowing fresh and doing much damage to the bars, which 
must be repaired before they are in working condition, and the residents, 
with such as would volunteer, went out after dinner for that purpose, 
with barrows and shovels. The bars are likely on a high tide and strong 
westerly wind to be shifted from the front to the rear of the box, but as 
the party cannot wait for the next east wind to transport it back, it must 
be done by main strength. Roll-boards are laid from a distance of two 
or three rods, the barrows are filled, rolled upon the boards and dumped 
upon the bar, then leveled to give it an even, natural appearance, and the 
work is done. On this particular occasion the " Mudhole " received 175 of 


these raw recruits, and it is splendid exercise — almost equal to dragging 
a hand sled up a long hill with a prospect of a " coast " down again. It 
is also an excellent specific against dyspepsia, strengthens the muscles, 
expands the lungs, purifies the blood, and brings in its train that sweet 
repose — that blessed, dreamless slumber entirely unknown to indolent 
persons. The bars are now in good order and ready for the morning's 
sport; but we will not weary the reader with the recital of the remainder 
of the week's work, but will close this, already too much extended 
article, with a few extracts from the Monomoy Branting Club journal, 
wherein is recorded a faithful account of all the doings of the club from 
the first day of its organization up to the present hour. 

"Wednesday, March 23, 1864. — Wind northeast, snowing, and blow- 
ing a gale. No one could lay, boats were driven ashore, bars leveled, 
etc. It was a terrible day ! About noon Alonzo and "Jock" (Jonathan 
F. Hapgood) went to "inner point" and got a shot at black ducks; 
knocked over seventeen, but recovered only nine. George went out and 
picked up a sea duck. Gloom was depicted upon the countenances 
of the crowd. . . . Only a sportsman can appreciate the disap- 
pointment of a brother sportsman at the loss of two or three days out 
of the six allotted to him each year." 

"April 20, 1867. — Wind southwest, with shght prospect of rain. 
Blew fresh on the flood, but died away on the ebb tide. High tide 
to-day at 1.30, though not a full one; the party in high expectations of a 
good day's sport, in which they were not disappointed. The highest 
number bagged in any one week since the club was formed is 158, and 
the present party is anxious to beat this. They had already — four 
days — 127, and as the wind was favorable, and as brant decoyed 
exceedingly well this spring, they were quite sanguine of success. 
David, Greene, and Burleigh laid at the " Mudhole," and killed forty- 
two ; Wales and Wood knocked five out of a passing flock at the sedge 
hummock; Washy visited his old haunt — the iron cofiin of Dudley at 
the North Bar — where he made a splendid shot, killing thirteen; one 
more shot added another brace — sixty-two brant for the day! And a 
happier party never dined on roast beef at that seat of hilarity — the 
shanty of the Monomoy Club. They had beaten the best week of the 
club by thirty-four, and in honor of the occasion the last regular bottle 
of whiskey was broached, and a bumper drank to the champions." 

This was the best year of the club, footing up 715 brant. The largest 
day's work this year was seventy, and the largest since the club was 
formed was on the 5th of April, 1869 — 126 brant! The whole number 
of brant killed by the club since its organization — eighteen years — is 
5,438, a yearly average of 302. 

The following is from a private memorandum showing the work done 

BRANT SHOOTING, 1881. 485 

at a single box on half a tide, before the club was formed: "April lo, 
1862. — High tide about 9 o'clock A. m., tides are an hour later here 
than at Boston; wind east and blowing a gale; brant have been feeding 
in the harbor for some days, but to-day they were driven by the wind 
into the bay; laid with Dean and Weston Linnell in the " Mudhole." 
On the flood tide had a great many brant come near enough to shoot, 
but waiting for better chances, did not fire a gun till the tide drove us 
and we went to the shanty for lunch. Returning a,bout 9.30, bailed 
out the box, and set decoys. Legions of brant all about us. The first 
shot, 18; second, 18; third, 23; fourth, 16; fifth, 21 ; sixth, 10; in all, ic6 
brant, and were through before 12.30 p. m. As the wind was high, and 
blowing hard off shore, we lost a great many cripples and dead birds." 

This brings us to the end of the week, when we must give place to 
the party that is to arrive this evening. And now comes the hurry and 
bustle of picking up "traps," dividing the birds, packing and "toting" 
to the boat, the embarkation, and, what is the most painful of all, the 
last good-bye to the dear old shanty. 

W. Hapgood. 

President Monomoy Branti7ig Chib. 

Spring, 1882. 

[ From Forest and Strea, 

The earlier part of the past winter having been quite warm, the birds 
were not driven as far South as in some previous years, and by the end 
of February the advancing columns were winging their way northward 
and arriving at Cape Cod. When the winter is so cold as to force tlje 
birds in considerable numbers as far south as Pamlico Sound, more time 
is required for them to work their way back by easy stages; and they 
do not arrive on our coast before the middle or end of March. By the 
first of May so few are left here as to afford the sportsman little 
satisfaction; and although a few remain to regale themselves in the 
balmy breezes of the middle of the month, yet the season may be said 
virtually to end with the month of April, 

This spring the brant did not seem to be in as much of a hurry to 
pass on further northward as usual, but dallied till vast numbers had 
accumulated in the Bay of Chatham, which, under ordinary circum- 


stances, would insure good shooting throughout the season; but there 
were various causes operating against such happy results. As a 
general rule the older and stronger birds come along first, with a slight 
sprinkling of young, while later in the season the proportion of young 
birds is much greater. Among the earlier arrivals this spring there 
were scarcely any of the birds bred last year, which we designate as 
young, but later in the season there was a goodly mixture of the tender 
age. They were -not, however, in very good condition, whether from 
scarcity of food, or from having been harassed by gunners on their 
winter feeding grounds, or from some other cause, we are unable to 
determine. It has been reported that a great many brant have been shot 
during the past winter South, so much so that parties at certain points 
have resorted to canning in order to preserve them for future use. 

Among the various interposed causes that reduce the number of birds 
killed this year below the average, we may mention two or three. About 
the 2oth of March, when the business was in the "full tide of successful 
operation," there came a very high course of tides, attended by heavy 
gales of wind, which swept away the bars and carried two of the 
boxes of the Monomoy Branting Club to sea, whence they were never 
recovered. This caused a delay of several days while new boxes were 
being constructed to take the place of the old ones ; and then the boxes 
had to be planted, and the bars made up ; or, in other words, the whole 
season's work had to be done over again. For a more particular 
description of making bars, putting down the boxes, and the methods of 
shooting brant at Cape Cod, we would refer the reader to Forest and 
Stream of April 7, 18S1. 

Of the three clubs operating at Chatham, the Monomoy Branting Club 
is the elder, and holds some, though not all, of the commanding points 
for this kind of shooting. The proximity of the boxes, the identity of 
interest, the ambition of the sportsmen, and the natural tendency of man's 
disposition to outdo his fellowman, has produced, we are happy to say, at 
present, a very pleasant and good-natured rivalry between the clubs. 
Various contrivances, some wise and some otherwise, have been from time 
to time introduced to enable the contriver to outdo his competitor. One 
of the clubs introduced the new long-range cartridges which, it is claimed, 
will kill at a hundred and thirty yards. They will, however, kill at no 
other distance, and therefore are of incalculable injury to the shooting. 
They are a kind o' dog-in-the-manger, neither killing the bird nor letting 
any one else have that pleasure. We beg to be understood as casting 
no reflections upon any one, as we concede the fullest liberty to any 
sportsman in using all honorable means to secure his game ; but, at the 
same time, we desire to express the opinion that the use of these long 
cartridges in this kind of shooting is an error in judgment. Birds are 

BRANT SHOOTING, 1882. 487 

excellent judges of distance, and generally keep out of harm's way^ 
particularly where danger is apparent. For instance, if an ordinary gun 
will kill at sixty yards, then the birds will put about a hundred and twenty 
yards of space between themselves and the suspicious object. Now, if a 
new projectile is introduced that will kill at one hundred and thirty yards, 
the birds very soon — astonishingly soon — learn to measure off two 
hundred and sixty yards ; nor will they draw nearer when on the 
qui vive, as they always seem to be, so that an ordinary gun becomes 
a sort of useless implement. Neither do the two hundred and sixty 
yards give the birds immunity from these missiles, for the parties using 
these cartridges become so inspired with their efficiency, that they are 
tempted to shoot at almost any distance, wherever a bird can be seen. 
The result is a great amount of scare and a small amount of game. A 
cartridge that will explode at one hundred and twenty yards is at sixty 
yards simply an elongated bullet. 

We were on the branting ground from the 9th to the 15th of April, 
and shot alongside the party using the long-range cartridges, and the 
truth compels us to say that if we ever had a doubt about their utility, 
our observations on this occasion entirely convinced us that for this 
kind of shooting they should be rejected, however useful they may be 
for single birds, deer, and large game. If a flock of brant were to pass 
within forty yards of a gun charged with one of these cartridges, in the 
hand of a most experienced and skilful gunner, very few birds could 
be killed, as the shell bursts ever so far beyond the flock. There is no 
time to slip in a common cartridge after the discovery that the flock is 
approaching within forty yards, and so armed, the gunner must "let slip 
the dogs of war," and to his surprise see the flock, with undiminished 
numbers and increasing speed, making head for the "dim distance." 
We do not believe in "telling tales out of school," but as long as we 
have expressed an opinion of the long range as compared with common 
cartridges, we will yield so far as to say that during the week referred to 
the result of their use compared with common cartridges was as 9 to 51. 
We do not believe such enormous disparity would always follow the 
"long range," nor can we, on the other hand, discover any benefit to be 
derived from their use in brant shooting. 

In several other ways has the branting been changed at Chatham. A 
quarter of a century ago there were no such things in use at that place as 
wood decoys. The birds were, under the old regime, allowed to alight in 
the water hard by and swim up on to the bars, nor was there any fear of 
molestation by the branter, as all the parties shooting on the flats held 
common interests, /. e. the birds killed each day were divided equally 
among the gunners present; and besides, they had honor enough not to 
shoot at anything while birds were in proximity or swimming up to 


another bar. If three or four brant swam up on to a bar with the decoys, 
they were allowed to remain there undisturbed, and were considered as 
good as so many extra decoys, and it is astonishing how soon these 
ordinarily shy birds will spring up from different parts of the bay in 
little "pods" (flocks) and assemble around the new-comers and decoys. 
They are very social and gregarious among themselves, but cold and 
reserved toward all other fowl. We have seen them pile up on and 
around the bar by hundreds, so that when a shot was made it was mere 
slaughter, as many as forty-four being killed by a single discharge of 
two double-barreled guns, and as many as a thousand or fifteen hundred 
would be killed in a single season. All that is changed now. What few 
birds are killed have to be shot on the wing, singly or from very small 
flocks, and now, when the birds seem to be fully as numerous as they 
were then, with all the modern improvements in guns and implements, 
with four or five times as many gunners on the ground, a season's work 
foots up only five or six hundred brant for all the clubs together. 

This shooting at birds on the wing, especially when near their feeding 
ground, is a pernicious plan. It makes them shy, and, in fact, is very 
likely, if persisted in, to ultimately drive them from their haunts alto- 
gether, and could we have our way about it, we would never use a wood 
decoy or shoot at a flock of brant on the wing. Were a single bird or a 
pair to come along with a moral certainty of none being left alive to tell 
the tale, the case would be somewhat modified. 

The number at brant killed this season by the Monomoy Branting 
Club was two hundred and twenty-seven, the average number for the 
past eighteen years being three hundred and two. But the number of 
birds killed is not all the reward one gets for a week r^^ent at the seaside 
in brant shooting. If no birds are killed to-day, one is buoyed up by the 
hope or expectation of better luck to-morrow, and is made happy by the 
thought of some splendid shots which he is destined never to realize. 
Still he gets the benefit of pure air, change of diet, pleasant companion- 
ship, a view of the ever-changing sea, moderate expense and exemption 
from the ordinary routine of life, and generally regrets when his week is 
up that he must return to the cares, anxieties, and drudgery of metro- 
politan associations. The true sportsman is not a mercenary individual, 
and although he may be proud of a few birds to take home and distribute 
among friends (who never seem really to appreciate them or the labor it 
costs to get them), yet when he reflects how much more vigorous he is 
in mind and body, and how much easier he performs his daily duty, for 
an occasional trip of this sort, he thanks G